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Your group has already analysed the conceptual design of a project in Assignment. In this assignment, you are required to write a report which critically analyses the preliminary design and detailed design phases of the project discussed in Assignment.

Particular attention is to be paid to the system test, evaluation and validation processes employed and any optimisation that was required. In the Introduction, you will need to briefly summarise the content covered in Assignment .

Preliminary design

The built and environmental design industry strive to produce buildings that are eco-friendly to the environment as much as possible in an attempt to achieve net zero energy emission. In most cases, construction activities greatly impact on the environment. Therefore, it is important to consider sustainability in projects approach based on their performance.  Going green in terms of the building design concepts is not only due to the environmental concerns but also due to social, economic advantages and architectural advantages. This paper aims to highlight the different phases through which design projects are developed including the preliminary and detailed design stages emphasizing on sustainability measures and the building performance. The selection of sustainability key indicators is used in the design’s conceptual stage in order to start predicting the sustainability performance of the building if it is implemented. The output of this task is aimed at enlightening the designers to compare and test or evaluate the impact the building might have considering the different design solutions adopted at the preliminary stage and facilitate a close collaboration between the client and other stakeholders to help yield a high performance building that will be sustainable throughout its life cycle.

A sustainable design needs a coordinated outline process and a more included methodology than an ordinary design process. Guaranteeing the high caliber of configuration is to guarantee a methodology in view of building performance, a coordinated and interdisciplinary venture group working through an incorporated arranging and setting up an undertaking to its best execution. In this manner, the design procedure and its optimization is significant in light of the fact that most choices that will determine the building performance will be executed at this stage.

A building project is created in stages. The idea of design stages is identified with an arrangement of sequential activities that aides the development procedure. These activities are gathered in stages by their level of need, shaping the design in each stage of the design process (Araújo, et al., 2013). It is vital to think about the estimation of each activity/objective, anticipating its significance on structures performance and its impact on the project cost keeping in mind the end goal to actualize everything at the sufficient moment.

The project begins with the definition of its objectives and where the client meets the task group and uncovered the objectives for the building. Amid this underlying stage, client and configuration group share ideas trying to build up the building's philosophy and concept. The building regulation standards is required to characterize key necessities and limitations towards the project’s quality (Bragança & Mateus, 2012). The type of architecture and the functional requirements of the building are discussed including the outdoor and indoor qualities admired by the client. The site condition should be addressed to determine its suitability in construction. The buildings orientation, spatial performance, energy requirements, space functions, comfort practices are also tabled (Bragança & Mateus, 2012).

In addition concerns on building use, warming, cooling, lighting, ventilation, wastes, water, site works, and materials are addressed. Moreover, it is at this phase that procurement phase, undertaking and supportability methods, building plan life time, hierarchical structure, project cost, maintenance and timescale are managed.

  • The principle objective of this eco-accommodating plan is to strike a harmony between cost adequacy and eco-friendly.

  • Design and construct the house utilizing ecofriendly assembling materials that have no or negligible impact to nature and the building occupants.

  • Design utilitarian and secure spaces that will require enough stockpiling

  • Expectation that the building will give a future reference to a perfect prerequisite and design of autonomous buildings.

Design Objectives

The following design phase of the project starts after the endorsement of the preliminary design; the design group begins the usage of the working illustrations for the development of the project. Indeed unique assignments are given to this stage - improvement stage, preproject, fundamental undertaking, and plan development.

In this phase, the general state of the building is created through plans, areas, and heights; the temporary data tended to in before stages is affirmed or changed (Bunz, et al., 2006). The genuine/picked arrangement must be good with beginning prerequisites and inside the different relevant directions; the useful connections between various components, spaces, and volumes must be analyzed, and also the base programming, as per any corrections concurred between the client and the design experts (Bunz, et al., 2006).

The form of development is for the most part characterized and the materials are proposed amid the gatherings with the client.  Angles like outside and inside walls getting done with, flooring, plumbing apparatuses, equipment configuration, kind of stone work, roofing materials, et cetera will be chosen in this stage (Bunz, et al., 2006). Building gear as sorts of windows and entryways and their producer, the lift compose and maker, the mechanical framework, and electrical apparatuses are additionally to be distinguished in this stage (Hanna & Skiffington, 2010). This sort of data, when taken together, encourages a gauge of development cost. All things considered, work of each specialized pro should be composed; the general population experts must be counseled and beginning examinations of solace and condition ought to be affirmed.

Casing /frame

To manufacture the casings, we require beds, pneumatic nailers, nails, measuring tape, and a roundabout saw. By and large, lightweight development is the most proper for building development (Hanna & Skiffington, 2010).To outline the floor we have to lay two beds on the ground. The wall will be confined utilizing the wood to get the skeleton of the building. The wall surrounding will then help the edge of the rooftop support since the roofing material must be laid on the material casing to accomplish the coveted result (Hanna & Skiffington, 2010). Wood casing will be proper for the bracket structure and adding wood slate to the casing to have the capacity to help the roofing material.

The favored material for wall development will be square timber board due to its natural advantages. Timber are from an inexhaustible source, economically sourced, non-lethal amid its utilization, is low in typified carbon, warm spanning, low waste rates, fitting forever length, adaptable and versatile (Mateus & Bragança, 2011). The timber boards will be lime rendered in white to help in mirroring any overabundance warm from the sunrays. From a manageable perspective, timber is an inexhaustible building material ready to ingest carbon from the air, and this makes it ready to support the life of the building (Haroglu, et al., 2009). Nonetheless, timber utilized ought to be dealt with from termites and since the temperature in Barrington is chilly, the timber utilized ought to be free from molds and any sort of decay.

Detailed design

It is critical to consider the correct roofing material considering the precipitation design. The principal thought ought to be a material that is waterproof, natural amicable, moderate, charming, and tough. The best material to be utilized in material the shed is cedar shingles produced using pine, cedar, redwood, or the western red cedar. In any case, take note of that rooftop shingles are not imperviousness to fire and ought to be treated with fire resistant to keep any type of flame mishap (Bunz, et al., 2006). On the opposite side, wood shingles are outwardly engaging, high level of warm protection, have low carbon impression, and are produced using a characteristic source that is inexhaustible. To introduce the cedar shingles, we will initially have the material felt lying on the rafters to accomplish the coveted quality wrap up. The upper room space will likewise be high to give more space for air dissemination that can result into the stack impact in the room.

Getting the correct floor material for the building is imperative, wet zones should deal with water; it is in this manner fitting to utilize a waterproof material. The proposed material for the floor is wood parquet; in any case, it ought to be dealt with to keep the floor framework from root to make it sturdy. Treating the floor framework to being waterproof should begin from the floor surrounding framework including the outside deck (RIBA, 2011). The best methodology is to utilize the treated wood floor joist that is raised 6 crawls off the ground. This wards off creatures, for example, the mice. The wood parquet can be enhanced by applying 3 layers of polyurethane clear veneer vanish to make the material tastefully satisfying and adding to its property of being waterproof (Super buildings partners, 2012).

Entryways will require lintels. The best-built timber arrangements will utilize covering, sticking, and jointing methods to expand the tractable and compressive quality of the evaluations of the timber on the lower side and conquer characteristic shortcomings, for example, distorting, bowing, and part. The materials to be utilized incorporate compressed wood, and glass. It is imperative to deal with these materials inside so as to guarantee that they have no glue that can meddle with the indoor air quality.

Figure 1. Proposed detailed ground floor plan.

Figure 2. Building Elevation

Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) of manageable structures is imperative since it is just when a building is possessed that the plan expectation can be eventually tried (Straka & Aleksic, 2009). The perspectives of building clients or occupiers would then be able to give significant input on the outline quality, usefulness and solace. Dissecting vitality and warm execution being used against outline goal benchmarks will help educate future plan procedures. POE is especially imperative for maintainable structures in observing how the building performs as far as vitality utilize, CO2 discharges and water utilization (Straka & Aleksic, 2009). Manageable structures don't generally execute and in addition planned. This can be put down to an assortment of elements including the utilization of new innovation, control and observing frameworks and not slightest the human factor. Model structures and show ventures, progressively with a practical plan center, give outlines to educating building briefs and configuration work. Post-inhabitance assessment results that are distributed as contextual analyses are a method for progressing supportable plan anyway secrecy is an issue and uncovering flaws in structures isn't viewed as great attention for the planners and building proprietors (RIBA, 2011). Designers frequently allude to excellent structures to build up an answer set for reasonable structures. The threat of demonstrating systems on a building that has not had POE done is that errors can be rehashed. However, some test can be done on the building using energy softwares such as HOMER, ecotect, energy plus etc. in order to determine the performance of the building if it’s implemented (Fenner & Ryce, 2008). The results will help the designer to make changes in the design that will help achieve a better sustainable performance that will support the building throughout its life cycle.

Structural Material Options


Eco friendly buildings are quickly turning into a need for the world considering the harm our universe is presented to with synthetic substances and natural contamination. While eco benevolent structures are developed on an extensive scale, it is additionally imperative to check the credibility of the case and assess whether the building materials utilized are in reality eco-friendly (Super buildings partners, 2012).

The procedure of choice of building materials should accurately deal with the connection among expenses and benefits. It gives full assume to the correlative job of the market component and government intercession in the distribution of assets. It likewise diminishes or even wipes out the misuse of assets. The choice ought to accomplish the maintainable advancement of the local engineering. New building materials, green building materials, earth well-disposed materials all are vital material to accomplish green building objectives. The compelling utilization of the territorial is a vital condition for the organized advancement of provincial development. Building materials is the critical results of the building endeavors (Araújo, et al., 2013). They have extraordinary importance to the proceeded with advancement. The natural financial analysts long haul center consideration of the issues, which incorporate lacking utilization of new materials and space are unevenly dispersed, the debasement of compositional capacity, exorbitant utilization of non-ecologically well-disposed materials. The four elements known as the input indicators were involved in the building design, this effort results into output indicators as shown below (Li, et al., 2012).

Figure 4. Green building materials output indicators. (Li, et al., 2012)

The method used in the evaluation is the date envelopment investigation (DEA) strategy (Li, et al., 2012). This technique sets up extensive assessment record framework. It depends on thought of the productivity of the information and yield of the task.

Complete assessment of green building materials is connected by the examination of DEA technique. The model utilized in the assessment of green building materials called the efficiency of input evaluation model (Li, et al., 2012). It is basically used to decide the DMU whether to accomplish the scale productive and successful innovation in the meantime (Li, et al., 2012). It will get last outcomes as per the procedure appeared in Figure 5.

Figure 5.The create process charts of green building materials evaluation index system (Li, et al., 2012)


Araújo, C. M. Almeida, and L. Bragança, 2013. “Analysis of some Portuguese thermal regulation parameters,” Energy and Buildings, vol. 58, pp. 141–150.

Bragança, L. and R. Mateus, 2012.  Life-Cycle Analysis of Buildings: Environmental Impact of Building Elements, iiSBE, Guimarães, Portugal,

Bunz, K. R., Henze, G. P. and Tiller, D. K., 2006.  “Survey of sustainable building design practices in North America, Europe, and Asia,” Journal of Architectural Engineering, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 33–62.

Fenner, R.A. and Ryce, T., 2008, March. A comparative analysis of two building rating systems Part 1: Evaluation. In Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Engineering Sustainability (Vol. 161, No. 1, pp. 55-63). Thomas Telford Ltd.

Hanna A. S. and Skiffington M. A, 2010. “Effect of preconstruction planning effort on sheet metal project performance,” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, vol. 136, no. 2, pp. 235–241.

Haroglu, H. J. Glass, and Thorpe, T., 2009. “A study of professional perspectives on structural frame selection,” Construction Management and Economics, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 1209–1217.

Li, L., Wang, P., Wang, H. and Zhang, M., 2012. Green building materials evaluation and empirical research based on the regional endowment. AASRI Procedia, 3, pp.381-386.

Mateus, R. and Bragança, L. 2011. “Sustainability assessment and rating of buildings: developing the methodology SBToolPT-H,” Building and Environment, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 1962–1971.

RIBA (Royal Institute of British Architects), 2011. Green Overlay to RIBA Outline Plan of Work, RIBA Publishing, London, UK.

Straka, V. and Aleksic, M., 2009, June. Post-Occupancy Evaluation. In PLEA 2009-26th Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture, Quebec City, Canada.

Super buildings partners, 2012. “Sustainability and performance assessment and benchmarking of buildings,” FP7 EU Project, Grant number 244087,

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