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COIT12202 Network Security Concepts

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  • Course Code: COIT12202
  • University: Central Queensland University
  • Country: Australia



Network address translation (NAT) is a method to remap one IP address space into another space by modifying network address information in Internet Protocol datagram packet headers while in transit across a traffic routing device.

Please complete the following tasks/question:

  • Use an example to illustrate how packets are sent and received by using NAT technology;
  • Explain why NAT technology can provide a degree of security;

One purpose of using NAT/PAT (Port Address Translation) is to save IP addresses. IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses, instead of the meagre 32-bit IPv4 addresses. Does that mean that IPV6 will eliminate NAT/PAT?


Using Wireshark, your task is to capture an interaction between the client (your home computer) and the CQU Webfuse webserver. In doing so, attempt to retrieve the following web page:[YourStudentNumber].html

where YourStudentNumber needs to be replaced by your actual student number. Please use your student number only.  No other page name should be used.

Use the appropriate filters in Wireshark to capture only DNS and HTTP traffic.

Figure 1 shows an example of a webpage you have to capture where YourStudentNumber is replaced by the name “s123456”:

The pcap of this web page captured with the appropriate DNS and HTTP filters is shown in Figure 2:

Figure 2 PCAP of Webpage with DNS and HTTP filters

To reproduce a capture similar to Figure 2, you may need to research how to:

  • Flush the DNS resolver cache of your client
  • Flush the cache of your web browser; and
  • Make sure Wireshark is running with the appropriate DNS and HTTP filters before requesting the webpage from the Webfuse webserver.


  1. Capture and Submit the PCAP file of the interaction
  2. Identify the following three sections in the PCAP:
  • DNS domain name resolution
  • The three-way handshaking for connection establishment;
  • Connection termination

For each of the sections, list the frames/packets associated with the section and highlight the section with a red ellipse in the screenshot.

2. For the three sections identified in b), explain each of the packet components in a similar way done in the Packet Capture Exercise 3. You do not have to explain all the captured frames, only the relevant frames. You may have to copy the information from the PCAP and paste it in the relevant fields of the table.

Like in part b), identify the frame number that encapsulates the retrieved webpage (html code). You also need to circle in red the paragraph with the message “The requested URL /YourStudentNumber.html was not found on this server”. You need to explain how you found both the retrieved webpage and the paragraph.


Cisco IOS (Internetworking Operating System) allows both standard and extended IP access lists as follows:

  • Standard access listsare numbered 1-99 and filter based only on source IP.
    • access-list <1-99> <permit|deny> <source IP> <source wildcard>
    • Example:  This access list denies packets from host IP but allows packets from any other host that starts with 139.78.5

access-list 5 deny
access-list 5 permit 

  • Extended access lists are numbered 100-199 and filter based on source, destination, protocol, and port:
    • access-list <100-199> <permit|deny> <tcp|udp|icmp> <source IP> <source wildcard> <destination IP> <destination wildcard> eq<port>

    • ‘eq’ stands for ‘equal to’ (meaning port number equal to)

    • Example: This extended access list discards packets from any host with an IP starting with 128.1 trying to send to the SMTP port (25).

access-list 105 deny tcp eq 25

Note the source/destination IP address wildcard format (it is the opposite of the IP address usual subnet mask format):

  • Example: To represent all IP addresses that start with 139.78.5:
    IP =        WILDCARD=

  • Example: To represent all IP addresses that start with 128.1:
    IP =        WILDCARD=

  • Example: To represent any address:
    IP =        WILDCARD=

  • Example: To represent a single address (
    IP =        WILDCARD= (check all bits)

If you want to place additional restrictions or admissions in the same access list, you just need to add lines in the same format above with the same list number. Access list items are processed in the order they appear in the list from top to bottom and any packet that does not match a list entry is discarded (there is effectively a hidden ‘deny all’ rule at the end of the access list).

To complete this exercise:

Create an Access Control List that will prevent hosts in the network range of to  

Create a Cisco IOS extended IP access list that allows any host to access a web server  (HTTP protocol over TLS/SSL) on TCP port 443 whose IP address is

Create a Cisco IOS extended IP access list that allows any host to access the internal

SMTP server at (TCP port 25), and the DNS servers at 138.77. 232.10 (TCP and UDP port 53).

For this assessment item, you should submit the standard and extended access lists that you create for the exercise (these do not need to be implemented on an actual router). For further information on Cisco ACLs see:


It is well known that, the wireless signal of a Wi-Fi network is not confined to a cable as in a traditional network but instead is broadcast through the air. Recently, public Wi-Fi hotspots can be found everywhere, such as airports, hotels and coffee shops. Users can log onto the Internet with their mobile device. Along with convenience, public Wi-Fi hotspots can also provide an easy way for some attackers, like identity thieves and cybercriminals, to attack the wireless network or the users.

Complete the following tasks:

  1. Please state two kinds of attacks that may occur in public Wi-Fi networks;

  2. Provide at least two effective ways for users to address the security issues when they access public Wi-Fi on their computer or mobile device;

  3. Visit, then discuss how the protected Wi-Fi networks with WPA2 may be hacked by using a method named KRACK (You could summarise the attack details and point out key steps or effectiveness of this attack).
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