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Tobacco and marijuana use among adolescents and young adults: A systematic review of their co-use

Discuss About The Alcohol Other Drugs Counselling Management?

This assignment introduces the readers with an opportunity to search journal data bases relevant to a particular topic. The title of the assignment is to find evidence based peer reviewed journals on Alcohol and Other Drugs Counseling. Therefore, in order to find peer reviewed journals, Google search engine was used as the search engine. The name of the drug, a particular population and a context is selected to find relevant journals. The search terms included were “Marijuana and Depression among young adults”, “Marijuana addiction among young adults in Australia” and “Marijuana and healthcare impact among teenagers”. The selected journals are critically evaluated in terms of the quality of the research, gaps in the knowledge and synthesis of the findings.

According to Ramo, Liu & Prochaska (2012), the article studied the impact of the use of marijuana and tobacco among adolescents and young adults. The study was conducted by considering the various statistics of the US and evaluated the impact of the use of marijuana on the young adults. The study mentioned the rate of preventable deaths due to the use of marijuana and predicted the death rate in the coming years. The article has found huge interest in the relationship between the consumption of marijuana and young adults. The article suggests that the consumption o marijuana among the young adults has increased drastically over the past 10 years. The article emphasized on the participants that aged between 13-25 years in the US. In order to conduct the research, the researcher has collected information from secondary resources. This provided an opportunity for the researcher to compare the present rate of consumption of marijuana among young adults with the previous rate of marijuana consumption in the US. According to the data collected from the secondary resources, it has been seen that the consumption has increased among the young adults. As mentioned by Penner, Buettner & Mittleman (2013), in spite of being aware of the adverse health consequences, the young adults are getting addicted to marijuana. This is because the teenagers and the young adults are going with the flow without judging the consequences.

While conducting the research, it has been seen that the teenagers and the young adults with a higher rate of marijuana consumption are diagnosed with mental health problems compared to the normal population. As mentioned by Ammerman et al., (2015), marijuana consumption also leads to alcohol dependency along with behavioral disorder. Due to increased rate of marijuana consumption, the teenagers are unable to distinguish between the real and fictional world. The teenagers generally lose their ability to lead a normal life. Their life becomes more dependent on the consumption of marijuana. The research has found that unable to consume marijuana leads to seizures and sometimes the teenagers even self-harm them. This is because they are unable to satisfy their craze for marijuana that eventually leads to drastic occurrences (Copeland, Rooke & Swift, 2013).

Frequent Marijuana Use, Binge Drinking, and Mental Health Problems among Undergraduates

However, though the researcher has stated all the numbers and statistics about the consumption of marijuana over the past and present years, the researcher has not included information regarding the initiatives undertaken by the government over the past years to reduce the use of marijuana among the teenagers. As a result, the research also does not include whether the programs were successful enough to reduce the numbers or not. The research also does not include any information regarding the source of supply of marijuana to the teenagers and strategies undertaken to restrict the source.

As mentioned by Keith, Hart & McNeil (2015), the journal states that the consumption of marijuana has increased among the undergraduates since 2000. This research was conducted to understand the frequent rate of marijuana consumption among the undergraduates and the relation with mental health and illness. Quantitative data collection technique has been used, researcher. The researcher conducted a survey that included undergraduate students from one of the universities in the Northeast of the US. The researcher has conducted a logistic regression analysis in order to examine the relationship between the use of marijuana and health problems among the undergraduates. The research was conducted using quantitative research method that allowed the researcher to conduct the survey. The survey consisted of 300 different variables and the survey was conducted among 1776 undergraduate students. The survey questionnaire developed and circulated for data collection was from American College Health Association. The different types of variables included assessing health behaviors, information, and probable outcomes.

The major findings of the research included evaluating he frequent consumption of marijuana among undergraduate students in the US and its impact on mental health. It was found in the research that marijuana is the most widely used drug in the US. The marijuana consumption rate in 2000 was 13.6% that has increased to 19.1% in 2013. Long-term consumption of marijuana adversely affects the cardiovascular and lungs of the young adults. Moreover, long-term consumption of marijuana also leads to dependency for the young adults. As mentioned by Teesson et al., (2012), the individuals eventually get addicted to the drug due to continuous and long-term consumption. Because of addiction, the undergraduate students lose their capability of leading a normal life. The teenagers get highly dependent on consumption of marijuana and their life is influenced by the rate of consumption. At certain instances, the teenagers become violent and aggressive when they are unable to consume marijuana when required. According to Connor et al., (2014), the undergraduate students tend to develop the habit of marijuana consumption in order to deal with stress and depression. The undergraduate students suffer stress and depression due to various reasons such as family and financial. As a result, the undergraduate students find relieving and relaxing after consumption of marijuana.

Availability of tobacco products associated with use of marijuana cigars (blunts)

The gap identified in the research is the inability to understand the relationship between marijuana consumption and consumption of other substances such as tobacco and binge drinking. The researcher is unable to understand whether marijuana consumption is influenced by the consumption of other substances and their relation with healthcare of the individuals.


Availability of tobacco products associated with use of marijuana cigars (blunts)      According to Lipperman-Kreda et al., (2012), the research includes examining the various factors related to the availability of tobacco products for marijuana cigars. While conducting the study, the researcher collected data from 943 tobacco outlets throughout Australia. The researchers to analyze the collected data, as this allowed the researcher to include data even from small markets, used multilevel regression analysis. The consumption of marijuana has increased extensively over the years among the young adults and teenagers. As commented by De Los Rios et al., (2012), smoking marijuana cigars is becoming an increasing trend among the teenagers. The researcher used a quantitative data collection method, as the survey conducted included 943 outlets across the city. It is mentioned in the research that the consumption of marijuana is most widely noticed among 12-17 years. According to the research, the young adults and teenagers get adequate supply of marijuana due to easy access to the cigars. As mentioned by Schuermeyer et al., (2014), the teenagers and the young adults buy marijuana cigars easily from hidden and prohibited sources. The availability of marijuana cigars has increased due to minimized initiative of the government and non-governmental agencies. As mentioned by Schauer et al., (2015), excessive consumption of marijuana affects brain structure volume, ability to perform the cognitive function and the quality of white matter. As a result, the teenagers develop severe brain dysfunction that lacks their ability to perform normally in their later life (Salas-Wright et al., 2015).

In this journal, the researcher has failed to identify to measures undertaken by the governmental and non-governmental organizations in order to restrict the supply of marijuana cigars for the teenagers. It is supposed that there is an illegal supply of marijuana cigars among the youths that the government is unable to prohibit. Moreover, the research paper also fails to identify the legislations of the respective country and the strict implementation of the legislations. As a result, the teenagers and the undergraduates are having sufficient supplies of marijuana in their colleges and universities.

Conclusion

In this assignment, it can be concluded that consumption of marijuana is prevalent among the young adults and teenagers in the US and the Australia. All the papers highlighted that the marijuana is an illicit drug whose rate of consumption has increased over the years. The consumption of marijuana adversely affects the health of the young adults and teenagers in terms of their behavior, eating disorders and psychology. The inability of consuming marijuana leads to violent and aggressive behavior. Long-term consumption of marijuana leads to cardiac and lungs diseases among the individuals. The research also states that marijuana leads to severe psychological impacts such as depression, anxiety, and stress. The aforementioned research articles also highlighted that the one in every 12 young adults and teenagers consume marijuana on a daily basis. However, the studies have failed to shed light on the initiatives undertaken by the governmental and non-governmental organizations to reduce the supply of marijuana thereby, minimizing the consumption among young adults

References

Ammerman, S., Ryan, S., Adelman, W. P., & Committee on Substance Abuse. (2015). The impact of marijuana policies on youth: clinical, research, and legal update. Pediatrics, 135(3), e769-e785.

Connor, J. P., Gullo, M. J., Feeney, G. F., Kavanagh, D. J., & Young, R. M. (2014). The relationship Management cannabis outcome expectancies and cannabis refusal self?efficacy in a treatment population. Addiction, 109(1), 111-119.

Copeland, J., Rooke, S., & Swift, W. (2013). Changes in cannabis use among young people: impact on mental health. Current opinion in psychiatry, 26(4), 325-329.

de los Ríos, F., Kleindorfer, D. O., Khoury, J., Broderick, J. P., Moomaw, C. J., Adeoye, O., ... & Eilerman, J. (2012). Trends in Substance Abuse Preceding Stroke Among Young Adults. Stroke, 43(12), 3179-3183.

Keith, D. R., Hart, C. L., & McNeil, M. P. (2015). Frequent Marijuana Use, Binge Drinking and Mental Health Problems Among Undergraduates. The American Journal onhttps://www.researchgate.net/profile/Rae_Silver/publication/275665397_Frequent_marijuana_use_binge_drinking_and_mental_health_problems_among_undergraduates_Frequent_Marijuana_Use_Among_Undergraduates/links/557771ae08aeb6d8c01ce2e2.pdf

Lipperman-Kreda, S., Lee, J. P., Morrison, C., & Freisthler, B. (2014). Availability of tobacco products associated with use of marijuana cigars (blunts). Drug and Alcohol.https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Bridget_Fr eisthler/publication/259108143_Availability_of_Tobacco_Products_Associated_with_Use_of_Marijuana_Cigars_Blunts/links/551acf850cf251c35b50052a/Availability-of-Tobacco-Products-Associated-with-Use-of-Marijuana-Cigars-Blunts.pdf

Penner, E. A., Buettner, H., & Mittleman, M. A. (2013). The impact of marijuana use on glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance among US adults. The American journal of medicine, 126(7), 583-589.

Ramo, D. E., Liu, H., & Prochaska, J. J. (2012). Tobacco and marijuana use among adolescents and young adults: A systematic review of their co-use. Clinical Psychology Review, 32, 105-121. https://www.getmyanswers.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Drug-Journal-1-Addictions-Class-04242017.pdf

Salas-Wright, C. P., Vaughn, M. G., Todic, J., Córdova, D., & Perron, B. E. (2015). Trends in the disapproval and use of marijuana among adolescents and young adults in the United States: 2002–2013. The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse, 41(5), 392-404.

Schauer, G. L., Berg, C. J., Kegler, M. C., Donovan, D. M., & Windle, M. (2015). Assessing the overlap between tobacco and marijuana: trends in patterns of co-use of tobacco and marijuana in adults from 2003–2012. Addictive behaviors, 49, 26-32.

Schuermeyer, J., Salomonsen-Sautel, S., Price, R. K., Balan, S., Thurstone, C., Min, S. J., & Sakai, J. T. (2014). Temporal trends in marijuana attitudes, availability and use in Colorado compared to non-medical marijuana states: 2003–11. Drug and alcohol dependence, accounting 140, 145-155.

Teesson, M., Slade, T., Swift, W., Mills, K., Memedovic, S., Mewton, L., ... & Hall, W. (2012). Prevalence, correlates and comorbidity of DSM-IV cannabis use and cannabis use disorders in Australia. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 46(12), 1182-1192.

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My Assignment Help. (2018). Alcohol And Other Drugs Counseling - Evidence Based Essay.. Retrieved from https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/alcohol-other-drugs-counselling-management.

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My Assignment Help (2018) Alcohol And Other Drugs Counseling - Evidence Based Essay. [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/alcohol-other-drugs-counselling-management
[Accessed 23 February 2024].

My Assignment Help. 'Alcohol And Other Drugs Counseling - Evidence Based Essay.' (My Assignment Help, 2018) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/alcohol-other-drugs-counselling-management> accessed 23 February 2024.

My Assignment Help. Alcohol And Other Drugs Counseling - Evidence Based Essay. [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2018 [cited 23 February 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/alcohol-other-drugs-counselling-management.

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