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Report need to be written in a way that will work for any construction project. 

(1) Activity Sampling – Productivity Rating. Decide the number of observations needed, and define your observations. Use the three categories of effective, essential contributory and ineffective work. Calculate the labor utilization factor.

(2) Rrating of any construction activity (crew).

(3) Crew balance of a repetitive construction operation. You may use the same operation in 1 or 2 or use a different one.

(4) Flow diagram and Process Chart of a repetitive construction operation. You may use the same operation in 2 or 3 above or a different one.

(5) Productivity improvement recommendations. Include your approach on how to improve methods and safety. This will require the preparation of a second set of crew balance chart, flow diagram, and process chart for the improved methods.

(6) Observation on factors affecting productivity. Select 3 factors affecting productivity and assess how they affect productivity performance for the project by interviewing with the project managers, foremen, or workers.

Study methodology

Productivity usually denotes the output rates of construction and is numerically expressed as money or functional units. Labor productivity is usually associated to production of units per labor hour for example area of concrete placed per unit time. However, labor productivity is currently measured using determination of constructional value per labor hours in expressed in US$. Criteria to achieve a highly efficient productivity is to have a labor providing a duty of 45 hours a week, engineering drawings and designs are accurate, project management has been done properly with sufficient risk management and personnel associated to projects take planned and scheduled leaves.

Measuring productivity growth within construction industry is a challenging option and primary reasons for productivity trend decrease due to inappropriate method for calculating the productivity trends as well as weakness and negativity due to numerous industrial issues. Unavailability of resources is another challenging issue that causes retardation of production in construction industries. Finally, environmental regulations also cause to retard productivity within construction industries due to policies and framework formed that cannot be followed by average construction industries.

The current report evaluates the overall productivity of Los Angeles k-12 School/community Colleges – Bond and assesses the factors, which are responsible for labor productivity in construction projects. The primary focus of this report is to conduct a study on construction tasks, masonry construction, concreting, flooring, slab construction, piling, finish etc. and provide recommendations to improve the productivity.

For conducting the study as per research methodology, it was ensured that data collection was not carried out more than once on a same day. The collected data was also ensured to be collected not on the same time more than once although majority of the sites were considered for data collection during both day and afternoon. It was kept in mind to collect data only excluding half an hour after or before working day start and end as well as breaks for lunch. Different locations of Los Angeles k-12 School/community Colleges – Bond were accessed for data collection techniques but not obtaining same track. Labors were categorized into highly skilled, skilled, normal, ineffective, poorly skilled. The total labor personnel for survey were 303 in Los Angeles k-12 School/community Colleges – Bond.

Five-minute rating technique applied for the research involved reviewing jobsite for the crew of labors having huge number of process like laying lines of string, brick cutting, cutting and measuring insulations, placing of grout, mixing grout, laying bricks, placing concrete and mixing concrete. Recording were done for the crew over ten minutes and the recording was reviewed over an interval of 15 seconds for determination of labors working during that particular time. For considering a labor to be working, labors were supposed to work for half of the time.

Research Onion

First assumption was that confidence limit of labors are 95% that is highly acceptable in construction industries.

Second assumption was that error in study is limited to 5%.

Categorical proportion of the research is assumed to be numerically equal to the summation of effective observations and contributory observant over total observations and is equal to 50%

The N is taken to be numerically equal to k2[p(1-p)]/s2, where N = 306 during k = 1.96, p= 0.50 and S = 0.05

K is the number of standard deviations that varies with level of confidence desired. S is the limit of errors, which varied with the desired confidence level. P is the category proportion that is defined as workers who are classified according to working state and n is the total number of samples that provides a margin of errors captured for true parameter of population.

Sample sizes that are required for 95% of the confidence limits

Sample sizes that is required for 95% of the confidence limits

Percentage of category proportion

1

3

5

7

10

Percentage of category proportion

1

3

5

7

10

50

9685

1055

306

190

99

50

6763

751

270

138

69

45

9216

1025

300

184

96

45

6492

721

260

132

65

40

8070

900

298

175

86

40

5681

631

227

116

57

35

6150

690

275

155

63

35

4328

481

137

88

48

30

3460

400

150

88

54

30

2435

271

97

50

46

25

380

52

16

8

4

25

268

30

11

5

35

20

290

42

11

7

3

20

250

15

10

4

33

15

250

33

10

6

2

15

244

7

9

3

32

10

200

22

9

5

2

10

236

6

8

2

29

5

150

15

8

3

1

5

222

5

7

1

25

1

100

10

5

1

1

1

210

4

6

1

15


Table 1: Selection of sample size

(Source: Atomen, 2015)

Shown section gives direction to acquire that comes about because of data gathered by the researcher. Through this part, researcher can choose legitimately the required devices and systems that give appropriate approach toward planned outcome.

The potential structure that can be utilized by researcher to acquire result is through utilization of research onion. This graphical portrayal is vital for picking the right theory alongside different segments of research, for example, approach and plan for research.

Figure 1: Research Onion

(Source: Saunders et al. 2009, p.52)

It gives similarity onion as each layer speaks to various strides of investigating data. It helps in recognizing entire procedure of using information through methods for configuration, approach and reasoning of research.

It spins around creating intelligent thinking identified with getting result from gathered information. It gives data about the kind of supposition that was made by analyst amid conduction of research. In this review, there are existing speculations, which are being tried by the analyst through this review. It is additionally found that current hypotheses can boom, as researcher has considered post-positivism as the appropriate logic. There are four sorts of rationality that can be considered by analyst at the season of directing review, which are post-positivism, interpretivism alongside positivism and authenticity.

Figure 2: Types of Research Philosophy

(Source: Ball, 2014)

The theory taken for this examination is post-positivism as it give presumption to consider all hypotheses and different suspicions identified with research as frail in nature and subsequently it result in era of result thinking about the distinction in count of result by various researchers. Through this logic, analyst can legitimize the error prone nature of speculations, as there is distinction during the time spent performing tests and achieving conclusion by researchers and researcher. In this review, positivism is not considered as it keeps hypotheses as center point and in this manner thinks of them as dependable in nature.

Research can be drawn closer through either deductive way or utilizing inductive way. In the event that researcher is keen on testing a current hypothesis it can be performed by utilization of deductive approach while if researcher is intrigued to build up another hypothesis, analyst can utilize inductive approach. Through utilization of deductive approach, researcher can acquire a theory with respect to the point.

Figure 3: Research Approach

(Source: Ball, 2014)

In this review analyst has picked deductive approach as it aides in clarification of the connections among the diverse factors identified with the review. Through this approach, researcher can control the circumstance for testing of the theory grew beforehand.

Research Philosophy

Despite what might be expected, inductive approach is identified with advancement of another hypothesis that lives on the data gathered by researcher. Subsequently, this approach is not unbending to the clarification acquired and can exhibit numerous clarifications for a solitary perception.

The summed up format that can be gotten by the researcher for introducing study is through utilization of research outline. Researcher can make a coherent approach toward the outcome by co-coordinating diverse parts of research through utilization of research plan. Distinctive outlines that can be connected in study are enlightening plan, exploratory plan or informative plan.

Figure 4: Research Design

(Source: Ball, 2014)

The researcher utilizes illustrative plan to get result from sources as it aides in mentioning objective fact from sources in a regular habitat and hence does not present misshaped result. This type of configuration is likewise required for acquiring comes about because of substantial gathering of information by researcher. As the study that is directed by researcher will have quantitative examination, it is required unmistakable plan is utilized as a part of this review for finishing the investigation of gathered information in lesser time. Researcher can distinguish the distinctive issues with respect to which there is necessity of directing examination. Through utilization of this outline, proposal can be made more centered around issue of research.

In any case, if exploratory plan was utilized it would oblige researcher to overlook all reviews that were directed on this field before. As researcher has not extensive traverse of time, it is not reasonable for playing out the review utilizing this outline. Such outline can likewise give no appropriate conclusion at end of the examination and subsequently analyst has picked distinct plan to acquire legitimate conclusion.

Construction that has been used for the project includes Los Angeles k-12 School/community Colleges – Bond. Research methodology for the current study follows a post-positivism paradigm, which is adopted as it provides the opportunity to test each theories and models with proper justification and helps the researcher to critically evaluate the overall productivity of Los Angeles k-12 School/community Colleges – Bond. Quantitative research has been carried out using primary research that includes surveys conducted on labors of Los Angeles k-12 School/community Colleges – Bond. The sample size taken for the research was taken to be about 306 that is total 306 labors were surveyed and collected data from. Equal observational focuses were given to each worker and there was no conduction of any sort of relationships to be done sequentially. A consistent work situation characteristic has been maintained. A deductive research approach has been selected as deductive approaches enable the researcher to start the research from a more generalized approach and comes to a good conclusion. However, inductive approach has not been selected as it is unsuitable and makes the research flow from a specific subject to a much broader and generalized topic.

Research Approach

Figure 2: Flow diagram of a repetitive construction process

(Source: Created by the author)

The information gathering strategy utilized by the researcher is both subjective and quantitative in nature. The data gathered from sources is quantitative to acquire the sign in regards to the outcome while legitimate quality answers assists in recognizing and relating with present idea on that theme. The hotspots for quantitative examination are site engineers at development site. Subjective information is likewise utilized for this review as it aides in making research even closer to the idea identified with the theme.

The quantitative information is gathered through accumulation of numerical assumes that are produced and identified with the utilization of eco-accommodating material in development of venture. Through utilization of overview poll, researcher can acquire reactions. Nevertheless, quantitative information stays questionable and give just sign with respect to the theme. Since, it helps in distinguishing the demonstrative outcomes; it helps in checking the result of theme. While utilizing the subjective technique, distinctive reasons identified with event of that result is acquired.

The data got by researcher can be from essential sources, auxiliary sources or both sources. On the off chance, that the analyst picks overview and meeting for getting data then information source is essential in nature while if the review depends on data gathered from written works and diaries then hotspot for acquiring data is optional in nature.

In this review, researcher utilizes overview survey for social event data and in this manner utilizes essential sources. Essential sources helps researcher to acquire data, which is refreshed and pertinent amid the season of directing review. It is additionally found that if researcher had picked auxiliary hotspots for obtaining data then there stayed shot of information gathered being out of date and hence unimportant for study as the vast majority of the information is available in diaries, books and articles.

The example choice for the accumulation of information can be through utilization of likelihood testing or non-likelihood examining. Nevertheless, much of the time both sorts of testing can be utilized. Through likelihood testing, an appropriate specimen size can be chosen while non-likelihood examining permits researcher to choose data in a way that gives choice of test in view of a particular criteria.

In this review, both likelihood and non-likelihood inspecting are utilized. The information is gathered by methods for non-likelihood examining as sources chose are relying upon their position and duties. In this review, 3-development administrator is picked in view of their association, which is Bam Construct UK, Balfour Beatty and Laing O'Rouke. The information is gathered through likelihood testing as it permits to arbitrarily assembling data and hence lessening odds of getting one-sided result. For this review, 20 site architects are chosen to get information.

Research Design

The researcher utilizes poll in review identified with get data required in quantitative investigation. Researcher utilized survey, which was given to the respondent, would be furnished with Likert Scale to make them close-finished inquiries. Utilizing distinctive measurable formulae, similar to mean, middle and mode it was feasible for the analyst to pick up a reasonable thought in regards to the examination theme.

For subjective research, analyst to get top to bottom responses to point conducts organized meeting. Such answers help in making the way toward acquiring the data much exact with respect to the point issues. It helps in distinguishing the reasons related with event of huge issues in theme.

Researcher tries to keep up all morals that are identified with conduction of research, for example, keeping personality of the respondents uncertain and consequently, diminishing the possibility of ID of respondents. Amid research, all controls identified with Data Protection Act, 1998 are taken after. Amid the development of inquiries no one-sided conclusion were utilized.

Ebb and flow part concentrates on the utilization of various strategies for getting the outcome from the information gathered by analyst. For this section, researcher has chosen clear plan alongside subjective and quantitative information accumulation technique.

The researcher attempted to direct the examination inside stipulated date and in this way confronted deficiency of time. What's more, deficiency of spending plan likewise assumed imperative part in diminishing the capacity of study.

Q1. How far do you trust that workmanship skill have impact over productivity?

Options

Number of Participants

Percentage of Participants

Total number of participants

Strongly Agreed

7

35%

20

Agreed

5

25%

20

Neutral

1

5%

20

Disagree

3

15%

20

Strongly Disagreed

4

20%

20

From the above data, it is watched that 60% of respondent concurred that workmanship skills have impact over the productivity as because of use of items that can generally make risk condition. They additionally expressed that it helps in lessening the vitality expended for advancement of a solitary venture and consequently exceedingly valuable to diminish the vitality required in any venture. Just 5% of respondent stayed nonpartisan. On other hand, 35% of respondents trust that eco-accommodating materials were not helpful to keep the productivity. As the mean esteem is 2.6, it can be watched that dominant part of the respondent concurs with feeling that eco-accommodating material can affect the productivity.

Time

Spreader

Screeder

Grader

Bull-floater

9:50

x

x

x

9:55

x

x

x

10:00

x

10:05

x

x

x

x

10:10

x

x

10:15

x

x

x

10:20

x

x

x

x

10:25

x

x

Effective observations

6

6

5

5

Total observations

32

Total effectiveness

22/32

Effective observations

22

5 minute rating

68%

Table 2: 5 minutes rating of the construction activity

(Source: Created by the author)

Cycle %

Crane

Description

Bull float

Vibrator

Worker

Spreader

3.5

Bucket ready

34

Working

9

Idle

20

Work

34

Wait

16

Filling bucket

38

Idle

26

Work

15

Idle

16

Work

2.5

Idle bucket

28

Working

25

Idle

20

Work

33

Wait

8

Moving bucket

25

Work

15

Idle

17

Work

10

Concrete pouring

15

Idle

12

Work

10

Moving bucket

18

Idle

3.5

Finish filling bucket

16

Filling bucket with concrete

Effectiveness

Total working time (%) / Total cycle time

2.5

Bucket on floor

8

Move bucket to floor

10

Concrete pouring

10

Move bucket for pouring concrete

Table 3: Crew balance of the repetitive construction process

(Source: Created by the author)

Conclusion and recommendation

This study has given confirmation that utilizing eco-accommodating materials are particularly viable and effectively affects condition. Eco-accommodating building materials are especially fundamental in cost decrease, as these materials are inexhaustible and vitality effective. Eco-accommodating building materials are additionally effortlessly accessible, require less cost of transportation as it is plentifully accessible in practically every geographic districts, and can be utilized as a part of developments at remote areas where traditional building materials are unrealistic for transportation. Most importantly, labor productivity can be increased through incentives and proper training.

Here are the absolute most perceived elements influencing work efficiency in the productivity of construction:

  1. Extra minutes

Planning of amplified days of work or weeks surpassing a eight-hour of standard days of work or a total work week of 40 hour brings down yield of work and effectiveness through poor mental mind state and weariness of the physique.

  1. Spirit and Attitude

Labors of soul in context readiness, certainty, train, and brightness to perform work or, on the other assignments is usually brought due down to an assortment of issues, including clashes expanded, debate, extreme dangers, added minutes, over-review, different change of contract, interruption of work musicality, poor conditions of site, non-appearance, unkempt workspace, et cetera.

  1. Weariness

Weariness is usually brought on drawing out or uncommon efforts physically.

  1. Stacking of Trades

It usually happens during physically occurring of operations restricted different space temporary workers, bringing about blockage of work force, failure in utilization or finding devices of advantage, expanded loss of devices, additional security perils, increment guests as well as avoidance of ideal size of groups.

  1. Joint Occupancy

This usually occurs during proper planning of work using a similar office or work territory that must be possessed or shared by more than a unitary art, and not expected in the first plan of offer.

  1. Helpful Occupancy

This happens because of working for overtimes and in closeness of various specialties, faculties of proprietors and creation of hardware. All these issues brings restrictions commonly having a tidy or different dangerous hazards that likely causes or avoids limitations.

  1. Simultaneous Operations

This happens as the impact in addition of operational succession that has been arranged currently without having any controlled execution and continuous operations additionally.

  1. Non-attendance and Turnover

Numerous lost cases of time and cash related with large turnover as well as non-attendance on ventures. Development extends in particular domains having low labor and work appeal wills typically having larger impacts than others do. Extraordinary conditions for climate (for example, outrageous warmth or icy) will likewise expand truancy and turnover. Other substitution laborers are generally not well known with the territory or work, and require laborers having high experiences to stop work and demonstrate to them regarding their tasks. The effect is approximated to four days of lost work for every laborer.

  1. Assemble/Demobilize

Identifications of moving assets as well as getting off to ventures therefore from changes or delays, brings work disturbances. Profitability may drop among such periods, as time is lost when groups starts moving along a range of task or work assigned to them one after the other.

  1. Mistakes and Omissions

Increments in mistakes and exclusions affect on work profitability since changes are then more often than not performed on a crash premise, out of grouping, cause supervision weakening, or whatever other impacts causes the negativity.

  1. Begin/Stop

This outcomes due to stoppage of work or work suspension brings about a break in the plan, as a rule setting off a begin/stop of work action. Stop-begins can affect efficiency and cost of a venture. Work booked or reassigned amid occasions, for example, Thanksgiving, Christmas, New Year's, et cetera are regularly affected with stop-begins. Researchers have a tendency to talk about the time lost and off past energy with a tinge in efficiency before they back up in schedule.

  1. Man power reassignment

During point of no return, researchers helps in reassignment which are encountered during inordinate changes or startling of misfortunes that is brought by proceed off or getting onward in different forms of reorientations as well as profitability lost in various outcome issues.

  1. Late Crew Build-up

This is brought on when the arranged venture labor stacking is adjusted and causes labor stacking to develop slower than arranged because of accessibility, lack of assets, or rivalry from assets. Effects can be in overabundance of 10 percent.

  1. Team Size Inefficiency

This is the point at which the ideal team size is modified by including or erasing group individuals. Whenever researchers are included or erased from a group, it separates the first collaboration, beat of the team, and brings about loss of efficiency.

  1. Site Access

The consequences of obstructions to the advantageous as well as arranged work access territories are very severe. This could be because of stairway blockage, streets, walkways, deficient lifts of man, or work congested locales.

  1. Coordination

Inadequate or poor material taking care of, outfitted proprietor materials, acquirement rehearses, or a need controlling that can bring in conveyance and obtainment issues as well as other different numerous issues. This then anticipates, delays, or hampers manual work process of materials to a territory of work, distribution center, or yard lay down. It is usually an outcome from substitutions of extra and material substitution due to changes of agreement, deserts, or postponements at the work site.

  1. Security Check

Laborers entering or leaving the zone could bring this about, or due to "brassing" out and in, tool stash checks, transport of work to secure region, et cetera.

  1. Expectation to absorb information

At the point when team turnover makes new researchers be added to a group or extra labor is required inside a group, a time of introduction happens keeping in mind the end goal to get comfortable with changed conditions. They should then learn work scope, instrument areas, work systems, et cetera.

  1. Gradually expanding influence

This is brought about when changes in other exchanges' work then influences other work, for example, the adjustment of calendar.

  1. Restricted Space

At the point when working in a restricted space having constraints on departure and ventilation, which can bring about useless work to give opening watch, alongside different issues. Time is likewise lost while getting to furthermore, from the work territory.

  1. Unsafe Area of Work

It is usually created while working in a territory, which is usually, delegated unsafe, requiring extraordinary security attire as well as gear. Constrain time might be confined to presentation of researchers regarding the range, coming about in lesser time than instrumental range.

  1. Weakening of Supervision

It usually occurs due to occupation of supervision from gainful, booked and arranged to work, arrange and dissect changes of contracts, speeding materials, which has been postponed as well as groups of overseas, or other changes not included in the previous work degree and timetable. Bringing of additional work is weakened by an expansion in labor, territories of work, or estimation of ventures without an expansion in supervision.

  1. Occasions

In the event that researchers deal with occasions, cost of calculation for occasion pay, besides typically a loss of efficiency also. It is usually tended as a resolving calculation since laborers are far from their families and works as opposed by appreciating the occasions, or it is usually figured independently. Either route, there are generally an efficiency misfortune for consideration.

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