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Review low/zero-carbon design technology under the aspects of,

1) selection of low carbon construction materials,

2) innovative construction process,

3) management of operative energy consumption and consumption behaviour,

4) choice of renewable energy systems,

5) recycle and reuse.

  1. YH Details (5 %)

Provide the details of YH under the following aspects,

  • Detail your developed/provided house model (YH) in terms of its location, building type, floor plan and its surroundings
  • Report the construction materials and elements used in YH
  • Describe the construction process for YH
  • Detail heating/cooling, hot water, and appliances of YH

Note: Estimation of an amount of construction materials and relevant carbon emissions is NOT required in this section, but should be done in section 4.

  1. RH Details (10 %)

Provide the details of ‘Redesigned Home (RH)’ that you have proposed to meet ‘net-zero-energy’ under the following aspects

  • Your selection of construction materials for RH with minimum embodied carbon emissions
  • Your selection of construction materials for RH, which require less maintenance/replacement (durable) over its service life
  • Your approach to reuse and recycle construction materials for RH
  • Your selection of construction process that has less carbon emissions for RH
  • Your energy management design to reduce energy consumption for heating/cooling,
  • Your energy management design to reduce energy consumption for hot water, and appliances
  • Your selection of on-site renewable energy (design details should be used in section 5)

Estimate the annual and total energy and carbon emission over the service life of YH and RH.

  • Estimate embodied energy (EE) and emission of YH and RH

– Estimate embodied energy and embodied carbon (EC) emission related to the construction of YH and RH

– Estimate energy and carbon emission related to maintenance (e.g. replacement of building structures or elements over the service life of YH and RH)

– Estimate energy and carbon emission from wastes of YH and RH.

Note: ICE Table included in your ‘learning materials’ in Blackboard could be used for the assessment of embodied carbon, but be aware of its limitations.

  • Estimate operating carbon emission in relation to the daily usage for hot water, and all appliances of YH and RH.

Note: Daily usage could be estimated based on the hours of usage of each appliance.

  • Estimate operating carbon emission in relation to the daily usage for heating and cooling of YH and RH.

– Use EnergyPlus software to simulate your building models (YH & RH) to determine the annual energy consumption for heating/cooling

– Estimate energy consumption and corresponding carbon emission for heating and cooling Note: Use screenshots of EnergyPlus window to report the inputs, analysis and outputs of EnergyPlus simulation

  • Summarise and compare the changes (reduction/increase percentage) in energy and carbon emissions as a result of redesign on the aspect of material consumption, maintenance, operation and wastes as well as their total.
  1. Use HOMER to design on-site renewable energy supply to achieve ‘net-zero-energy’ over the service life of RH (e.g. 40 years) (20 %)
  • Develop and describe HOMER Model by using the design option described in section 3 for yourrenewable energy system of RH.
  • Provide the details of the inputs of climate, daily energy consumption and parameters of your renewable systems for HOMER (You may report the screenshots of Homer window).
  • Provide the details of cost information including grid electricity cost, renewable system cost, buyback price of renewable energy, and discount rate (4%).
  • Detail and explain HOMER outputs of your design.
  • Evaluate the “net-zero-energy” criteria for the life cycle of the RH.

Discuss the feasibility and challenges of implementing RH, and the ways to overcome the challenges

Selection of Low Carbon Construction Materials

Sustainability has always been defined as an attempt of trying to meet our current needs without affecting the future generations’ ability in meeting their needs as well. It also entails preserving resources and as well as the environment from harmful human activities. The current generation should therefore embrace sustainability to stop rendering other coming generations incapable of satisfying their wants from the available natural resources. Construction of a sustainable home with net zero energy is one of the approaches that has been encouraged as it uses energy amounts that are approximately equal to the amount of energy (renewable) created on the same site.

Such homes with net zero energy are constructed by creating a smart design that has a super seal depending on the climate, (Leckner). Some climates can dictate for the use of insulation envelopes on ceilings as well as on the walls. Heating of water is also done wisely by using efficient water heating technology like using the solar energy instead of using electricity. Minimizing of energy consumption as also an important feature in ensuring construction of zero energy homes. Energy consumption can be minimized by using energy efficient appliances and electronics.

Construction of homes with net zero energy has promoted sustainability, (Hernandez, 2010). According to statistical research, this is the effect of ignoring net zero energy technology; in Australia alone,

  • Domestic homes emit 23% of carbon while other non-domestic practices emit 13%. 68% of the domestic carbon is a result of space heating as well as heating of water.
  • Demolition of old buildings and debris and emissions from construction sites account for 33%. However, such big percentage can be reduced since much of the material (16%) can be recycled instead of filling open pits.

Low/ zero carbon building is one of the most important aspect that ensures sustainable development through the incorporation of low carbon elements into the architectural projects, (Lehmann, 2013). The design should start by ensuring selection of appropriate building materials that will ensure zero emission of greenhouse gases to the surrounding environment, (Sayigh, 2014). The materials selected should have low carbon content so that they ensure sustainability. The most commonly used materials that ensure zero carbon emission are;

  • Recycled metals. Even with repeated use of metals, they do retain their properties. The metals can be re used in forms of re melting the old metal products to re mold them into new or different materials, (Marszal, 2011). Such metals can be used in construction of structural members in reinforcing concrete as well as be used as columns and struts in structural applications due to their high performances.
  • Ceramic materials. Green tiles are the mostly used ceramic construction materials. Such ceramics ensure sustainability as they use cheap raw material which are minerals mixed with recycled glass. Green tiles are used in the internal as well as external construction of flooring as well as in cladding.
  • Green concrete. It uses industrial by products as well as recycled materials as its raw materials. Green concrete is highly encouraged as it has;
  1. Favorable mechanical properties like strength, static behavior creep and shrinkage.
  2. High resistance to fire
  3. Long durability in terms of corrosion and deterioration due to frost
  4. Environmental aspect. They can be recycled hence minimizing carbon dioxide emission.
  5. Thermodynamic properties.
  • Low content carbon bricks. They have been in use since 2009. Their application is widespread since they possess corrosion resistance, spalling resistance penetration resistance and erosion resistance.

Apart from those approaches, green engineering should be encouraged as it ensures that pollution is minimized, (Franchetti, 2009). From green engineering, innovative ideas as well as technologies have been put in place to ensure sustainability in construction.

  • Biomass heating. This is cheap biological fuel that is usually derived from plant and animal wastes. When biomass is compared with other fossil fuels, it is cheaper and carbon neutral as carbon dioxide emission is equal to carbon dioxide absorption hence making biomass a sustainable renewable resource. Biofuels and biomass are thus produced directly from plant and animal refuse and sun’s energy hence preventing the use of unsustainable resources.
  • Use of solar heating. Nowadays solar heating is one of the energy sources that creates insignificant carbon traces as compared to the other non-renewable sources of energy like coal and other petroleum products. Wind and nuclear power as other sources of clean energy have also evolved significantly.
  • Smart sustainable cooling systems. Industrial heating and cooling systems contribute up to 50% of the global emission of greenhouse gases. That is why smart and environmental conscious energy systems are developed. They include reusing geothermal and industrial heat for residential heating.
  • Using sustainable construction procedures. Up to 10 % of carbon dioxide emissions emanate from construction industry, (Cheng, 2018).  This includes the process of manufacturing itself, transportation and during the construction process. To curb carbon dioxide emission, the following steps have been put forward;

Using sustainable materials. It involves use of low carbon cements that incorporates magnesia. Magnesia is natural element that absorbs carbon dioxide from the environment thus reducing the quantity of carbon. The other sustainable material is wood as well as compressed soil since they have lower carbon content. Similarly, wood and compressed sand absorb carbon dioxide from the environment thus reducing the impact. Lightweight roof tiles should also be encouraged as they are light as compared to traditional roofing materials thus reducing on transportation costs.

Waste management. Proper waste management reduces emission of carbon dioxide. The three main strategies that ensure proper waste management are reducing, re using and recycling.  Reducing on wastes begins with curbing of over ordering of construction materials. Also, anything that cannot be re used should be recycled.

Standardizing transportation. The construction industry can reduce carbon dioxide emission by employing use of vehicles with less emissions per mile.

The industry can as well encourage the use of locally available materials to reduce transportations thus reducing emission of carbon from the vehicles, (Yates, 2018). Materials that weigh less or which can be packed closely should be encouraged to reduce the number of journeys thus reducing fuel consumption as well as carbon dioxide emission. In packing, manufacturers should also ensure that they reduce partially packed containers.  Lightweight roof tiles should also be encouraged as they are light as compared to traditional roofing materials thus reducing on transportation costs, (Thomas, 2013).

Innovative Construction Processes

Low/zero carbon technology is a strategic choice of tackling climate change and as a means of solving the current energy crisis, (Yourhome, 2018). The low carbon technology has ensured success of the following

Firstly, it has supported and promoted the development of carbon economy.  This model is based on reduction of energy consumption, low carbon emission and minimized pollution of the environment.

Secondly, low carbon technology is the major way of slowing down the effects of global warming. Discharge of large quantities of carbon dioxide, mixes with other trace gases to bring about global warming effects. Such effects include; increase in temperature which causes melting of polar ice causing rise in level of seas and oceans. This can flood coastal towns.

Thirdly, low carbon technology is the most effective means of measuring energy crisis and hence providing a means for achieving sustainable development.

These three goals of zero carbon technology have ensured sustainable homes with more comfort and reduced health hazards and low maintenance costs. At home level, energy performance can be increased by

  • Growing your own food to avoid transportations
  • Being an active participant in ensuring reduction of energy consumption by ensuring use of efficient appliances.
  • Using smart electrical appliances and gadgets in cooling the buildings

Using energy efficient electrical components preferably energy savers like solar photovoltaics, wind power, solar heating, Biomass gasses and the natural room heating.

My home is model number 8 shown above. It will be located in the suburbs of Bankstown. Bankstown is relatively away from the effects of carbon emissions from transport sector. My home was designed by SketchUp software on an undulating plain surrounded by natural vegetation. The floor plan is also provided below;

Firstly, the design and analysis of my house was done by SketchUp software. The analysis included structural behaviors of the column’s struts and pillars as well as heating cooling and ventilation conditions.

My home model used the following materials;

  • Green tiles. They are made from clay mixed with a natural element of feldspar. Others are made from recycled glass. The green tiles were used in building the floor of my house. I decided to use green tiles since they are flexible, in that, they come in different sizes, shapes and patterns, they are durable and easy to maintain. They are also resistant to heat and fires.
  • Clay tiles. They were used as for roofing. I preferred clay tiles as they offer perfect insulation properties ensuring that internal temperatures can remain elevated during winter and be cooler during the summer. They also have a long live as compared to concrete roofing materials. Lastly, the clay tiles dot not rot. They can thus be used in harvesting rain water.
  • The walls were made from bricks with low carbon clay.

My house is a small structure for residential use only thus no much is required. Since the site of construction is a level ground with a hard surface, only shallow excavation is done to make a foundation. Being a small-scale job, human labor can be employed. The excavations are then hauled and used to level the ground. At first, large stones are used to fill the foundations then at a later stage, green concrete, mixed with ballast is used in cementing the floor. The walls are made of low carbon bricks then smoothened with a lining of bauxite on the interior walls. As a means of reinforcement, steel is used. The frames for the roofing are metal columns and the roof is made from the clay tiles. The windows are made from ceramics and doors made from wood.

In this design, I will consider heating and cooling, hot water and other appliances.

  • Heating and cooling. Clay tiles provide an efficient heating and cooling system. During the day, clay is heated by the scorching sun, it retains much of the heat which it radiates at when temperatures are low. During the cold periods, the clay roof provides an excellent insulation thus minimizing heat transmission to the surrounding. This keeps the room warm. The bauxite as well provide efficient heating and cooling of the house through heat retention and insulation. Windows can also be opened during the warm seasons to facilitate free flow of air through convection.
  • Heating of water. Solar energy is a green and renewable means of heating water that reduces carbon footprints. It ensures reduction of energy bills since it can be used all year round.
  • The appliances used should be energy efficient. Power saving bulbs and refrigerators that do not emit chlorofluorocarbons are preferred.

 In the redesign, I will prefer to use the following construction materials;

 Bricks. In the redesign, I will consider to use firebricks. The firebricks are designed to have properties that make them to withstand high heat. Unlike the ordinary bricks, the firebricks are denser thus more resistant to abrasion. They also have low thermal conductivity which makes them excellent in insulation properties. They thus provide efficient heating and cooling of the house through heat retention and insulation. They also have low carbon content since they are baked using clean sources of energy and are made from renewable sources.

  1. Well graded concrete that is mixed with Portland cement will produce higher strengths with lower permeability. This permeability enhances durability of the built structures. Portland cement also has low carbon content when compared to the ordinary cement.
  2. Green tiles. They are efficient in that they are products of recycled ceramics. They also ensure sustainability by providing efficient means of heating and cooling a house. During the day, clay is heated by the scorching sun, it retains much of the heat which it radiates at when temperatures are low. During the cold periods, the clay roof provides an excellent insulation thus minimizing heat transmission to the surrounding. This keeps the room warm.
  • Recycled metals. Recycling metals reduces emission of carbon dioxide by reducing production wastes associated with metal production. Toxic fumes which contribute to greenhouse gases are also reduced.
  1. In the construction process, emission of carbon can be reduced by encouraging use of locally available construction materials to minimize transport as it increases carbon emission.

Management of Operative Energy Consumption and Consumption Behaviour

Type of walls- Interior bauxite walls are easy to replace since they come in different shapes, sizes and patterns. They also have an advantage of being tolerant to high temperatures.

Use of insulated slabs will also ensure less maintenance since the individual portions are already insulated.

Metals are the most commonly used construction materials. Metal recycling is highly encouraged as it reduces emission of carbon dioxide by reducing production wastes associated with metal production. Toxic fumes which contribute to greenhouse gases are also reduced. On the other hand, unlike other construction materials, metals have the ability of maintaining their strength even after recycling. Similarly, if a material cannot be re cycled, then it can be re used. The earth obtained from the excavations during the establishment of the home foundation can be used to fill the holes in the neighboring areas. This will in turn reduce water stagnation.

To reduce on the amount of emission of carbon, make use of the locally available resources to avoid transport from other areas. This will reduce the quantity of fumes emitted by the Lorries.

Material selection is also key in ensuring minimal emission of carbon. Alternative cements and other construction materials with low carbon content should be selected. Waste management is also key. Over ordering of construction materials will lead to wastes and emission of more carbon. Similarly, this construction being a small-scale production, human labor can be utilized to minimize use of heavy machinery that emit carbon dioxide. In case of use of generators on the site, medium only sized ones should be used.

To reduce energy consumption through heating and cooling, I will install efficient solar panels which have high efficiency in converting the sun rays to electrical energy for heating. More windows should be provided to ensure free air circulation and forgo use of forced air convection through fanning. Double walls can also be implemented with clay tiles as they exhibit insulation properties. On extreme cold seasons, heating should be done using thermistors which have low power consumption.

Techniques used to lower energy consumption for hot water, and appliances

On appliances, energy saving gadgets with high electrical efficiency should be used to minimize energy consumption. To conserve energy, the following will be done as well; unplugging appliances when not in use, using low power devices

Renewable sources of energy ensure sustainability as they do not deplete the available natural resources. I will use the following renewable resources on the site;

  • Wind turbine energy. It will provide a reliable and cost effective, clean and sustainable

energy.

  • Photovoltaic system. It uses the radiation from the sun and converts it to electricity. Flat photovoltaic cells are preferred as they ensure maximum tapping of the sunlight.
  • A backup generator could be used in case of failure due to a mechanical failure or power surge from the above approaches. Generator not included in modeling
  • Carbon estimates

Carbon emitted during construction of your home

Description

Embodied Energy
(MJ/m2)

Embodied Energy (MJ)

Carbon Emission
(kg CO2)

120mm concrete wall

543

97865

65278

Floor finishing

372

53876

67532

Wood, cupboards, roofing

278

65876

98524

767

34768

67253

Wall painting

677

263766

45279

Totals carbon emitted 343866

 

Totals EE 526151

 

building material

span

Embodied

Total

Total

yr.

Repairs

Energy

Embodied Energy(kwh)

Energy

(kwh)

(per year)

Conventional brick

40

0

5,643.00

0

0

walls

10

4

3,929.96

15,719.84

982

slab

40

0

7,856.73

0

0

General carpet

40

0

6,245.74

0.00

0

Ceiling plasterboard

40

0

4,019.73

0.00

0

insulation

15

3

635.60

1,906.80

635

clay tiles

40

0

65,356.00

0.00

0.00

Timber Doors

30

1.5

1,879.98

2,819.97

1253

panes

30

1.5

85.13

127.695

6.38

Total

20,574.31

2,876.38

Wastes in your design home

23%

40 years

64983 kgCO2

Wastes in redesigned home

23%

40 years

23093 kgCO2

Appliancece

Qty.

wattage

Average

power used

power

(W)

Use

(W/day)

used

(hr/day)

(kW/year)

bulbs

6

18

4

432

VCleaner

1

1,400.00

1

1400

200.75

Hair Dryer

1

1,300.00

1

1300

237.25

electric kettle

1

1200

1

1200

73

fridge

1

300

24

7200

2,277.60

tv

1

200

4

800

361.35

cctv

3

65

24

4680

146

washing

1

600

1

600

98.55

computer

1

132.00

3

396

876

heater

4

2000

1

800

14.6

total

20

18808

6,763.45

scope

1.2

22569.6

total carbon emissions

22569.6

Appliances

Qty.

Capacity
(W)

Avg
Usage
(hr/day)

Electricity Used
(kW/day)

Power consuption
(kW/year)

Energy saver bulbs

5.00

3

4.00

0.04

194.10

Cordless v cleaner

1

100.00

1

0.10

0.43

wave

1.00

500.00

01

0.34

144.25

Low wattage iron

1.00

400.00

0.5

0.09

62.85

fridge

1.00

250.00

24.00

5.52

2,654.80

Smart tv

1.00

65.00

3

0.15

65.6

Computer desktop

1.00

130.00

3

0.40

165.00

Washing m

1.00

400.00

1

0.15

43.75

Hair Dryer

1.00

340.00

0.5

0.60

76.00

Electric Cooker

1.00

43.00

1

0.05

154.43

Laptop

3.00

70.00

2.00

0.29

318.50

Mobile

3.00

4.00

1.90

0.0091

10.95

Total

20.00

3,689.00

42.10

6.86

3,612.38

Scope 2

1.12

          3,45.86

Scope 3

0.14

              643.73

Carbon emitted (in kgs of CO2e)

3,165

Old home

Source District cooling

Source District Heating

Heating

0

33.4

Cooling

12

0

In killowats

3482

1342

Total

4824

Scope 2

1.12

21697.35

Scope3

0.14

2399.67

Total given in kgCO2-e

New home

cooling

heating

Heating

0

4.48

Cooling

8.49

5

In kW

2327.78

1542.22

Total

3869

Scope 2

1.12

4333.00

Scope3

0.14

541,66

Total kg CO2e

5229.00

Assumptions to be made- 26% percent reduced in the redesigned home

Total carbon Emission

36784

Carbon emitted from construction 

1,119.71

Figure 1 energy plus window for simulation- from energy plus software

To achieve the net zero energy for the home described, renewable energy components were used in modelling. The components listed below were used for energy generation and consumption

  1. A generic solar panel- the panel has inbuilt three phase invertor, generally referred to as Fronius, with typical lifetime value
  2. Green grid- sourced from the green power company, licensed
  3. wind turbine- generic 3kw wind turbine, lifetime 20 years
  4. convertor- to be used together with the battery
  5. battery – a typical kinetic battery, with nominal 12v voltage
  6. electric load- represented as 11.25kw per day each

The components above were then connected using Homer software and simulation done.

Figure 2 screen shot from homer window, showing the project location, discount rates and schematics

Figure 3 schematic capture showing the connection between the electrical components- designed by student

Choice of Renewable Energy Systems

Figure 4 wind resource window screenshot from homer as designed in model

Average wind speed of 4.20m/s,

the solar GHI and solar DNI were reported on windows below, the data used was obtained from Australian bureau of meteorology.

Figure 5 solar DNI resource, from homer software design model

Figure 6 solar GHI resources from Homer design model

Figure 7 temperature resources for the design model in homer

Figure 8 grid costs window- from homer design model

Name

Capital

Operating

Replacement

Salvage

Resource

Total

Generic 1kWh Lead Acid

$300.00

$275.45

$618.05

$0.00

$0.00

$1,193

Grid green

$0.00

$22,616

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$22,616

System Converter

$6.25

$0.00

$8.16

-$0.958

$0.00

$13.45

System

$306.25

$22,891

$626.21

-$0.958

$0.00

$23,823

Month

Energy

Purchased

(kWh)

Energy Sold (kWh)

Net Energy

Purchased

(kWh)

Peak Demand (kW)

Energy Charge

Demand

Charge

January

0

0

0

4.63

$0.00

$0.00

February

0

0

0

3.95

$0.00

$0.00

March

0

0

0

4.18

$0.00

$0.00

April

0

0

0

3.88

$0.00

$0.00

May

0

0

0

3.14

$0.00

$0.00

June

0

0

0

2.70

$0.00

$0.00

July

0

0

0

3.20

$0.00

$0.00

August

0

0

0

3.09

$0.00

$0.00

September

0

0

0

3.37

$0.00

$0.00

October

0

0

0

3.57

$0.00

$0.00

November

0

0

0

4.60

$0.00

$0.00

December

0

0

0

4.08

$0.00

$0.00

Annual

0

0

0

4.63

$0.00

$0.00

Name

Capital

Operating

Replacement

Salvage

Resource

Total

Generic 1kWh Lead Acid

$300.00

$275.45

$618.05

$0.00

$0.00

$1,193

Grid green

$0.00

$22,616

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$22,616

System Converter

$6.25

$0.00

$8.16

-$0.958

$0.00

$13.45

System

$306.25

$22,891

$626.21

-$0.958

$0.00

$23,823

 The design model of the home uses available renewable resources for energy inputs. The resources are sunlight, wind and temperature. Biomass may also be used.

Environmental sustainability must begin from home sustainability level. Construction of sustainable home is a good approach in ensuring net zero energy. However, nothing good comes at no cost. Efforts must be put to ensure success of this master idea. Some challenges will always emerge in attempt of promoting this grand idea. Some of the challenges include;

  • High costs incurred in the implementation of the idea. The initial cost involved in the installation of renewable resources like wind turbines, solar panels and photovoltaic cells is extremely high. This discourages many people from getting involved in this project. However, if individuals can pool their resources together, they can increase their bargaining power through collective purchases. The government can as well provide loans or subsidies on such projects. Similarly, other cheaper sources of clean energy like electricity and biomass fuel can be used.
  • Unfavorable climatic conditions. Climate changes can render some approaches in appropriate. For instance, not all areas receive the same amount of solar radiation. Other unpredictable weather changes like hurricanes and storms can destroy wind turbines. This can be remedied by using highly sensitive solar panels that can convert even weakest sun rays to electricity. Wind turbines can also be shielded from storms.
  • Challenge of material selection. Getting to decide on the best material to use is a challenge at times. For example, use of wood is always considered a sustainable energy practice. However, wood is a timber product. So indirectly, by use of timbers, we are promoting deforestation.   
  • Unbalance in the distribution of the natural resources. One of the approaches of ensuring minimal or zero emission of carbon is by making use of the available local resources. However, not all places are endowed with the resources needed for construction hence making it necessary to acquire from a different location.
  • Re using and recycling. It is not practically possible that all products can be re cycled. Even the ones that can be used, they at time fail to meet the required standards.
  • Nature of work. When work is done on small scale, human labour can be efficiently used to forgo use of heavy machinery that emit more carbon. However, this may not be applicable when work is done on a large scale of production.

Conclusion

Environmental sustainability is no longer a choice, it is a necessity. This is because human beings cannot maintain their quality of life of being human without interacting with the environment. We should all yearn in promoting environmental sustainability by participating in work practices that sustain our environment. For our renewable resource, extraction rate should not exceed regeneration rate, for non-renewable resources, depletion rate should tally with their renewable substitutes and for pollution, waste generation should not exceed the environment’s rate to absorb. By so, we could have sustained our environment for our own good and that of our future generations.

References

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Bautexsystems.com. (2018). 10 Considerations For Building a Green Home - Bautex Systems. [online] Available at: https://www.bautexsystems.com/company/news-events/building-a-green-home/ [Accessed 26 Oct. 2018].

Designingbuildings.co.uk. (2018). Sustainability in building design and construction - Designing Buildings Wiki. [online] Available at:

Deng, S., Wang, R. Z., & Dai, Y. J. (2014). How to evaluate performance of net zero energy building–A literature research. Energy, 71, 1-16.

Hernandez, P., & Kenny, P. (2010). From net energy to zero enerssgy buildings: Defining life cycle zero energy buildings (LC-ZEB). Energy and buildings, 42(6), 815-821

Franchetti, M., Bedal, K., Ulloa, J.,& Grodek, S. (2009). Lean and Green: industrial engineering methods are natural stepping stones to green engineering. Industrial engineer, 41(9), 24-30.

Lehmann, S. (2013). Low carbon construction systems using prefabricated engineered solid wood panels for urban infill to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emission. Sustainable city and society, 6, 57-67.

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