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Compare and contrast the social roles of the Indian Hijras and the North American Two Spirit People.

Similarities in social roles of Indian Hijras and North American Two Spirit People

The similarity social role played by the Indian Hijras and the North American Two Spirit People is that two-spirit was just a traditional setting and it was concerned with the gender analysis but not sexually oriented. The role of the two-spirit associations is more associated with the traditional setting of understanding.  In both Indian Hijras and the North American Two Spirit People acted as the mediators in the societies. They were categorized as the social workers who were peacemakers for every tribe in both Indian Hijras and the North American (Castells, 2012). The people who were lucky and holy in the societies brought their goods for a blessing. In both Indian Hijras and the North American, two-spirit people marked the girl and boy child puberty stages.  They had to join the war teams for the purpose of spreading good luck for them to have a victory. They had power to poses love portions in such a way that for those who needed or sought for their partners, they could get their help in two-spirit people both in Indian Hijras and the North American.

The difference between the Indian Hijras and the North American Two Spirit People come in when the native beliefs clashed. The coming of the missionaries changed the mind of the Indian perspectives to the two-spirit people. They were fed to the dogs by the Indian and the missionaries. Indian Hiras, unlike North America two-spirit people, were forced to follow the Christian faith by the missionaries.  In Indian two-spirit people men were cut their hair and forced to dress like men by the missionaries. The women were as well forced to remain only in women dressing. Children in India were brought to the government school for the study of the formal education.

In contrary to the Indian Hijras, North America two-spirit people held an intersex belief in which males were only allowed to marry the females but in the Indian Hijras, the males were allowed to marry a man. In this case, Indian Hijras allowed the gay marriage before the coming of the missionaries who separated and dismissed the culture. This is the common term which gives the definition of North America two-spirit people as berdance as it was given by the early French explorers (Peoples, & Bailey, 2011). In Indian Hijras, males were allowed to marry the other men and have sex. In the North America two spirits allowed only the marriage between the man and the female. Any man who was found guilty had to receive the punishment. The reason why the North America two communities did not allow the gay practices if due to their colonizers. North America was dominated by the Spanish who did not allow the sodomites and gay practices (Lang, 2018). It was seen as a taboo to find a man and have sex with. Many of the North America two-spirit people had a strong focus on their spiritual gifts. This was contrary to the Indian Hijras who believed on their traditional way of doing things. Even today, they tend to focus on basic character of the within their spirit. In fact they convert the spiritual well being in to traditional practices. Two-spirit people were bought by their spiritual perspective everything they did was only within the boundaries of their beliefs (Kogan, 2016).  Due to the fact that what really happened to the spiritual people was based on the spiritual world man spirit and women spirit were only the spiritual gifts they could allow (Sahastrabuddhe,  Gupta, Stuart, Godbole, Ghate, Sahay, & Mehendale, 2012). It was a sense of honor from the American two-spirit people to have two forms of the spirits.

Mediators and social workers in their societies

Similar to the Indian Hijras, two spirits people had the beliefs that their religion was the best to them and their leaders were seen as the teachers and guides.  Some of the similar social beliefs by the Indian Hijras and the North American Two Spirit People is that two-soul was only a customary setting and it was worried about the sex examination yet not explicitly arranged. The job of the two-soul affiliations is more connected with the customary setting of comprehension. In both Indian Hijras and the North American Two Spirit People went about as the middle people in the social orders. They were sorted as the social laborers who were peacemakers for each clan in both Indian Hijras and the North American. The general population who were fortunate and strong in the social orders brought their merchandise for a gift (Pavlenko, 2011). In both Indian Hijras and the North American, two-soul individuals denoted the young lady and kid youngster adolescence stages. They needed to join the war groups to spread good fortunes for them to have a triumph. They had capacity to presents love divides so that for the individuals who required or looked for their accomplices, they could get their assistance in two-soul individuals both in Indian Hijras and the North American (Bolin, 2002). The contrast between the Indian Hijras and the North American Two Spirit People come in when the local convictions conflicted. Their spiritual well being is what guided them in what to in any given event. They both used their spiritual believes to give the analysis of whatever comes on their way. They both had similar spiritual beliefs that existed within their native communities.

The difference comes in the fact that most of the two-spirit people believed that their physical body needed their physical interpretations. They both believed that character of human being was so important and it needs a definition of what really is required for the existence of the human character (Lang & Kuhnle, 2008). Many of the Native American religions were so stigmatizing since they had most of the native people driven by the spiritual traditions. They all had one thought their spiritual believes is what defines their existence and indigenous American had better understanding of gender status within their community. Indian Hijras permitted the gay marriage before the coming of the evangelists who isolated and expelled the way of life. In Indian Hijras, guys were permitted to wed the other men and engage in sexual relations. In the North America two spirits permitted just the marriage between the man and the female. Any man who was discovered liable needed to get the discipline. The motivation behind why the North America two networks did not permit the gay practices if because of their colonizers. North America was dominated by the Spanish who did not permit the homosexuals and gay practices. It was viewed as an unthinkable to discover a man and have intercourse with. A significant number of the North America two soul individuals had a solid spotlight on their otherworldly endowments. This was in opposition to the Indian Hijras who accepted on their customary method for getting things done. Indeed, even today, they tend to center around fundamental character of the inside their soul. North America was bound by their profound point of view all that they did was just inside the limits of their convictions (Herdt, 2011). Because of the way that what truly happened to the profound individuals depended on the otherworldly world man soul and ladies soul were just the profound endowments they could permit. It was a feeling of respect from the American two soul individuals to have two types of the spirits.

Marking puberty stages of girl and boy children

Like the Indian Hijras, two spirits had the convictions that their religion. A portion of the comparable social convictions by the Indian Hijras and the North American Two Spirit People is that two-soul was just a standard setting and it was stressed over the sex examination yet not expressly orchestrated. The contrast between the Indian Hijras and the North American Two Spirit People come in when the local convictions conflicted (Towle & Morgan, 2012). The happening to the ministers changed the brain of the Indian points of view to the two-soul individuals. They were nourished to the pooches by the Indian and the teachers. In Indian two-soul individuals men were trimmed their hair and compelled to dress like men by the teachers. The ladies were also compelled to stay just in ladies dressing. Kids in India were conveyed to the administration school for the investigation of the formal instruction. Most of the Americans two spirit believed that their gender identities are one of the most important steps they can take for sexual diversity (Williams, 2012). Most of the differences were seen immediately the missionaries came for the purpose of spreading the gospel. In India, they were not happy with the traditional settings and they way Indian Hijras contacted themselves. It was then that they started changing the trend on how Indian Hijras operated within their spiritual understanding. They found that gay marriage was allowed in the region. Men could wear the female clothing as well as females wearing the male clothes. Missionaries were not happy about the same and they started to change the Indian Hijras way of life. Therefore they influenced and converted the way Indian Hijras believed.

References

Bolin, A. (2002). TRAVERSING GENDER Cultural context and gender practices. In Gender Reversals and Gender Cultures. University of Australia Press pp. 36-65.

Castells, M. (2012). Population, cities, and the space of things to come. Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie, 93(5), p. 841-859

Herdt, G. (2011). Representations of homosexuality: An essay on cultural ontology and historical comparison part i. Journal of the History of Sexuality, 1(3), 481-504.

Kogan, T. S. (2016). Transsexuals and Critical Gender Theory: The Possibility of a Restroom Labeled Other. Hastings LJ, 48, 1223.

Lang, C., & Kuhnle, U. (2008). Intersexuality and alternative gender categories in non-Western cultures. Hormone Research in Paediatrics, 69(4), 240-250.

Lang, S. (2018). Men as women, women as men: Changing gender in Native American cultures. University of Texas Press.87-98.

Pavlenko, A. (2011). Bilingualism, gender, and ideology. International Journal of Bilingualism, 5(2), 117-151.

Peoples, J., & Bailey, G. (2011). Humanity: An introduction to cultural anthropology. Cengage Learning. 5(6), 89-123.

Sahastrabuddhe, S., Gupta, A., Stuart, E., Godbole, S., Ghate, M., Sahay, S., ... & Mehendale, S. M. (2012). Sexually transmitted infections and risk behaviors among transgender persons (Hijras) of Pune, India. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 59(1), 72-78.

Towle, E. B., & Morgan, L. M. (2012). Romancing the transgender native: rethinking the use of the" third gender" concept. GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, 8(4), 469-497.

Williams, W. L. (2012). The spirit and the flesh: Sexual diversity in American Indian culture. Beacon Press, 67-89.

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