Glomerular Hydrostatic Pressure
(1) The afferent arteriole size in accordance with the diameter is slightly larger than the efferent arteriole. The pressure of 55-millimeter mercury is formed in the capillaries is caused due to difference in size. This facilities the in and out movement of blood
in the capillaries. This 55mmHg of pressure is considered as ideal pressure and need to be kept constant. If the pressure increases or decreases in the capillaries it may be detrimental as high pressure damages the capillaries and low pressure means the filtration may not happen due to not right amount of pressure.
(2) Glomerular hydrostatic pressure – The definition of hydrostatic pressure is described as
the amount of pressure applied by the fluid on the container’s wall it is kept in. In a similar context blood put pressure on the capillary walls. The glomerular hydrostatic pressure is defined as the first pressure of neck filtration implied by the blood on the capillaries which then comes into glomerulus via the afferent arterial. This pressure exerted by blood on the walls of the capillaries and pushes it exterior in order to filter.
Blood Colloid hydrostatic pressure - Colloids are the proteins structure found in the blood. This colloids are applying pressure as osmotic pool. The pressure of 30 millimetres mercury is implied by blood opposing colloid osmotic pressure which is interior to the force of the blood.
Capsular hydrostatic pressure – The filtrate present in the capsule because of the presence of the fluid which is opposing the capillary fluid flow.
The capsular hydrostatic pressure, which is equal to 15 millimetres mercury, applying pressure interior to the blood. The last pressure applied is for the neck filtration pressure procedure. This is because capsule fluid resists the glomerulus hydrostatic pressure.
(3 ) Kidney have an essential features that is the constant filtration pressure. If this filtration process stops the production of urine will be stopped for the day and the individual will be unable to remove the waste products. The kidney filtration procedure also regulates the blood pressure as for example when the blood pressure of an individual fluctuates, the kidney is responsible to regulate the blood pressure with the help of glomerulus. The size of the afferent arterial and efferent arterial play an important role in regulating.
The generation of filtrate by the renal corpuscles in the kidneys is measured by GFR and it is noted to be 125 millilitres. The GFR is good indicator of the kidneys functions. If you have renal disease, your GFR will go down. It is caused due to difference in pressure between the glomerulus and neck filtration pressure. The GFR is an important metric for determining renal functions. The rate of filtration is directly proportional to net filtration pressure, since when filtration decreases or increases, the filtration rate decreases or increases, and vice versa. The estimated glomerular filtration rate is around 100 millilitres per minute, and it is modified for body size, with larger being greater and smaller being lower.
Role of Kidney Function in Blood Pressure Regulation
(4) Loop diuretics – The loop diuretics are the drugs commonly known as furosemide, bumetanide and torasemide. The function of these drugs work in inhibiting the chloride, potassium and sodium cotransporter. The bump present in ascending loop of Henle inhibit the reabsorption of sodium.
Thiazide diuretics – The Thiazide diuretics inhibits sodium reabsorption by functioning on the chloride and sodium transporter in distal convoluted tubules of kidney. Few thiazide diuretics are Bendroflumethiazide, indapamide and metolazone.
The diuretic drug is known to affect the functioning of the kidneys which in turn increases the output of urine. The function of diuretic drug is to inhibit the reabsorption of sodium in renal tubules. If aldosterone increases in an individual the reabsorption of sodium increases and the diuretic inhibit this sodium reabsorption. This happens as if low amount of sodium is reassimilated, low amount of water will be reabsorbed. This will produce more urine volume; the procedure is described as 'water follows sodium'.
As a result, diuretics are commonly prescribed to persons with high blood pressure to mitigate the amount of fluid in their bloodstream. As a result, diuretics have a cardiovascular effect, lowering blood volume and venous pressure. As a result, lowering volume of blood and venous pressure would in turn also lowers the cardiac filling or preload, and as well as the volume of the stroke and cardiac outputs. Therefore, leading to lowering the arterial pressure of blood.
(5) Pyelonephritis is a bacterial illness that causes inflammation of one or both kidneys. Bacteria may enter the urinary tract in a similar way they do in “urinary tract infection(UTI)” in pyelonephritis. The bacteria after that make their way to the kidneys via the ureters. The germs can also enter the bloodstream directly, but this is less common. Although bacteria can enter the bloodstream directly, this is a rare occurrence. The most common UTI symptoms start with frequent urination pain. Mild pain and fever, which is soreness in the upper abdomen are common adverse effects. Similarly, the area between the ribs and the pelvis. Abscesses and necrosis can occur when the kidneys become infected and irritated. It can progress to renal failure, decreased renal function, recurrent UT, and sepsis if not managed. Pyelonephritis is an infection of the upper urinary system that is quite dangerous. As a result, the infection spreads from the lover's urinary system to the kidneys via the ureters. A sample of urine is collected and tested to determine the organisms which are present. If all other antibiotics are ineffective, oral antibiotics will be given such as cephalosporin or cefuroxime. It may be necessary to use stronger antibiotics, which are different types of antibiotics and are administered via injection. Septicaemia can result from acute pyelonephritis nephritis, which is an extremely serious illness. As a result, septicaemia means that germs are multiplying in the blood. Blood is normally sterile and bacteria is not detected. As a result, septicaemia is also known as blood poisoning, and it can progress to sepsis. Septicaemia is deadly enough, but sepsis is considerably more so. As a result, sepsis can eventually lead to organ failure and death.
(6) Dehydration or sodium insufficiency is caused by a loss of water or blood. This occurs when the body loses a lot of fluid. Blood volume decreases as a result of this. As a result, if blood volume decreases, blood pressure decreases as well, causing blood to flow too close to the kidneys. The Juxtaglomerular cells in the kidneys will detect if blood pressure in the kidneys drops. As a result, blood enters the kidneys at a lower pressure than usual. When blood supply to the kidneys is diminished, cells in the afferent artery and juxtaglomerular cell walls are triggered to discharge the renin present in the enzyme. Renin is then released to the bloodstream by juxtaglomerular cells in afferent arterioles, and it circulates throughout the body. It will convert angiotensinogen into angiotensin 1 when it comes across a protein generated by the liver called angiotensinogen. The enzymes angiotensin 1 and angiotensinogen are inactive. Regardless of the fact that blood circulation takes place, when stimulated by specific enzymes. The hormone angiotensinogen is constantly created in the liver and circulated in the bloodstream, but it has little effect on its own. When the kidneys release renin, it converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin 1 by breaking off amino acids. All the substances circulate in the blood, with angiotensin 1 passing via the lungs' capillaries. The lungs contain an enzyme called angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), which is present in the capillaries. Angiotensin 1 is converted to angiotensin 2 with the help of Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). Angiotensin 2 is an active hormone that raises blood pressure by itself. Angiotensin 2 stimulates the adrenal cortex, leading to an increase in synthesis of aldosterone. Aldosterone's activities on the kidneys have the consequence of increasing salt reabsorption from the filtrate. The concentration of the blood is greater than filtrate, osmosis causes water to follow sodium. Second, it produces arteriole vasoconstriction, resulting in escalated total peripheral resistance (TPR), hence BP = CO XTPR.
(10) Cystitis is a bladder infection that affects around half of all women and causes inflammation of the bladder lining. It occurs when bacteria enter the urethra from the vagina and then migrates up to the bladder. Tissues of the bladder can be irritated when wearing tight underwear, indulging in sexual activity, or using too chemicals products to maintain the hygiene can increase or decrease the pH. More than men, women are affected as because of the presence of shorter urethra. People with diabetes are at a higher risk, as are those whose bladders cannot be entirely emptied. Cystitis is more likely to affect men who have an enlarged prostate. If someone gets cystitis, they can usually only take paracetamol and have adequate amount of water, which is depending on the condition of cystitis. If fever is not lowered after taking paracetamol, antibiotics will most likely be required. Trimethoprim and nitrofurantoin will be the most widely prescribed antibiotics for urinary tract infections. The symptoms include a strong desire to pass pee, as well as a small amount of urine that is painful to pass. Hence, when passing urine in a hurry, the urethra hurts. The term "haematuria" refers to the presence of blood in the urine on a regular basis because it is infected with bacteria, the urine is cloudy and may smell. It can develop to pyrexia, which is a type of fever. Pain in the lower belly or low back, which commonly causes confusion or agitation in older persons.
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