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Rising Demand for Swift Information and ICT

In recent decades, there has been a shift in construction projects background, resulting in much more sophisticated economic environment. The communication technologies rapid advancement is indeed used in explaining the same. Sharing of electronic information is gaining popularity as with the rising demand for swift information alongside working approaches in international market. This enables transfer of higher volume of data depending on the prevailing time zone. Such Information And Communication Technologies (ICT) have helped geographical distribution and change from face-to-face conversation in favor of more asynchronous communication (Hoch and Kozlowski, 2014). Numerous academics have linked this transition away from traditional people-centered organizations to issues difficulties.

In this way, the construction industry is no different from any other. 'Poor communication has long been a problem in the construction business, with part of the problem being the way the sector is organized,' according to Fryer. In architectural writings, information and communication technology (ICT) is described and addressed in a variety of ways, but Kraemer and Daniziger describe the communication aspect as "the actual hardware deployed to fulfill a fundamental information processing task." Communication between and within organizations, according to Emmitt and Gorse (2003), is focused with the transmission and management of information. In their analysis, Onyegiri et al (2001, p.462) summarized the many meanings of ICT in a flow chart.

It's important to make the distinction noted of "information technology" and "communication technology," since as much as information technology is needed in architecture for storage of data, the usage often does not mean communication. Together with advancement of computers, computer software (– for example Computer Aided Design (CAD) as well as Building Information Modelling (BIM), world wide web, cell phones, as well as other technologies, there is a rising trend in the construction sector to use ICT from project initiation to completion (Onyegiri et al, 2011)

The relevance and expanding functions of information and communication technology (ICT) in construction sector cannot be overlooked, as evidenced by the background information supplied. Moreover, one of the most visible challenges affecting the world construction sector currently is that the majority of building process information alongside data continues to depend heavily on traditional methods of documentation and communication, such like face-to-face meetings as well as the transfer of paper documents like drawings, specifications, and site guidelines.

Conventional information and communication channels in the construction sector, according to Anumba and Ruikar (2002), are primarily manual and slow operations, and so,

  • Making many copies of documents and drawings on paper.
  • The additional cost of delivering project documentation to geographically dispersed project participants.
  • Document "archives" in libraries must be kept up to date so that data can be accessed as needed.
  • Managing "loose" documents can be time-wasting and inconvenient.
  • Relying on third parties to complete tasks, which is including courier services, might cause delays.

However, traditional construction industries around the world must innovate their products, includes improving production processes, in order to create more effective processes using products and production methods. Additionally, present competition challenges besides increased client awareness, are driving a demand for immediate productivity besides competitiveness improvements in construction industry. In impact, as building becomes more complicated, a more advanced and powerful approach is required to handle problems such as initiation, planning, financing, designing, approval, implementation, as well as accomplishing a project, an area wherein the ICT has demonstrated its biggest effect and incredibly huge application potential.

Despite Sarshar et al. (2004) suggesting contractors may use ICTs in the facilitation of integration, collaboration, management of knowledge, procurement, site management, as well as process improvement, Mak(2001) reported that ICT adoption in construction firms is still "very low" and that only just a handful contractors are wholly having the potential of integrating ICTs with key business processes. Computer illiteracy besides lack of ICT comprehension, among other things, have been mentioned as the most often reported contractor flaws in numerous nations. The concept that contractors' fundamental business operations are primarily undertaken on building sites, and that applications that assist actual work on site are difficult to come by, among other things, has been mentioned again.

Poor Communication in the Construction Business

As a result, despite the fact that the great benefits provided by ICT in the construction sector seems to be acknowledged, its adoption and be used as a standard section of the construction process remains low; and contractors, amongst  key participants, are frequently cited as those who utilize ICT the least. Whereas this condition may be real for the worldwide construction business, particular facts about the scope of applicability and challenges facing ICT in the worldwide construction industry are still unknown. The goal of the research is to examine the state of building construction enterprises around the world.

The goal of the research is to look into the implications of information and communication technology in the building and construction industry, as well as the issues that it faces.

Aim

The study's goal is to figure out what's preventing the construction industry from using ICT.

Objectives of Study

The following are the study's particular goals:

  • To note and assess barriers to ICT adoption in the construction industry on a worldwide basis.
  • To find out how much ICT is used in the building business.
  • Evaluating the building industry's ICT infrastructure operating systems.

Research Questions

  • What is the condition of the building industry's ICT facilities?
  • What major roadblocks do you see in the building industry's adoption of ICT?
  • To what extent does the building business make use of ICT?

Information and Communications Technology (ICT) alongside its implementations in building projects are the subject of the study. The study focuses on ICT usage from the standpoint of construction contractors in financial classes D1KI alongside D2K2, as defined by Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Housing's categorization rules. It is because of that kind of businesses typically handle huge volumes of work as well as employ qualified personnel, allowing them to engage in and appreciate information and communication technology (ICT) in their operations. This is due to the fact that the distribution of such contractors is heavily skewed towards metropolitan capitals, with more than 70 per cent of registered Building and Civil Engineering contractors, particularly large corporations, operating in the urban environment.

ICT has seen enormous advancements over the last two decades. PTT, which stands for Post, Phone line, and Telegram, was the only technology available 20 years ago. The government and the public services have a lot of influence over ICT. Hardware, software, internet and telephony content, applications, and support services are now included in the ICT sector. It should be noted that a wide range of organizations, comprising corporate behemoths, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), innovators, personal developers, and open-source networks, are now providing these dynamic services. There has been an upsurge in broadband internet subscribers and mobile subscriptions from 2005 to 2019..

As a result, constructing a strong internet mobile infrastructure leads to the establishment of an appropriate and efficient communication flows between partners in many industries. Currently, ICT is used to improve communication flow in a variety of industries, including health, education, public services, government-funded organizations, and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Likewise, businesses are increasingly relying on Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) technologies to streamline their operations and connect to international supply chains. Furthermore, the amount to which an organization may gain from ICT relies on its respond to changing work processes when it comes to ICT spread.

In today's world, the building industry is becoming increasingly reliant on information flow. As previously said, various parties are participating in a single building project; at some point, numerous professionals would be working together. It is critical for them to acquire timely and reliable information about their tasks in order to make good judgments. Murray, Nkado, and Lai (2001) stated that construction industry operators demand information at frequent intervals throughout the project's lifecycle.

Relevance of ICT in Construction

It may be inferred that documents, drawings, schedules, receipts, orders, and programmes should indeed be regularly transferred across different partners, and that in order for professionals to make good judgments, they must have timely and correct information about their tasks. Because of its particular characteristics, which are addressed more in section 2.1, construction projects are complicated, dynamic, and involve partners who are geographically scattered. Massive and complex projects, it has been observed, necessitate a significant flow of communication amongst partners as well as stakeholders.

This research is divided into five sections. The very first chapter includes an introduction that covers the study's history, problem statement, purpose, objectives, research questions, importance, delimitation, limitations, study assumptions, and definitions of key words.

The study's literature review is presented in Chapter 2. An introduction, a review of research on research variables, a theoretical framework, a conceptual framework, research gaps studied, and a summation of the literature are among the subtopics of this chapter.

The third chapter discusses the research methodology in use, as well as the research design, target population, data collection instrument, sample size and sampling procedures, sample size, pilot testing of research instruments, data gathering procedures, data analysis methods, ethical considerations, and variable operationalization. The findings are presented in this chapter, which includes data analysis, presenting, interpretation, and discussion. The chapter starts with segment on response rate, then moves on to general information on the respondents, descriptive statistics based on the study's aims, and inferential statistics such as correlation and regression analysis. The discussion of findings that was done in accordance with the study's objectives, is the last part of this chapter. Chapter 5 summarizes the research findings, including the conclusions drawn from them, as well as recommendations and proposals for further research. The findings, conclusions, and suggestions were written in accordance with the study's objectives.  

Theoretical Framework

In order to analyze the basis of research from the ancient times up to date, there has been a systemic research study carried out on the field of ICT in construction engineering and management literature as from 1985 up to 2017. This study was on the basis of detailed as well as comprehensive planning alongside research approaches that was obtained in advance with an aim of reducing any possible biasness. On the contrary, in order to arrive at a single quantitative estimate or summary of effects of size through the use of different statistical techniques as opposed to a technique that employs a meta-analysis approach. This study report however aim at presenting an overview of the different topics that have been presented using quantitative as well as qualitative research strategies on occupation safety alongside their general direction. The approach employed herein has been established to be similar in format to the one that used in the previous systemic reviews as was detailed by Benavides and Benach in 2007.

The main aim of this particular research study as from the time of its conception has always been to capture as much of the existent literature as possible that deals with occupational safety. As such, the research team decided to settle on search literature through the use of terms detailed on board search as the reference point. This was on contrary to the conventional method that entailed citation of networks which culminate in overlooking of innovative as well as literatures that are normally rarely cited. The bibliographic database that was used in this literature search included Scopus, web of Science, PsycInfo as well as Business Source Elite.

Challenges Facing ICT Adoption in the Construction Industry

Figure 1 depicts the sequential steps that were employed in selection of the various articles. As was stated on the available information, it was stated that there was need to exclude supplicates, all other articles that were documented in languages apart from English as well as quality assurance which included no-peer reviewed articles. Due to the exclusion of some documents, the total number of articles was reduced to 11,200 articles. Also, according to the information that was provided in the endnote, not all non-peer reviewed articles were to be excluded. Consequently, all articles that were matching this particular criterion were removed in the course of multiple phases in the process of selection. This was followed by completing the final three consecutive steps. Initially, the authors analyzed the titles that were not in line with the criteria as follows;

  • Failed to describe the ICT in construction engineering and management expected within an occupational setting
  • Failed to put much emphasis on interventions, determinants as well as measurements of ICT in construction engineering and management as was published within the peer-reviewed journals
  • Weren’t published in the peer-reviewed journals
  • Were written in any other language apart from English

Additional four domains which included construction, offshore petro chemistry, warehouses as well as manufacturing were integrated depending on the ratio of combination of elements. Firstly, the construction as well as manufacturing sector were integrated and was accounting for more than a fifth of all the tragic accidents that have been encountered in 2015 in European Union.

Theoretical framework for ICT in construction engineering and management

Theoretical framework for ICT in construction engineering and management

Figure 1: Theoretical framework for ICT in construction engineering and management

Computers

Hardware besides software technology in the building sector has come an elongated way and continues to advance at a rapid pace every day. Construction and architectural computer systems are substantially quicker nowadays than it were when they initially appeared in the 1970s. Specifically designed computers can be acquired for a variety of reasons, spanning from speed to capabilities to greater graphics. Such computers could sometimes be linked to a variety of gear, including a projector for better understanding (used when doing presentations), printers, light pens, scanner, cellphones, as well as fax machines, among other things. Software and apps have had a tremendous impact on the olden times of ICT besides have revolutionized the way structure plan besides procurement are done. Distinct solicitations have been designed expressly for different uses in building, and some of them are interoperable with others. Any architect's AutoCAD drawings, for example, can be converted to modeling software like 3D studioMAX. There are further applications mend for free-lancers besides surveyors that encompasses accounting and processing contract data as well as combining findings for architects as well as engineers. There are those that include the creation of stipulated drawings and modeling, accounting and processing, data management, and other tasks all in one package, such as ArchiCAD. These are usually referred to as building information modeling (BIM) software because they combine so many of these errands into a single application.

Drawings are by far the most common product of every architectural or even engineering group, and so such drawings are now mainly generated on computers. Building oriented CAD, just like every other Computer Aided Design software, is designed on same concepts as other CAD software, although differs to a certain degree in with regard to design besides application methodologies. Drawing entities adopt Computer Aided Design technologies in the creation of diagrams and replicas of what buildings will resemble like after they are built. They are built on the basis of drawing cavemen.

Low Adoption of ICT among Contractors

Additional programs software besides hardware could read alongside save its data in order to analyze productivity information. The Computer Aided Design system, for instance, might be applied to create 2D drawings then then connected to another system or even software for creation a 3D model. This could be saved for forthcoming reference, reproduced, anticipated, altered, updated, and so on indefinitely. The production of a picture that is a conceptual plan of elements and appropriately portrays the relative proportions and connections of the elements is a typical necessity in architectural design and engineering design. Such speed besides convenience in which a computer-based sketch may be created and adjusted has a significant advantage over hand-based drawing and approaches.

Walls, beams, columns, slabs, as well as other standard architectural Computer Aided Design tools could be conveniently be added to the application by simply dragging then dropping them or drawing over surface. The sketch may also be united across a computer network by a group of designers who are all experts in different design fields, like landscape, structural, and mechanical designers, and who are all situated in different parts of the world. Drawings might also be connected to databases that include material specifications, pricing, and other information, making it easier to examine everything from design through construction. If it can be conducted manually with the hand, the kinds of drawings as well as models that can be made with a CAD system are virtually limitless. Many CAD models can indeed be improved for deeper indulgent as well as demonstration by employing sophisticated rendering animations methods to provide crisp visuals as well as active motion like flythrough and walkthroughs.

Spreadsheets, word processors, and minicomputers have revolutionized data processing in construction industry. They can be used in the solution of complexities and avoid considerable delays that might occur when working with the outdated manual method of completing office tasks. Spreadsheets, such as Microsoft Excel, Word, and PowerPoint, are essential office tools because they enable the regular operation of spreadsheets. Because they can make and alter charts, graphs, as well as tables, they are often adopted for financial data alongside presentations.

They are a crucial ICT tool in building sector because their design is dome for execution of broad computing jobs depending on spatial correlations. Spread sheets are adopted for most paperwork, letters, calculations besides presentations, and they are often compatible with Computer Aided Design software. Companies can run small-group ICT inventions like Spreadsheets as well as word processors are used to plan and schedule programmes separately.

Computers are utilized in the building industry to mechanize and imitate hand-drafting approaches, and 3D replicas have aided in demonstrating how a structure will resemble like after it is completed. BIM (Building Information Modeling) software offers the capacity to immediately and interactively communicate design concepts in a form that represents actual and real representations of the building, allowing designers to quickly and effectively recognize customers' demands and propose solutions to such wants.

They incorporate many personnel from design, management, building, as well as operations throughout the design phase that greatly aids in the advancement of the design. They can mimic time by connecting it to other machine-based construction planning programs like spreadsheets and CAD. They can design a project from start to finish and recognize flaws in the design on a computer monitor before commencing field work. It's a tool to help designers and contractors improve communication and collaboration in order to increase overall efficiency. According to Dace, BIM must have these features.

  • Digital – allows for design as well as building simulations.
  • Spatial - 3D, which represents multifaceted building conditions better than 2D drawings.
  • Measurable data – data which can be quantified, dimensioned, and queried.
  • Comprehensive – encapsulates and communicates design intent, construction performance, constructability, and the sequential and monetary aspects of means and procedures.
  • Accessible - data prepared accessible to a whole project group, together with designers, engineers, fabricators, contractors, possessors, maintenance facility, and users, via an interoperable and instinctive boundary.
  • Long-lasting — documents that represents as-built circumstances and may be used throughout the life cycle of a facility, Design and planning, fabrication and construction, and maintenance and support are all included.

Goals of the Study

Illustrations in Pictures

The usage of BIM exemplifies the widely spread application of 3D in the building industry. To provide an immersive experience, projects may be displayed through stereoscopic forecast technologies or the well-known cameras that were utilized in universities. This makes it easier to make judgments based on these models' spatial knowledge, which is incredibly beneficial because it saves a lot of money in the construction process.

Assistance

BIM would be castoff to help the design and building teams assess and re-evaluate various ways and procedures in order to certify that the project can be constructed on time and within budget. It aids in the detection of flaws and mistakes in the design or in the project, depending on the situation.

Planning and Making Use of

BIM is castoff to assess a structure's projected site circumstances, existing as well as proposed neighboring buildings and subterranean utilities, site access, excavation, shoring, safety hazards, dewatering, appointment of crane, storage, as well as site construction locating, among other things.

Preparation and Sequencing:

Time might be included as a fourth measurement to BIM modeling to help visualize and optimize construction schedules and sequences also during construction. The project manager, for instance, would be at a position to access and compute the desired quantity of assets at a specific point in the building process. It has a significant effect on ICT effectiveness in the building industry.

Cost Approximating:

Quantity surveys of construction materials are made easier using BIM, and such numbers are openly tied to price databases. Construction design changes can be made based on this knowledge before real construction begins.

Integration of Subcontractor and Supplier Models

Quantity surveys of construction materials are made easier using BIM, and such numbers are directly tied to price databases. Construction design changes can be made based on this knowledge before real construction begins.

Systems Coordination:

BIM integrates entire building systems, including all equipment, fittings, piping, channels, conduits, organizational members, together other construction materials. Disputes might be discovered and resolved before systems are placed in the field utilizing tools as well as commands.

Layout and Fieldwork:

In the field, BIM data aids in the arrangement of materials and systems. This involves the preparation of "lift drawings," 2D plan and section extractions that explain field research, as well as the integration of relevant worth as well as safety data.

Prefabrication:

BIM could also be utilized to help with prefabrication of construction methods, allowing for quicker field assembly. This is really the consequence of combining many of the other applications outlined above: complete participation by subcontractors, full integration and synchronization of geometry, and correct registering and field fixing.

Maintenance and Operations

Even during development of the facility, BIM can indeed be updated to generate a "as-built" record of construction circumstances. After that, the geometry in BIM could indeed be connected or correlated with non-graphic data gotten in equipment and facility operations manuals. As such

, BIM develops a full and dynamic record which can be used to support facility management.

BIM graphical overview

BIM graphical overview

Enormous Advancements in ICT over the Last Two Decades

E-mail, as it is often referred, is merely transmission of data from one people's computer files to another's computer files. It's a web-based system. Text and images are no longer the only things that can be sent by email; films, programs, and other media can also be sent. Electronic mails are particularly beneficial in the construction industry since they are a swift besides convenient way to transmit and receive messages and data. Third-party software or the mailing site's hosts can also provide secure ways and encryption. Electronic mail not only facilitates the communication of information, but it also facilitates the exchange of new info.

The launch of the visually picture - based World Wide Web in 1993 sparked a surge in Internet activity amongst non-scientists and paved the door for commercial applications. The World Wide Web could provide a graphically-based device for sharing data via computers. Web-based information might vary from presentations to online periodicals to personal 'home pages,' and it can be accessed from any computer or electronic device with an internet connection. It's an interactive interface that's a popular way to get information and connect with others.

Geographical distance separating construction crews creates barriers to communication, and the range of communication devices and modes used in construction adds to the difficulty. Simple radio signals could be used to converse with players on the ground, although messages can be corrupted or delayed. Furthermore, utilizing long distance calls or international reproduction is highly expensive, and using Internet services is significantly less expensive than using express courier services. Messages can be delivered to recipients as soon as they are sent, and they can also be tracked. The Internet is a worldwide network that is unrestricted by geography, time, or computer operating systems.

The "distance" connecting alliance participants, according to Cheng (2001), is one of the key obstacles to the alliance's ability to receive and share information. Networking in generally, as well as the Internet in particular, offer outstanding communication and data sharing options among and inside construction enterprises. It is essentially the act of connecting computers or gadgets in order to facilitate online communications between them. It allows you to transport data including files, photographs, music, and information without the use of a disk or storage device. Figure 3.3 depicts a type of networking that could be used by a construction community.

Elementary networking system between companies within the construction industry

Elementary networking system between companies within the construction industry

A local area network (LAN) is a high-communications system designed to connect computer systems as well as other information processing gadgets within a small geographic area, or even in a construction headquarters. To extend connectivity, multiple LANs can really be coupled within a campus of structures (also known as a Wide Area Network or WAN). This enables users to share critical computing resources like pricey hardware, application programs, as well as information electronically. Shared access technology is used in Local Area Networks. It means that similar information can be communicated between people or groups on building sites and at headquarter.

A virtual private network (VPN) is a communications environment wherein the peer connections are permitted well within a defined community of interest, like the global Internet. VPN connections between private networks are incredibly safe. Many construction companies utilize VPN because it is the most protected of all of the networking options.

An intranet is an internal or restricted access intranet that has similar capabilities to the internet but is only available to an organization's internal users. An intranet, for example, would be used by a construction company to communicate specific information including such documents, recent announcements, new product details, and so on, but still only enable computers and devices within the organization to access it.

An extranet is an extension of a corporation's internal network which permits external users to deliver for and access information in a safe environment. It works similarly to an intranet in that it is accessed using a web browser, allowing information to be accessed from any computer without the need for additional software. An extranet, on the other hand, necessitates a high level of security and may necessitate the deployment of specialized software to offer user authentication and encrypt data. Extranets might used to connect suppliers, clients, vendors, customers, and other enterprises to a company's business applications. They make data exchange easier and less expensive, allowing employees to work from home.

In light of the significance and necessity for competence and operative usage of ICT, various government and commercial boards have created regulations and codes of behavior. The invention and advancement of cellphones, computer, electrical & electronic equipment, and other technological advancements are all critical in today's building business. Because building projects entail a huge movement of building documented information interconnecting project participants in both the design as well as construction phases (Peansupap and Walker), the value is extremely crucial. This research concludes that the rapid growth of ICT provides chances to improve communication between building projects participants and permit more operative and effectual communication in Adriaanse and Voordijk.

The usage of ICT is a field worth focusing on since it may decrease the quantity of time it takes to process data and communicate information. ICT applications likewise promote operative development by communicating construction information for helpful decision-making as well as collaboration, as Peansupap and Walker (2005) demonstrate. The fact that data transported from one location to another can include text, numbers, photos, drawings, video, as well as sound, and that this data can be combined and transmitted as multimedia has revolutionised the construction business through (ICT).

Howard is a man of many talents. Computer systems have indeed been found to lessen the requirement for colleagues and being in the same location. The fundamentals of knowledge as well as understanding of the significance and crucial value of ICT are outlined in this study by an understanding of current computer and internet technology, as well as the impression of info exchange, information, and its significance in the building structure industry.

It is difficult to change the culture of the business in the construction. The short term feature the industry arises up the problem of implementing emerging techniques and tools. In the course of the construction period the activity team become under a pressure to accomplish the project’s milestone at a very short range of time and budget. For a modern equipment and a procedure to be welcomed in the industry, it must be determined or shows evident by it’s’ effectiveness and simplicity.

Especially in the course of construction period, the risk management process in the construction is relatively a fresh scheme that widely not applied in the implemented plan. However, unawareness regarding its guaranteed benefit is usually the major cause for delay in application of the management risk frame work in the industry of construction. While managing the process of construction, the team mostly tend to exploit the intuitive tactic that is highly relay on the experience of the team‘s while administering the process of construction.

Carr together with Tar (2000) analyze the truth of the unformalized approach for taking management risk in the construction activity. It further elaborated that while applying risk management this approach would result to the adoption of different terminologies and methodologies. Even though the intuitive techniques may be positive to some situations, its’ success would just be abundantly dependent on the experience and the capability of everybody in the team members of the project.

It further emphasized on the demand for a similar language by Carr and Tah (2000) in explaining risk as a foundation for implementing threat methodologies. Thus, it can be disputed that having a well programmed approach would help the project team to be with a standardized measures when handling the project menace, that would increase the chance of a achieving success  of the project with optimum resources   and effort. Besides that it is essential to indicate that for allowing the risk construction management as systematic and independent management process, it must be effective, systematic and simple.

Implementing the ICT into the procedure of construction, would promote construction projects as discussed earlier in diverse areas. The ICT can help the construction design team administering the project perfectly. Thus the ICT can give important tools that would facilitate the implementation of the construction risk management successfully. Management system and support tools decision, which uses ICT are beneficial in process of managing risk. Thus, the locality where the  ICT  can promote the maximum implementation of managing risk  process may comprised of information processing, web-based management, data collections, expert/ knowledge-based systems, reporting and controlling systems. ICT enhance help to the activity team in many areas for proper management of project risk.

Ashoori and Teymouria (2011) study the result of information technology on management of risk by considering the effect information technology on the three ways which portray effectiveness and efficiency of the process that is cost, time and performance. They elaborate that one of the agenda may be poor information technology enacted or incomplete management risk execution.

To elaborate in more details, there are many research studies that resembles those of construction risk management. These educational program have diverse perspectives and distinctive objectives. Reliable tools and findings proposed by studies that are available would help qualified professional in the field of constructions. Reliable relevant data findings need to be efficiently processed to maintain trustworthy risk models. Thus, most of the studies research that are similar to risk management would contain handling a large amount of data. Therefore, researcher would have to gather and analyze information related to market situations, performance organizational and even design specific information. In additional, the impact of these research learning would propose control project tool with reliable decision making.

It may be said that utilizing the ICT tools provide the researcher a reliable findings in set timely manner. However, in fine data review to the studies available would elaborate that majority focused on analyzing and identifying risk that would help in making decision on the markup adequate bid or the proactive arrangement before initiating the execution of the project. Furthermore, other researchers studies tend to focused on implementing model risk management for the no bid or bid and internationalization decisions.

The subsequent are illustration of these studies which comprise the work of Tiong and Bing (1999) who formed a risk model management for construction international joint venture. Birgonual and Dikmen(2004) apply neutral network to form a model that would promote international market decision entry. Arditi and Gunhan (2005) study as similar to international expansion making decision for companies’ construction which facilitate the decision entry into foreign markets. Also a study done by Ock, Han and Diekmann (2004) worked on a multicriteria portfolio risk managements financial for international projects; to show their skills, they conduct a study case based on exact projects gathered from most general multinational contractors.

In another study conducted by the same authors (2005) find out contractor threat behavior in the appointment of international project construction. Birgonul, Dikmen and Bu-Qammaz (2009) form a model for a assessment of construction international projects using network process analytic.  In Kuwait, Bhamra, Al-Azema and Salman (2014) proposed risk management for Build, Operate, and Transfer (BOT) Project. Furthermore, Serpella et al. (2014) apply the idea based approach to investigate the risk of management in the project of construction. To finalize, determining the numbering examples and many other researches would show that the need for ICT is necessary to implement the process of risk management. Also there is a demand to propose management risk models for successful project construction at the period of construction phase, which is the best one for the critical phases of the lifecycle of the project.

Introduction

In this chapter, we'll look at the factors that influence inter-organizational ICT use in a building project as well as establish a basic theoretical framework for inter-organizational ICT use. We strive to clarify why people or organizations do not use ICT in the expected manner as well as how this use varies over time by discovering and analyzing these mechanisms. We'll use these observations to describe why ICT hasn't lived up to expectations. The following research question will be addressed in this chapter: what are the primary processes that impact how actors adopt inter-organizational ICT within a construction project, and how do such mechanisms vary over time? Because understanding of the devices is currently lacking, an exploratory inductive approach to developing the theoretical framework is recommended.

Ethnography as well as beached theory were used to manner the research. "An anthropological study approach that depends on first-hand conclusions drawn by scientist submerged over extensive period of time in a society which he or she was unique,". Ethnographers are particularly interested in researching, comprehending, as well as explaining human behavior and action in social, cultural, as well as organizational contexts. The ethnographic research method is used "to convert observations into stories members of the group believe are possible interpretations of what is going on.

Due to the obvious exploratory character of this study, we chose a complicated design-bid-build construction project in which inter-organizational ICT was being used between the customer, engineering firm, as well as contractor during the construction phase. The building location was in the heart of one of the Netherlands' most populous cities. During the construction stage, the engineering firm acted as the client's representative and kept an eye on the contractor. The project's building phase began in 2005. The tender value for the project was around € 26 million, and the construction stage lasted 15 months. Because of the project's intricacy, there were more opportunity to look at not only ordinary events, but also unusual and unexpected ones. These proceedings might have an influence on how actors use inter-organizational ICT. Completely of the participants were unfamiliar with the ICT application. The project's building phase began in 2005.

The tender value for the scheme is roughly around € 28 million, and the building stage lasted 15 months. Because of the plan's intricacy, there were more opportunity to look at not only ordinary proceedings, but also unusual besides unanticipated ones. These proceedings might have an influence on how actors use inter-organizational ICT. All of the participants were unfamiliar with the ICT application. The researcher conducted field study for six months, beginning when ICT was brought into the research (for example, four weeks later the contract was given to the contractor). The investigator took three days a week in the fieldwork and one day a week analyzing the data acquired over the course of four months. In the last two months, the scholar has composed evidence from a greater distance and has consumed more time analyzing but instead of collecting data.

The investigator worked with an engineering firm. At the outset of the project, the engineering firm believed that playing a "free" responsibility in it could be unsuitable. Due to the sheer interests as well as hobbies of participating organizations and the potential of disseminating secret information, a "free" role would pose tremendous dangers to both the engineering firm and the contractor. The researcher's data collecting was unrestricted within the engineering firm. The researcher had unlimited access to the ICT usage, as well as all internal engineering firm meetings as well as project conferences with the customer as well as the contractor. If he considered it was necessary, he might also interview besides witness members of the engineering firm. The researcher was authorized to interview representatives of the customer as well as the contractor in order to collect the perspectives of the other organizations involved.

 The investigator had numerous informal conversations as well as semi-structured interviews with the contractor's task manager, who was in charge of using the ICT program on the contractor's behalf. In furthermore, member observation throughout project conferences with the contractor and customer, as well as surveillance of actors' ICT behavior, were permitted, allowing for research of contractor as well as customer members. It is critical to emphasize the necessity of acquiring the actors' confidence as well as belief. The researcher had to make sure that neither the contractor nor the client believed that what they said would be relayed to the engineering firm.

As a consequence, the investigator devoted a significant amount of time at the outset of the study identifying himself to respondents as well as clarifying the privacy of the findings. Actors become accustomed to the investigator's existence in the fieldwork after a while. The scholar used a variety of strategies to collect data throughout the fieldwork study in command to improve the legitimacy of the found components.

First, he devoted the much of his time observing as well as chatting with participants casually. Observation of participants took place throughout the day and at meetings. To limit the scope of his effects on local practices, the researcher took a passive rather than aggressive role5. In addition, the researcher watched participants' ICT behavior in order to gain a better considerate of how performers interconnected and used technology. He attempted to comprehend 'what was going on' in terms of ICT usage. Second, to obtain participants' perspectives as well as comprehension, the researcher performed extensive informal as well as semi structured interviews.

The researcher attempted to perceive the world through the eyes of the participants. It could have not been easy to comprehend why performers acted the way they did without these views and comprehension. Eventually, the researcher went over all of the materials. Contract contracts lay out the rules for how persons should interact in writing. In additional, the researcher gathered as well as analyzed other papers like ICT application requirements, minutes of meetings, as well as correspondence exchanged between the engineering firm and the contractor. Documents supplied valuable qualitative data that could be compared to the respondents' comments and observations. To record his observations as well as thoughts, the researcher has taken comprehensive notes throughout all data collection tasks.

Strauss and Corbin's (1998) analytic coding processes were applied by the researcher; however, he did not carry out such procedures in order, but rather partly in parallel (ibid.). When doing the research, the researcher repeated. The processes are described in detail below. The researcher began by using open coding. He coded the data by going over his field notes line by line and categorizing it into concepts. These concepts reflected significant ideas discovered in the data. As quickly as the investigator had a few distinct ideas, he began to arrange them into more abstract analytic categories and subcategories, which he then specified.

These groups and subgroups had the probable to clarify and anticipate "what was going on." The qualities and measurements of the themes and subthemes were then designed by the researcher. Second, the researcher connected groups and subgroups to create a more detailed and comprehensive description of how performers employed interorganizational ICT in building projects.

The investigator wanted to know why, when, where, how, as well as what implications an actor had when he or she used ICT. To conclude, the researcher combined the major and subgroups into a bigger theoretical framework. He also double-checked the interior reason as well as steadiness, besides used theoretical sampling to fill in gaps in poorly established categories and subcategories. Data analysis happens concurrently with data gathering, which is a key feature of the grounded theory approach. Theoretical sampling is one of the most common based theory methodologies. Theoretical sampling, is "[d]ata grouping driven by principles derived from the emerging theory as well as based on the idea of'making comparability,' with the goal of going to places, individuals, or activities that will achieve maximum chance to explore different variants among basic ideas as well as to solidify categories in terms of properties as well as sizes. Data collection should end when theoretical saturation is reached. When coding, there should be no new information emerging at this stage. The investigator was sure that the project had reached capacity after 6 months of fieldwork research since the performers were applying the ICT tender at a close that was steady and not supposed to alteration.

There were no upcoming ideas being formed from the information at the time. After the fieldwork, the investigator spent several months going over the data and lettering down the story. The draft results were provided back to respondents in the field once the investigator completed his narration. This performed a number of functions. The performers could first consider the results. They claimed that the findings accurately matched their thoughts and feelings. Second, the actors could consider the outcomes' confidentially. Only one actor requested that a brief descriptive section of the story be kept private from the researcher. We will not offer the complete tale due to the sheer space constraints of this paper; instead, we will disclose the compressed outcomes.   

Objective 1: Challenges Facing Adoption of ICT in the Construction Industry

The use of ICT within the construction industry tends to be substantially low in comparison with automotive and aeroscope companies. The global construction companies still lie in the initial stages of ICT adoption and far much behind when compared to other industries. Numerous construction industries still rely on hand-operated approaches in the completion of communication including phones, email and faces among others. The resistance of users to the corporate various ICT applications still present a challenge in the construction industry.

In as much as numerous construction companies have made heavy investments and attempt drawing from the advantages of adoption of ICT, the benefits might be limited should just few individuals embrace and make use of ICT since the achievement of the demands of ICT calls for substantial number of adopters in gaining enough advantages of communication and information interchange. A firm might spend on practices pertaining to ICT even as the employees still achieve communication through paperwork and telephonic conversations. As such, the potential advantages of ICT communication might not be achieved adequately. The possible productivity gains are lost should the company work with electronic as well as hardcopy data.

As such, in as much as certain ICT projects might be technically completed, the expected benefits are not achieved. Unsuccessful adoption of ICT within the construction industry is very common. Shifting from paper-based to a fully automated settings calls for the users to adopt and quickly embrace ICT.

It is agreed by Walker and Peansupap that in as much as numerous construction industries attempt to achievement the employment benefits, such might be limited in case only few individuals use and embrace ICT as such would call for user approval. Users are likely to still think it is not possible despite full ICT approval, to electronically communicate with the co-workers bypassing ICT use. Hence, the industry might lose potential productivity rises by using automated and hardcopy data.

Jacobsson et al noted that the workers noted that more improvement practices related to ICT would promote the competitiveness of the company. Still, they did not make efforts of developing the ICT application. It was noted by Ding et al that the adoption process of BIM in china among the various architect professionals substantially differed. An effective BIM adoption strategy needs to be dependent up the critical factors affecting the purpose of use of BIM by the architect.

It was noted by Brewer and Gajendram that a temporary project organization members tends to be skeptical regarding the project ICT benefits and were reluctant to embrace and as such their subsequent conduct led to an overall ICT fragmentation state. Still, the researchers noted that differentiation leads to impaired business engagement. In as much as ICT adoption theoretical benefits have been illustrated, achieving such benefits have remained to be minimal in real practice. The critical challenges is noted in the aversion of user in adoption of ICT, since it’s the real users who finally adopt the ICT resources for optimization of the processes of work. The effect of the current economic decline in the recent past should be balanced by capital as well as organizational resources which in the end integrate a comprehensive optimization of the resources of ICT resulting in more enhanced for more limited results. Adoption activity by individuals has a substantial role to play in promoting adoption of ICT. Hence, the creation of a system for comprehension of the factors that influence adoption of ICT is important.

Virtual Connection Prior to Procurement

Among the most substantial aspirations within the construction industries has been within regard to constructing a building within a virtual environment prior to commencement of the construction process and even prior to commencement of the procurement process hence allowing a project’s constructability to be taken through tests. This was achieved between 2006 and 2007 when visual simulations were developed by researchers for the construction process using CATIA. Such an approach has allowed substantial savings to be achieved by contractors besides allowing testing of design solutions for their efficiency as well as viability. Such has been treated as a key step in the direction of challenges as well as forward the available evaluation approaches which are often locked into historical precedent which cannot be applied any longer.

Virtual prototyping refers to the use of simulation procedure in testing, evaluating as well as modifying prototypes within the virtual environment with an aim of obviating the need for physical models. In virtual prototyping, there is detailed analysis of CAD models for different end user applications including manufacturability as well as application of the results in the subsequent steps.

Virtual prototyping makes use of the simulation process in testing, evaluation as well as modification of designed prototypes derived from conceptual design in the modification of the final product. In the process of designing different phases of the construction, VP aids designers in visualization of various interactive results in modification of designs thereby allowing different tests to be performed in each and every phase of development of the product. IN addition, it helps managers in identification of risks in programme thereby enhancing economic competitiveness.  On the other hand, rapid prototyping refers to production of physical models though the use of computer models. In the final stages, rapid prototyping has been exploited in the designing process of existing models. Different prototyping technologies have been determined to various suitability as well as effectiveness in different steps of the design cycle with respect to their relevance in design and manufacture.

Building information modeling refers to a compute based database used in designing of building information and may contain building information on construction, management, operations as well as maintenance. nD model however refers to an extension of building information modeling that incorporate all design information that may be required at each and every stage in the life cycle of the process of construction. From the nD model database, various views may be accessed automatically. These views may correspond to conventional design documents which include plans, sections, elevations as well as schedules. The documents are obtained from the same database and as such they are normally well coordinated and accurate. In cases of any changes in the model, it will be reflected automatically into drawings thereby ensuring completeness as well as consistency of the set documentation.

nD derives its concepts from 2D, 3D as well as 4D dimensions. It has also been established that 3D modeling goes a long way to visualize the geometric dimensions of the model thereby replicating such physical attributes as color or texture. The visualization is normally a common feature in most design packages and helps in enabling simulation of reality in all the aspects or otherwise provides a medium of rehearsal in strategic planning. Integration of sequence of time within the visual environment with three dimensional geometric models results in production of a 4D model. And from the 4D model, it is possible to demonstrate the entire process involved in construction prior to its commencement.

4D models therefore assist stakeholders in defining any possible faults that may be made in the initial stages of the project. In addition, it enables prediction of the schedule of the entire process involved in construction. The method has received a lot of acceptance from different practitioners in the field. 4D models have been used in many different projects including Walt Disney Concert Hall Project in the University of Teeside’s among many other projects. nD modeling has also been established to be building on 4D modeling through the integration of nth number dimensional designs into a holistic model that is expected to allow its users to portray and visualize projects in the construction process to its completion.

Companies are progressively dispersing different engineering operations in supporting worldwide business in order to able to access global resources thereby enabling them to attain global efficiency. On top of this, global engineering need to work extra hard in order to cope up with changes as well as uncertainties, global competition alongside continually changing markets and technologies. Therefore, in evolving with the surrounding environment, different techniques of managing operations ought to be altered fundamentally. As a result of these issues, researcher have embarked on proposing integration of frameworks thereby presenting essential elements of global engineering networks (GENs) from perspectives of context, capability as well as configuration. By using three C frameworks, three patterns including efficient GEN, flexible as well as innovative GEN.

All the above mentioned techniques are just some of the specific methods that were introduced in the construction industry that have been built with capabilities of ICT. In a more specific way, literature review suggests that the most advantageous possible strategies in adoption of ICT within the construction industry thereby enhancing communication management as well as dissemination of information among various organizations, stakeholders as well as actors in the project.

Reporters and researchers have therefore recommended development of collaborative vitality in the construction process within the industry. This section of the research has therefore allocated a section which describes phenomenon of virtual teams within the construction industry. Virtual teams solely depends on ICT related technologies in fostering operations and the construction industry has taken some steps in promoting business as well as manufacturing processes  that use ICT. 

In comparison to those other industrial industries, building is a highly fragmented industry. Several people from various organizations must work together on a short term basis in building projects. Interorganizational communication is indeed critical in such projects in order to aid cooperation as well as coordination. Despite the importance of communication in construction manufacturing, the housing industry has significant communication challenges when it comes to providing information amongst stakeholders. Frequently the wastage of time besides cash is as a result of insufficient info and message (“deficient, unsuitable, imprecise, unpredictable, late or a combination of them all”).

The significance of communication amongst involved organizations is projected to grow even excess in the forthcoming. The growing complication of construction projects, for instance, as well as the requirement for speedier outcomes, would increase the pace of interorganizational communication. Furthermore, poor communication is considered as a major roadblock to more inventive, interconnected building projects. In the setting of building projects, the use of information as well as communication technology (ICT) might provide numerous advantages in terms of boosting interorganizational communication, collaboration, as well as coordination.

Interorganizational ICT is the term used in this study to describe ICT utilized for this purpose. Many businesses have begun to embrace as well as employ interorganizational ICT. Nevertheless, in building projects, the utilization of ICT crossways organizational borders is still restricted, and it is not as productive as well as useful as it could have been. Frequently, such applications provided little worth to construction projects as well as fell short of expectations.

The application of ICT among organizations in construction projects appears to be advantageous except under certain circumstances. Understanding these circumstances could lead to more predictable, effective, and efficient ICT use in the future. We can draw the following conclusions from previous research on the usage of inter-organizational ICT in construction projects. Some many scientists discuss these issues, obstacles, or difficulties which can be connected to the use of inter-organizational

Even though these studies contribute to a better knowledge of ICT usage, they do not clarify how and why such factors affect usage or how and why factors interact. Furthermore, most studies do not look at the changing dynamics of ICT use through time to clarify how and why specific outcomes are achieved. Second, investigations frequently focus on technological factors or economic implications of inter-organizational ICT use. The few case studies that look at actual ICT use do not give a comprehensive in-depth understanding of the process that influence how ICT is used in its social and inter-organizational context, and As a result, more research into the mechanisms that influence the usage of inter-organizational ICT in building projects is required. The present state of affairs, in which businesses are beginning to embrace as well as employ inter-organizational ICT, is not peculiar to the building projects. Over the last 25 years, organizations in different industries have substantially engaged in intra-organizational ICT and are gradually beginning to extend to inter-organizational ICT as fit. Cooperation, collaboration, as well as communication within two or more organizations could be promoted by allowing, more integrated working methods when inter-organizational ICT is used.

Nevertheless, inter-organizational ICT is usually underutilized in today's practice. ICT has frequently fallen short of expectations because technology has not been used as planned. The acceptance and use of inter-organizational ICT by potential users is one of the most significant requirements for its successful implementation. Understanding the factors that govern these elements is a critical first step toward increasing the worth of ICT and, ultimately, enlightening future inter-organizational cooperation, coordination, as well as communication.

“Influential models which were used in the information systems literature are - the Theory of Reasoned Action, the Technology Acceptance Model, the extended Technology Acceptance Model, the Motivational Model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour, a model combining the Technology Acceptance Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour, the Model of PC Utilisation, the Innovation Diffusion Theory, the Social Cognitive Theory, and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. “

As a result, during the last few decades, scientists have made tremendous progress in constructing replicas that might help anticipate ICT acceptance and use. Prevailing models, on the other hand, have been criticized for their weak explanatory power and inconsistent results across research in the major links between components. Quite a lot of important restrictions of previous studies are listed here.

The key methodological views utilized in research assessing the adoption and usage of ICT: quantitative as well as positivist views, are responsible for the majority of these problems. The present state of affairs, in which businesses are beginning to adopt and employ interorganizational ICT, is not peculiar to the construction sector. Over the last 25 years, organizations in different industries have substantially engaged in intraorganizational ICT and are gradually beginning to expand to interorganizational ICT too.

Cooperation, collaboration, as well as communication within two or more organizations can be promoted by allowing, more unified working methods when interorganizal ICT is used. Nevertheless, interorganizational ICT is usually underutilized in today's practice.

ICT has frequently fallen short of the expectations since technology has not been used as planned. The adoption and use of interorganizational ICT by potential users is one of the most significant requirements for its successful implementation. Understanding the factors that govern these elements is a critical first step toward increasing the value of ICT and, ultimately, enlightening future interorganizational teamwork, harmonization, as well as communication. Considerable study has been done on personal adoption as well as the application of ICT ever since 1970s.

Such investigations yielded a list of elements or circumstances that impacted these aspects. From the mid-1980s forward, efforts shifted to the creation and testing of models that could forecast ICT acceptance as well as use. The Theory of Reasoned Action, the Technology Acceptance Model, the Extended Technology Acceptance Model, the Motivational Model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour, a model joining the Technology Acceptance Model as well as the Theory of Planned Behaviour, the Model of PC Utilization, the Innovation Diffusion Theory, the Social Cognitive Theory, as well as the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology.

As a result, during the last few decades, scientists have made tremendous progress in constructing models that might help anticipate ICT acceptance and use. Existing models, on the other hand, have been criticized for their weak explanatory power and inconsistent results across research in the major links between components. Several important restrictions of previous studies are listed here. The central methodological views utilized in research assessing the acceptance and usage of ICT: quantitative and positivist viewpoints, are responsible for the majority of these problems.

Imbalance Between Demand and Supply Chain

The initial step that undertaken in commencement of the research project was to do an investigation as to why new Information Communication Technology is not as often used in majority of the construction companies. It was therefore established that there existed imbalance on the view of suppliers and consumers of the ICT technology in the construction sector. As such it was determined that in cases where suppliers were convinced that the tailor that had been proposed consisting of a line of software products, the consumers of such products showed little interest on the available software. It was therefore universally agreed that hundred percent consensus from both parties was necessary in order to ensure there was exclusive adoption of the available ICT tools.

It was established that the reason behind inadequate adoption of ICT technology in the construction sector was not only as a result of insufficient software but was also as a result of other regular factors that were regularly experience in the industry. Some of the common reasons that explained why people did not fully adopt the ICT technologies include the following:

  • High initial capital investment required to set up the new ICT technocrat
  • Amount of profit earned from the use of new technologies is not certain
  • The new technologies proved to be inflexible in their operations
  • It was difficult to predict on the uncertain economic situation
  • There were a lot of associated technical malfunctions in the use of new technologies
  • Difficulty in the integration of initially existing processes
  • Modern technologies are sometimes unreliable
  • There high cost of maintenance required for the modern technology machines
  • Modern technologies do not promote innovativeness
  • There is lack of feedback from the consumers
  • There is associated limited technical cycle associated with the use of innovative technologies
  • Majority of the modern technologies are not adequately acceptable to most employees 

There is Perceived Problems Experienced by Peer Groups

There were also a significant number of the respondents that stated their companies were adversely affected by adoption of new technologies as compared to others that stuck to the conventional methods of production. Most of the respondents which were approximately fifty five percent determined that their companies were using little of modern technologies whereas there competitors accounting for about sixty nine percent were using medium technology. It was however important to note that all respondents, suppliers as well as consumers of ICT all expressed the urgent urge to adopt the use of modern technologies of ICT solutions in the production processes in the near future.

Prior to determination of appropriate tools that are necessary for enhancing the use of ICT in construction, researchers invested a lot of time investigating on the most suitable technologies that could be used most often. A promising technology is one that is readily available, relatively affordable as well as being easy to handle. Here, affordability refers an ability to ensure there are returns on investment within the initial three years of implementation. This duration is practically short but it is the standard upon which most industries operate. So, the technologies that meet the aforementioned requirements include modeling technologies such as 2D-CAD, 3D-CAD as well as 4D-CAD. Document management systems together with modeling-based planning systems as well as estimating have been established to be part of this group of technologies. There are also such technologies as satellite enabled position models like GPS and Galileo. Integrated software like ERP systems popular known by its brand name ASAP has also been identified. Finally there are also data exchange systems such as project together with E-commerce all of which uses the internet.

The process of introducing innovative technologies are normally subdivided into five stages which include idealization, investigation, decision making, introduction as well as application into daily use in the industry.

Activities Reliant on Internet Availability

It should be visualized that Project web as well as E-commerce are solely reliant on internet are as such they are non-operation in the absence of stable internet coverage. On the other hand, document management is capable of operating in the absence of internet. However, inclusion of internet makes it more valuable. According to the interviewed respondents, it was established that mobile internet was the most promising innovative technology. This necessitated performing more in-depth studies of all the possibilities that may be offered by the use of mobile internet. It was also established that mobile internet could be used in a number of different activities within the industry which include:

  • Exchanging of drawings
  • Exchanging of building plans
  • Registration of time as well as spreading of worksheets
  • Identification of materials
  • Identification of equipment
  • Accessing different knowledge from experts
  • Registration of findings from inspection processes

In a report that was performed by Economic Institute for Building Industry, it was stated that more that ninety percent of construction companies were using internet by 2004. Those companies that were not exclusively using internet were barely small companies that recruited less five employees per company. Among the institutions that were using internet, majority of them used internet for only emailing purposes whereas eight percent of the companies had internet connections installed within the buildings. Also, about thirty percent of the companies were using internet for electronic commerce purposes to facilitate trade dealings. Twenty five percent of the companies used internet connectivity in facilitating communication with external parties who are involved in the process of construction. In the report, it was therefore concluded that application of internet in construction industry was growing at an alarming rate in the period between 1999 and 2004. However, it was observed that use of internet in industries was still lagging far below the expected capacity.

Another report by the Dutch, CPB, established that there was an initial positive profit margin in cases where internet coverage was adopted. However, lasting positive profit margin can only be realized by adjusting the work within any organization to suit the new technology.

The study presented herein describes an urban development that was located in a state capital that was initiated in an action taken by city council to vacate their premises. The developer whose design would be most the promising proposal in that particular design competition would then sell its right to a second developer. The second developer would then drive the drive to fruition.  In addition, the seconder developers would be expected to be co-tenants of the completed building alongside the city council. All through the construction process, various designers and construction teams have been employed, replaced and some were even withdrawn. Consultants have also been recruited by clients who then nominated to head the construction process. In addition, there was a project manager who was nominated to perform the supervisory role of liaising with developers, contractors and different clients. Similarly, the mechanism of performing the procurement process was modified to form a fixed optimum price in designing and construction process.

An architect was appointed for base building owing to the stiff completion that was evident. Every tenant was however appointed their own architects who were specialized in their different areas of specialization. A similar scenario was witnessed among specialist sub-contractors who were assigned different tenants. The head contractor was however was assigned the responsibility of initiating the construction management agreement.

This project also included creation of huge civic square that was being built from capital contributed by the government. The government was therefore performing the role of acting as tenant and financial stakeholder in the completed building. This kind of contract is very complex and is often prone to change. An initial relation that was only found here was that between city council and the in-house design group that eventually culminated in constructing of a building with public access areas such as libraries and customer care units. In addition, members of the design team stated that they had to get into several informal contracts in an effort to maximize their probability of being chosen into the project construction.

It is important to note that majority of parties who were involved with project construction had initially worked together in most of the previous projects. There was however only few reference points on pre-existing strategies for the mentioned relationships. In certain circumstances, the parties that participated in the construction did not have any absolute right to determine the other parties that were to be chosen in future projects. Their opinion was however very useful even though they were given informally. There was consistent attitude among all the participants thereby maintaining a positive relationship with all the project participants for the sake of good business sense. This was particularly useful among the specialist sub-contractors. Formation of these alliances, even though they are not intentional strategic motives, they have often proven to be useful in ensuring product positive experiences.

The impacts of information communication technology was not considerably high but was an important consideration to be made. More important factors that were put into consideration include pricing, design as well as expertise. Basic ICT expertise capabilities were highly relevant in this process. Majority of organizations outlined their readiness to equip their personnel with ICT infrastructure that was being used by other partners including CAD. For the sake of contracts, it was important to keep hardcopies for documents as well as emails communications that were not acceptable to other parties as a valid form of communication ad making of contract deals. The head contractor however insisted the organization had undertaken all the appropriate measures necessary for reducing paperwork and that the only form of communication accepted was the use of e mails. A project platform was also established in which participants had different levels access rights to communicated information in an effort to reduce paper trail. Accounting procedures and pricing had also been updated to have an electronic format in the developer’s organization. The changes resulted in reduced paperwork within the project.

Some of the major barriers that have been established to be hindering application of ICT in supply chain include legal ramification of electronic communications, lack of proper understanding among security capabilities, ownership of intellectual items as well as capturing or management of skills gained from project implementation. In addition, issues such as trust and organization of ICT system in the supply chain have been identified.

Majority of the respondents noted that they were very certain that electronic communication was a valid form of communication especially in matters to do with exchange of documents. Ownership of patent rights was also noted to be a barrier to electronic communication. For example, documents in the form of PDF could be exchanged but there were not editing capacities without contacting the relevant partisans. So, the matters of offering adequate security to intellectual property as well as risks were important considerations to be made on electronic communication systems. Therefore, respondents were fully aware that adoption of electronic communication could open a way of editing received documents and signing them off without having to consult the original publisher. Trust and control solely remained the factors that were in support retaining written communications.

As there was continuous flow of documents, different respondents noted increasing difficulty in keeping up to date with various project details particularly in areas where they were working in more than one project at the same time. Adoption of ICT prioritized on electronic storage of documents as well as coding processes. Additional barrier to electronic communication was identified as lack of urgency in responding to communications especially emails. It was interesting enough when one of the respondents observed that email communications were used subversively in deliberately slowing down the supply chain system activities through the introduction of noise as well as unnecessary communication traffic among the relevant parties.

Some organizations had lesser technological capacities which hindered electronic communication. The bandwidth as well as server sizes were so small that could not be able to handle the degree of usage that the employees were expected to achieve. It was even much harder to facilitate communication between different companies owing to the minute technological capacity of the company.

Most companies regarded ICT as a future dream come true in which ICT would be exclusively used in facilitating supply chain thereby becoming a reality that is advantageous in most construction projects. This was particularly expected to be seen in exchange of documents. It was expected that with adoption of ICT in the future, there would be a rapid revolution on the way documents would be completed, speed as well as efficiency with which activities were completed. Investing in ICT was also seen as software that would ultimately model the activities of the companies.

Majority of the respondents were people who had invested in the use of ICT in their web based projects and therefore noted that they were a feasible means of communication. 

Conclusion & Recommendation

Mandate using interorganisational ICT within the settlement: mandating the use of ICT closer to a contractor offers clarity approximately the use of ICT. Mandating ICT isn't perceived as some issue terrible. From the observations it follows that a few contractors do recognize using interorganisationalnICT, others do not. The agreement is an important steering medium and presents a guard and a normative context for ICT use all through the challenge.

Be clear with contractors within the tendering segment approximately the important investments: if contractors have now not blanketed the prices of putting in and the use of interorganisational ICT, this may bring about resistance if they are faced with more prices after the settlement is offered. Therefore, being clean gets rid of this resistance and encourages (or steers) contractors to position cash apart for developing, imposing and using interorganisational ICT.

Mandate sports activities to rationalise the lifeworld of agencies involved inside the agreement: the contract can be used to steer companies in the direction of rationalisation of lifeworld. To accumulate the blessings of interorganisational ICT, taking part organisations need to align their running practices and to personalize interorganisational ICT to ones practices. Time desires to be placed apart to conduct the ones activities. For example, an ICT begin-up may be mandated within the settlement to facilitate coordination amongst taking element agencies and to set up interorganisational ICT.

Educate collaborating establishments and actors approximately the blessings of interorganisational ICT: due to fact the life worlds are not rationalised closer to interorganisational ICT but, actors are regularly not aware about its capacity advantages, which leads to resistance to its use. Educating taking component organisations approximately interorganisational ICT, how this ICT can be used, the ability advantages and downsides, and answers tose, reduces distorted perceptions approximately interorganisational ICT.

Facilitate the rationalisation of lifeworld: within the subject studies interorganisational ICT is new to actors involved. Because ofir limited know-how approximately interorganisational ICT, and the restricted shared heritage information (i.E., lifeworlds) of actors concerned, actors face problems ofir communicative acts and, therefore, in accomplishing information. In our vicinity research this restrained the rationalisation of lifeworld and resulted once in a while in beside the point decisions being made and resistance to using ICT. Rationalisation of lifeworld need to be facilitated to avoid or reduce those problems. For example, experienced actors must facilitate the rationalisation approach. However, in this example, skilled actors need to facilitate communicative motion and not restrict communicative motion through making claims of authority

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