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Part A:

1. What do you think we mean by ‘needs’ in LSP contexts?

2. Whose needs should be considered?

3. At what stage do you think needs analysis should be carried out?

Part B :

Select a group of learners for whom you will perform a needs analysis. This may involve a group of learners that you have actually taught, or it may be a hypothetical group. Describe the group and list the different stakeholders who might have an input into defining these learners’ needs. What different weights would the inputs have? Note that this question does not ask you to define the needs, but to decide who should have a say in the needs analysis. 

Needs Analysis Strategy

PART A

College students seeking for entry into law school needproficiency in language hence ESP supports this competency(Huhta, Vogt, Johnson, & Tulkki, 2013). Aged between 19-25 yearsthese college level students may have background knowledge of law. The learning environment often has amulticultural group of learners. The aims and objectives of this unit analysis are to analyze the use of English for Specific Purpose (ESP). Itlooks at learners speaking and listening skills, writing and reading skills for an effective foundation in learning. The legal language is useful inbusiness and professionalslaw. Learners with a background in law are expected to be familiar with how to summarize subject content. ESP is appropriate for learners interested in segments of legal practices. Learning materials have units withlegalcontent and learners should comprehend the content in order to expanding their scope of knowledge (Bezukladnlkov, Kruze, & Mosina, 2013: Fard & Borouieni, 2013). This group of ESP learners develops proficiency in English language for application in law and for communicating in the corporate world.

Needs Analysis Strategy

The use of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) in the professional world is for quality communication(Gollin-Kies, Hall, & Moore, 2015, p. 30). Languageis essential for specific purposes and targets learners with certain academic and professional needs (Wozniak, 2010). Legal students are college level learners pursuing a career in legal studies. Learning material in their coursesinvolve knowledge acquisition, comprehension of content, grammar competencies and authentic language applications(Bhatia, 2014). Purposeful language allows the learner’s to engage in learning effectively. In this context the application of Language for Specific Purposes is for specific needs considered. The methods used when determining these needs depends on the level of the learner. At college entry the student is joining the legal profession at an undergraduate level. The first-year students have started learning different subjects in Law and they need a grasp of basic terminologies in the subject area (Wozniak, 2010). These are learners familiar with the subject hence require a LSP course design with structural features of the language, its professional focus and theme or genre. Ellis, Loewen, & Basturkmen (2005) recommend the use of LSP as a critique in the development of learning material that is practical and based on the learner needs.

  1. Reading skills

Handford Michael (2010) explored linguistic features to identify the use of language clusters in business perspectives. Using a cluster of two the analysis, he looks at gaps in listening, speaking and reading skills as well as writing and reading. The target learners, in this case, are college students focused on sharpening professional skills. At a higher education level, reading skills are essential for professional development. At this level, the teacher empowers the learner by refining the knowledge through advanced knowledge for professional development. Concepts used in the learning materials include the development of competencies through a wide range of activities. Reading strategies in advanced learning also incorporate learner participation in research, presentation, personal and group participation (Doughty & Williams, 1998). Through wide reading, classroom research and language improvement, the learners gain confidence for communicating in their area of study. The use of language as a tool for communicating in the legal industry is critical. Adult learning strategies include motivation and cumulative learning. Successful implementation of this learning strategy involves knowledge transfer through subject-based learning.

  1. Listening skills

Language Learning Material for Law Students

Language for specific purposes (LSP) is applied linguistics that focuses on education, training, and subject-based language (Long, 2005). Target learners in this course depend on listening skills to make responses and presentations. Listening deepens an understanding of legal concepts for accuracy in practical applications. Through listening activities, reading, language use and text a student captures the academic content designed for a desired professional outcome. In this case, learning strategies include direct and indirect learning (Crawford, 2002). The learner uses the legal language to communicate in the professional field. Targeting both men and women, this Chapter demonstrates a close connection between content and instructions. The legal industry comprises of learned professionals who require certain expertise. The specific content theme has a purpose of preparing learners in the post-secondary level for the legal profession. In a multicultural group listening boosts the group learning experience giving the learner an edge in social interaction. The Chapter highlights the meaning of unknown words in the profession in order to develop vocabulary effectively.

  1. Writing skills

These learners require an effective learning process that befits their level of education and professional development (Canale& Swain, 1980). Adult education has a framework focused on personal development, vocational, formal and informal learning. Mature students need an organized system environment for knowledge and skills transfer. With an objective of creating social, economic and cultural benefits the writing skills enhance professional and personal skills. Incidental learning provides opportunities for graded college entrants to grow through reading and writing. Academic and nonacademic texts support learner’s quest for reading. Learning how to use new words in phrases, in sessions is effective for advanced learner’s academic presentations (Harding, 2007). The process of elaborating words through meaning, grammatical patterns, and lexis demonstrates productive knowledge(Gollin-Kies, Hall, & Moore, 2015, p. 12).

  1. Speaking skills

Continuing education refers to formal education that starts from schools and progresses to college level. It defines the professional development through vocational training. Entry level in college prepare for advanced education through different situations. Learning to speak is important for a multifaceted approach to learning. English as a core language for teaching is an integral part of legal studies (Brown, 1994). The learners need effective speaking tasks in the legal genre for themed learning and legal presentations like legal defense. The learning process facilitates for reflective learning to establish the development of language skills within the specificsubject. This means the application of language in formal and informal communication. Proficiency in vocabulary is part of strategic learning and incorporates integrated techniques namely, listening skills, reading, speaking and writing skills. Theme-based units have task-based subcategories with content based on the subject genre. This is important for the college learning situation because it allows students to gain the necessary skills effectively (Nassaji&Fotos, 2004). It also supports intellectual development which compliments critical thinking in speech and presentation (Flores, et al.,2012). 

Unit Analysis

Unit Analysis

Mason (2011)presents an English book for Lawyers. Chapter 1 introduces learners to the profession with a captivating title “The Legal Profession”. This has section 1A and 1B which discuss critical areas of the legal profession. 1A covers five segments with a foundational exam at the end of it. Although Section 1A starts off with vocabulary development (Aretemeva & Freedman, 2008). Section 1B touches on grammar aspects with prepositions and letter writing skills. This gives a basic guide with writing skills for the specificarea of study. This is a preliminary chapter on using knowledge in practice. The vocabulary check captures key terms in areas of law. This makes it reliable ESP learnersguide with adefinition of key terms for the legal profession(Mason, 2011, p. 9).Professional law involves titles of people in the legal profession and exercise 1 and 2 of the first subtitle “Workingin Law” captures important words such as ‘attorney, practice, barrister and attorney. Learners need to differentiate these terms so further exercise in Sections 1A and 1B distinguish type’s roles in this industry. The exercises also incorporate a question an answer approach that engages the students learning skills. Learners can fill in the gaps while researching on the answers (Hyland, 2002: Hyland, Bundles in academic discourse, 2012). 

The Chapter has a structures designed for communication purposes. Letter writing, listening skills, text overview and language are clearly titled.This chapter has specific segments that unpacking through sections and connected subheadings (McGrath & Kuteeva, 2012). Filled with numbered exercises, the sections present sentence analysis questions to test the learners writing skills (Basturkmen, 2010). Chapter 1 also has comprehension questions with the “true verses false” answersin exercises 1 and exercise 3 on page 30. Focusing on important words, the sections have lists of vocabularies in alphabetical order. This makes it easier for the student to find words. Covering areas of law, exercise 2segments test the learner’s knowledge of specific areas of law. For example, exercise 8 is on land law(Mason, 2011, p. 18). The effective use of space ensures that all these exercises fall within the same page. Its structure enriches the student with a variety of exercises including vocabulary and sentence development (Basturkmen, 2010).

Although the Chapter has a number of exercises, it has limitations in that it focuses on vocabulary and word formation at the expense of other communication activities such as reading, speaking and listening skills (Bezukladnlkov,  Kruze & Mosina, 2013). It would be appropriate to incorporate activities like role plays. None the less, exercise 3 on page 14 has a matching exercise that would come out effectively as a reading or role play exercise. Contemporary language activities include the use of audio visual elements in an LSP book. This serves as a motivation for learners in a new subject area(Bezukladnlkov, Kruze, & Mosina, 2013). Matching exercise covered in the chapteriseffective for this foundation course but the overconcentration on this strategy compromises the quality of the course book making the content monotonous. Letter writing skills are important in the legal profession as indicated in page 30-32 but learners need a scope of additional legal documents like Affidavits.

What makes the Chapter appropriate for the adult learner? Using a blend of subject relatedwords and phrases; this approach captures part of the learning objectives in the course book as well as the curriculum (Bhatia, 2014). Professionals in any field require competencies and theinstructional material strives to fulfill this (Christie, 2013). Teaching methods include the use of quality content designed with the learner’s interest in mind. Incorporating engaging videos or audios targeting the learner reflects a contextual perspective. This chapter needs a strategy that makes the learner to look forward to the next section (Richards & Rodgers, 2014). Chapter 1 may have a good introductory approach but it lacks other language elements such as writing for professionals and public speaking which is critical in the legal practice. This course design hasanumber of reading exercises such as Exercises 2 on working in law featured on page 10.  A vocabulary overview on page 34 complements the learning exercise giving the learner deeper insight. The chapter connects with the real world application of language in the legal profession through a barrister advertisement on page 26.

English for Specific Purposes

Delicia (2008) discusses English for specific purposes (ESP) with reference to international communication. According to Delicia, the contextualization of language depends on the environment. The functional role of language identifies the language elements such as the pragmatic, lexical, morphological and syntax. These are essential to understanding the meaning of language and sentence formation. Students look at the reading material by recognizing the reading material and its content. Chapter one has a variety of vocabulary exercises but would benefit more with listening, speaking, writing and reading exercises (Brown, 1994). The use of exercise in Chapter 1 provides learners with an overview of different subject areas. For example, exercise 2 of each section has areading part which is a core area for learners in law because of the legal exercises such as. Efficiency in language-based learning comes from the successful implementation of knowledge in the right context (Aretemeva & Freedman, 2008). Grammatical patterns enhance proficiency for the wider context (Tomlinson, 2012). Learners learn ways of creating meaning, determining the relationship between clauses and sentences (Samuda & Bygate, 2008). The repeated exposure to words in the industry is one way of polishing learners for their profession (Basturkmen, 2010). Acquisition of knowledge in adult education is through incidental as well as intentional learning activities. Reading for wider knowledge means the achievement of fluency and recognition. Learning strategies such as cooperative learning and discussions lead to familiarization with the formal knowledge of the language (Canale & Swain, 1980).

Nation & Coxhead (2001) discuss the development of academic vocabulary pointing out the need for learners in higher education to embrace an independent approach to learning (Vandergrift, 2004). This is an effective mode of placing emphasis on knowledge development. Learners in college have an extensive exposure to learning. Content-based Instructions like Masons Chapter 1 (2011) bridge the gap between learning and practice. Knowledge application in different situations becomes effective through strategies such as extensive reading. Contextual learning is strategic and it leads to improvement when strategic readers apply the knowledge over a long period (Canale & Swain, 1980).

Material Selection and Design

Modes

Basturkmen (2010, p. 16) argues that language comes in variety and that basic language overlaps with other modes like the technical lingo. Relevance in learning materials relates to the learner’s goals and interests. In Masons Chapter example, the learners are seeking proficiency in legal studies hence will find learning material that is specific to their needs (Christie, 2013). English as a tool for communication in college takes a subject-specific approach. English learning modes have structured lessons for technical development. A complete cycle of learning includes the incorporation of linguistic features, learner reflection, and competency (Crawford, 2002). Reflection exercises for college students acknowledge that each learner has their own experience in learning. The use of top-down and bottom-up approaches depends on the learner expectation, course objectives and reading strategies employed (Day, J., Krois-Linder, A., & Translegal, 2011)

Genre and Systemic Functions of Linguistics

According to Hyland (2002), language structure has connections with the social function of language. As a result, language for professional learners has to make sense (Wozniak, 2010). The configuration of English according to the subject genre is universal. The implication of this is that Corporate Law lingo is the same across different regions of the globe. Authenticity dictates that the course reflects on the learner’s target domain (Rod, 2006) The target student in this plan is the Company Law student. The course instructor makes use of visuals, tasks, and texts used in their profession. Chapter 1 exercise 1 of each subtitle defines roles, and personalities in the domain (Mason, 2011, pp. 9, 10, 12, 20). The learner gains information about corporate governance and giving businesses legal advice (Richards & Rodgers, 2014).

Michael Rosen’s perception of the genre as a theory is critical in the development of educational content (Christie, 2013). This is because of the language structure, which supports learning processes and writing activities. The ability to manipulate information through a cluster of subject areas is instrumental in the development of language (Delicia, 2008). The material has specific competencies (reading and writing) that the learner has to developfor professional purposes. Contextual and functional books have units or Chapters that engage the learner (Richards & Rodgers, 2014). Therefore Chapter 1is the preliminary chapter in the learning material. Knowledge skills and strategies for adult education support learning through autonomous content (Vandergrift, 2004). Mastering a common subject involvesa specialization approach to the subject as captured in the classification of areas of law in page 28.

Social Interaction

Hessevaagbakke, Bjok, Christiansen & Havnes (2016) discusses interculturalism to bring out culture and language use for interatcion ( Ellis, 2002).  The reading exercises in this chapter test the learner’s interpretation abilities through ideas from the social context. For example, the foundation exam features exercise 3 which is a conversational discourse between a client and the lawyer. (Nation & Coxhead, 2001).This is specific to the professional situation and gives proper meaning to the ESP context (Tomlinson, 2012). This formal process is appropriate for the situational application (Mancho & Arno-M, 2015). The product approach focuses on conceptual learning that trains the learner to achieve behavioral traits through habit formation (Rod, 2006). Instead of grammar structures this Chapter looks at correct sentencing, comprehension, and vocabulary development for the specific profession (Ellis, 2018). As a course book for beginners in the legal profession it supports English proficiency while encouraging a social context. Itsupports the learner’s personal and professional development of communication skills for interaction in official language (Nassaji & Fotos, 2004). English guides the legal language. Practice activities like sentence construction and word formation support the ESL students for communication efforts. Although the chapter shows consideration for social interaction it does not place an emphasis on a multicultural setting (Gollin-Kies, Hall & Moore, 2015). The absence of listening activities is proof of this and the student taking this subject finds information through reading and writing. Comprehension questions test the leaners scope of understanding (Samuda & Bygate, 2008). The chapter also features other learning tools for the post-reading stage within its examination section. This shows the importance of material design that has a systematic approach to skill development (McDonough & Shaw, 2012).

PART B

Suitability of the Learners and their needs

College students have proficient levels of English learning and Slager-Meyer (2014) describes the global enhancement of languag for  higher learning. They are able to comprehend texts through pre-reading, reading, and listen effectively. The Chapter is about vocabulary development in an orderly manner. It presents the information in an orderly manner that has an expected outcome. The objective, in this case, is to familiarize the student with the profession through information (Handford, 2010). Unfortunately, this Chapter makes use of texts but leaves out the use of multimedia elements like videos and pictures. The internet is also a significant part of learning and the Chapter shows no reference to digital communication. Chapter coverage of vocabulary across its subtitles is commendable (Smit & Dafouz, 2012).

The Chapter is plain and shows no use of images and pictures for colorful illustrations. Modern-day course content in a book would incorporate colorful images and vivid descriptions and illustration of course content that the learners can appreciate. The use of color, fonts, and graphics adds value to text descriptions for quality material (Warschauer, 2006). For example, exercise 2 on page 12 uses arrows in a matching exercise. This is beneficial to the student because it helps them to recall information effectively (Wozniak, 2010). However, the use of different colors and improved graphics is beneficial. Although the unit takes a professional tone with a focus on company law, it lacks an interpersonal tone and linguistic features that support group participation. The academic language applies pedagogic theories such as the genre theory in the professional contexts (Aretemeva & Freedman, 2008). Vocational books contain content that targets professional practice therefore it lays the foundation for the learner to interact with the professional community.( McGrath, & Kuteeva, 2012). The establishment of students in the legal profession is important for the establishment of learners and supports personal and organizational learning. Learning material which adopt a content based approachoften involve tasks within its subcategories (Harding, 2007).  

The discourse exercises and question and answer exercises indicate a presence of social interaction between the student and the writer. In order to test the level of understanding the author uses a selective approach to information (Hirvela, 2013). Each section has a role for the learner. Part 1A and 1B have different themes and examples of what the learner can do. This is engaging for the reader throughout and it provides sections for comparison and juggling the learner’s intellectual abilities(Aretemeva & Freedman, 2008). This chapter recognizes the learner’s ability and activities in the professional setting. These influence the learner’s attitude giving a positive or negative attitude. Effective manipulation of the texts engages the learner widening their scope and imagination(Mason, 2011, pp. 12-14). A focus on specific content for the specific purpose is appropriate for college learners who are in training with a vocation in focus (Huhta et al., 2013).

Language for social interaction contains vocabulary and words that support discourse (Ellis, 2018: Perfetti, 2013: Salvia, Ysseldyke, & Witner, 2012). In order to make sense, learners in an industry develop the necessary language for effective communication. Text formation and discourse planning in the unit encourage a holistic approach to learning because it covers the listening, reading, writing and speaking skills (Hyland, 2002). Learners also learn how to organize professional documents like letters for the professional functions (Mason, 2011). The official content features in the texts giving the lexicon-grammar for syllabus analytics. From the Chapter analyzed, it is evident that the material is organized around a sequence that allows the learner to listen, speak and form vocabulary.

College beginner students’ base their thoughts on content material in their subject matter and a contemporary design of the content makes some learning material more attractive to the learner than others did(Gollin-Kies, Hall, & Moore, 2015, p. 80). Learners at this level require motivational course design in order to read widely and content important for the course. Most students agree that the use of multiple elements of learning is engaging. Students also prefer reading by exploring different materials(Hirvela, 2013). 

Conclusion:

ESP is important in the global business world. Academic courses globally use English for course content and design. LSP guides course designers on suitable language use for specific purposes and is based on the specific context. A unit analysis reveals its suitability for the target learners. College students are in continuous learning with an objective of obtaining the necessary competencies in Law as a profession( Long, 2005). The vocational training depends on language and teaching techniques to succeed. Structure, social theme, tasks and genre are critical in LSP design approaches. Learners look forward to interesting content and effective teaching strategies in order to gain the necessary competencies. Students from nonnative backgrounds have trouble in learning because of principles of language. This chapter analysis from Mason (2011) gives anexample of thebenefits and challenges faced by students when using ESPtextbooks. It brings out the role of language mode, genre and interpersonalelements of LSP. In Chapter 1functions of language such as vocabulary and sentence formation support learning processes through professional communication.  

References:

Aretemeva, N., & Freedman, A. (2008). Rhetorical genre studies and beyond. Winnipeg, Manitoba: Inkshed Publications.

Basturkmen, H. (2010). Developing courses in English for Specific Purposes. UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Basturkmen, H. (2010). Developing courses in English for Specific Purposes. Palgrave Macmillian.

Bezukladnlkov, K., Kruze, B., & Mosina, M. (2013). Interactive Approach to ESP teaching and learning. World Applied Sciences Journal , 201-206.

Bhatia, V. K. (2014). Analysing genre: Language use in professional settings. Routledge.

Brown, G. (1994). Dimensions of difficulty in listening comprehension. In D. Mendelson, & J. Rubin, A guide for the teaching of second language listening. San Diego: Domie Press.

Canale, M., & Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics 1, 1-47.

Canale, M., & Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics 1, 1-47.

Christie, F. (2013). Genres and Genre Theory: A response to Michael Rosen. Changing English, 11-22.

Crawford, J. (2002). The role of materials in the language classroom: Finding the balance. In J. Richard, & W. Renandya, Methodology in Language Teaching (pp. 80-91). Cambridge University Press.

Day, J., Krois-Linder, A., & Translegal. (2011). Intellectual Legal English: A course for classroom or self-study use . Cambridge University Press.

Delicia, L. M. (2008). A study of the use of simple present tense in the reading material of ESP courses from a Genre based perspective. universidad Nacional de Cantamarca.

Doughty, C., & Williams, J. (1998). Focus on form in classroom second language aquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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Wozniak, S. (2010). Language needs analysis from a perspective of international professional mobility: The case of French Mountain guides. English for Specific Purposes, 29, 243-251.

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