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Transport and Health of Aboriginals and Torres Islanders

Write about the Determinants of Health Factors for Health Behaviors and Lifestyles.

Human beings exhibit different health conditions. There are people of good health, while others have a deteriorating health condition. Healthy individuals attribute their states to specific positive factors as the sick ones point to specific negative issues (Nieuwenhuijsen et al., 2017). There are numerous determinants of Health Factors. This paper discusses the following determinants of health: Transport, Housing, Health Behaviors and Lifestyles, and Location factors. A useful transport network minimizes accidents. A proper house translates to better health conditions for the dwellers. Healthy behaviors such as balanced diet enhance adequate health. This article discusses the Health Determinants of the Aboriginals and Torres Islanders.

Transport refers to the movement of people, and commodities from one place to the other. Due to increasing urbanization and industrialization, transport departments are constructing more roads networks in Australia (Mueller et al., 2015). The increase in the number of parcels of lands that the network covers reduces the size of property for agricultural purposes. Reduction in the area available for farming in Torres leads to a depreciation in agrarian food produce. A population that looks sufficient food is an unhealthy community (Tainio et al., 2017). Food is essentials are its nutrients such as vitamins, carbohydrates, and lipids lead to body development; eventually, ensuring the existence of good health (Nieuwenhuijsen et al., 2017).

Once, the Australian road authorities (ARA) use more land for road construction, little or land remains for recreational activities. Children, as well as grownups, cannot take part in physical exercise. Therefore, islanders become unhealthy (Woodcock et al., 2014). Some diseases are as a result of sedentary lifestyles such as obesity sets in (Tainio et al., 2017). In case the little land is used in the construction exercise, more land becomes available; hence, persons can take part in physical activities to remain healthy (Nieuwenhuijsen et al., 2017). Good road networks ensure smooth traffic flow; therefore few or no accidents reported on the roads. Australians who live in areas that have proper infrastructure live longer lives as they become less prone to crashes.

On the other hand, Torres who plies lousy road networks are prone to accidents. Increase in the number of road networks increases the number of motor vehicles that ply those roads (Tainio et al., 2017). Automobiles burn fuels, producing energy that drives them from one place to the other. The end product of the combusted fuel results in air pollution. Islanders living close to roads suffer from the effects of the infection (Tainio et al., 2017). Hydrocarbons, and Sulfurous compounds from the pollutions mix with atmospheric air (Mueller 2015). When rain season offset, rainwater mixes with the sulfurous compounds to form Sulfuric acids. The acid destroys vegetations; hence, leading to food shortage (Tainio et al., 2017).

Housing and Health of Aboriginals and Torres Islanders

Furthermore, the acids mix with waters, the mixture destroys aquatic animals including fishes. Marine life is a nutritious source of food for Aboriginals (Tainio et al., 2017). Individuals who eat fish are healthier than those that do not (Mueller et al., 2015). Fish is rich in iron and carbon nutrients. Automobiles produce noise from their engines, at the time of Combustion. Noise pollution affects the hearing abilities of individuals closer to road networks as compared to those away from roads (Nieuwenhuijsen et al., 2017). On a positive note, improved transport networks boost the economic power of a given state as the movement of goods and services from one place to another becomes more comfortable (Nieuwenhuijsen et al., 2017). Moreover more people get employment chances in the transport sector. A developed economy boosts the health of citizens.

Housing refers to dwellings where individuals reside. Some Torres Straits stay in: well furnished and permanent houses (Currie et al., 2015). Others live in semi-permanent apartments; while the rest occupy homes constructed poorly. Individuals having well-paying jobs are the ones who rent well-furnished houses (Santamouris and Kolokosta, 2015). The middle-class Aboriginals dominate semi-permanent dwellings as the Torres live in apartments of questionable qualities. Individuals who reside in "proper" houses have a better health status as compared to their counterparts residing in "bad" houses.

High-end rentals are mostly self-contained houses. They have a bathroom and toilet within it. However, low-class dwellings do not have the two rooms inside them. The two additional places exist outside the living room (Gilderbloom, Riggs and Meares,  2015). Individuals in self-contained apartments are stress-free as they can easily access bathroom and toilets after a very short walking distance. Furthermore, they are free to use the restrooms at night; due to the safety of the location. A safe living ensures a comfortable life; hence, improving the quality of health. On the other hand, people in houses that have the washrooms outside tend to live a stressful life (Maidment et al., 2014). In those rentals, the tenants share few constructed pit latrines. Therefore, the maintenance of the toilets is a problem as many people use them.

In many occasions, shared latrines become very dirty and unhealthy. A dirty toilet leads to bad life. Tenants are likely to suffer from diseases such as typhoid, cholera, and bilharzia among others (Maidment et al., 2014). Apart from the self-contained toilets and washrooms, maintenance and improvement of a rental apartment increase the rent that the landlords ask from them (Currie et al., 2015). The stresses of giving house owners, an improved rent every month are detrimental to the health of an individual (Gilderbloom, Riggs and Meares, 2015). When landowners adjust rental fees to individuals with low incomes, they develop stress-related conditions such as high blood pressure.

Health Behaviors and Lifestyles of Aboriginals and Torres Islanders

Individuals who earn hefty wages bother less about an increase in rent as compared to those of little incomes. Therefore, an increase in the amount of rent increases stress, leading to reduced health. Residential places having correctly designed fire extinguishers are safe from unpredictable fire incidents. However, areas that lack a proper system of combating such incidence are vulnerable (Santamouris and Kolokosta, 2015). Aboriginals residing in the former have good health as they are safe during fire outbreaks. The latter are a worried lot about how they can survive on such incidences. Therefore, they lead a stressful life lowering their health standards. There are residential areas which are located in clean environments as others face sewage sources. Rentals with high-quality air indoors, better interior design, proper waste disposal, fire extinguisher, and other quality conditions, ensure good health of dwellers (Santamouris and Kolokosta 2015).

How an individual leads their life to determine whether they remain healthy or otherwise. Different lifestyles impact the health of a person, either positively or negatively. Those that smoke cigarette and other substances such as bhang have a more average life as opposed to non-smokers (El-Zaatari, Chami and Zaatari, 2015). The habit of smoking results in health-threatening conditions such as liver cancer, liver cirrhosis, psychosis, gastrointestinal complications, and at some time leading to stroke (Conlon, M.A and Bird, 2014). Nonsmokers have zero chances of contacting such difficulties.

Aboriginals who abuse alcoholic drinks are in greater danger of health setbacks as compared to nondrinkers. Perennial alcoholics who drink drive cause accidents due to reckless driving (W.H.O and W.H.0, 2014). Furthermore, when someone is under the influence of an alcoholic substance, they participate in unprotected sexual intercourse (Vegenas 2015). Alcohol impairs the rational judgment of addicts; hence leading to unplanned pregnancies (Vegenas 2015). Additionally, the addicts can contract HIV/AIDs due to irresponsible sex. HIV/AIDs is a killer disease which results in death for those infected.

Diet is another essential determinant of health factors. Individuals who have assured food security are healthier than those who lack food (W.H.O and W.H.O, 2014). A balanced diet consists of vitamins, water, minerals, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and oils (W.H.O and W.H.O, 2014). Those that feed n a balanced diet escape nutritional disorders such as Marasmus and Kwashiorkor; whereas, mulnutrionized children suffer from the two ailments (Vegenas et al., 2015). Those who consume more vegetables and fruits prevent chances of contracting diseases such as heart infections, cancer, and stroke (Conlon, M.A and Bird, 2014). Individuals who skip such dietary components are vulnerable to a variety of ailments.

Location Factors and Health of Aboriginals and Torres Islanders

Torres Straight Islanders who take excess amounts of saturated fats, polyunsaturated compounds, monosaccharides, and polysaccharides increase their chances of contacting metabolic disorders. Such disorders include stroke, overweight, hypertension, and stroke (El-Zaatari, Chami and Zaatari, 2015). On the other hand, Aboriginals who involve self in regular physical exercises reduce chances of contacting metabolic diseases (Vegenas et al., 2015). Physical activities enhance the conversation of excess fats and carbohydrates into metabolic energy (W.H.O and W.H.O, 2014). Furthermore, workouts strengthen one's muscles; thus, reducing incidences of muscle pull and other complications.

Alcoholic addiction is responsible for some violence cases. Those under the influence of alcohols can quickly start a fight under the slightest of provocations. Alcoholism remains to be a significant cause of marriage breakages, and needles fist fights (W.H.O and W.H.O, 2014). Therefore, addiction threatens the peaceful coexistence of a nation. Torres Straits who live peacefully have little stress; hence have good health. Those that are always in constant disagreements can easily develop dangerous health complications. Alcohol and smoking consume a significant amount of money that could have been used to purchase foodstuff (W.H.O and W.H.O, 2014). The two habits make a family starve, in case the sole breadwinner is an addict.

Location refers to the physical setting when an individual spends most of their time. The term is broad as it includes a person's residential area, place of work, and even resting sites (Sandiffer, Sutton-Grier and Ward, 2015). Aboriginals who can access safe and clean water sources are healthier than those that use dirty water (Parsons, 2014). Water is a useful natural resource that aids in almost every aspect of life. Just to mention a few, water is used in cooking, washing clothes, bathing, metabolic processes, and chemical reactions in the body (Triguero-Mas et al., 2015). Those drinking clean water are safe from water-borne diseases such as cholera, typhoid, and bilharzia. The vice versa is true.

Aboriginals should ensure that their private places and workstation are in areas having clean atmospheric air. Saturated conditions of atmosphere bear disease are causing vectors and particles which include: dust particles, harmful carbon dioxide and other gases, and unpleasant smells (Hystad et al., 2014). Workers of companies located in favorable atmospheric conditions, breathe fresh air; hence, they are healthier than those working in poorly situated organizations. Proper infrastructure also impacts the health of an individual either positively or negatively (Hystad et al., 2014). Chances of road carnages are low on appropriate roads as compared to weak road networks.

A well-constructed road is safe as the number of accidents reduces. However, workers who use poor feeder roads, to and from workstations are vulnerable to crashes (Triguero-Mas 2015). Communities that surround a workplace are also a determinant of health factors. When the people that live next to a company are violent, the lives of the staff members are under immense threat (Sandiffer, Sutton-Drier and Ward, 2015). On the other hand, a peaceful community does not interfere with the quiet operations of a company. Before constructing an institution, the board of directors should ensure that the location is safe. Those that stay inadequately built houses are healthier than those living in improperly made apartments.

A correctly built house is one that has a proper foundation and conforms to the topological orientation of a given area. Whereas, a poorly constructed one having a week foundation and goes against the terrain of the location (Sandiffer et al., 2015). Aboriginals residing in safer houses are stress-free as they are secure for all reasons whether rainy, sunny or periods of earthquakes (Parsons, 2014). On the other hand, Torres Islanders inhabiting poorly constructed apartments are a worried lot (Triguero-Mas et al., 2015). They are likely to suffer the most n periods of natural disasters such as hurricanes, tornadoes, and other intense storms (Hystad et al., 2014).

An organization should ensure that hygienic conditions exist at workstations. Workplaces have proper hygiene support a healthy existence as opposed dirty environments. The absence of appropriate safety mechanisms risk the lives of workers; reducing their productivity (Sandiffer et al., 2015).

Conclusion

Healthy living depends on a person’s location, hosing, and state of the job place. Furthermore, someone’s character, diet and transport network also determine the state of health (Hystad et al., 2014). Clean residential areas and work places ensure a healthy life for tenants and workers respectively. An addict of alcohol is likely to develop complications such as liver cirrhosis (Hystad et al., 2014). A person who feeds on a balanced diet is healthier than the person who eats an unbalanced food. Physical exercises ensure that one is safe from metabolic complications such as obesity (Hystad et al., 2014). Finally, a well-constructed road network minimizes the chances of road accidents.

References

Conlon, M.A. and Bird, A.R., 2014. The impact of diet and lifestyle on gut microbiota and human health. Nutrients, 7(1), pp.17-44.

Currie, J., Davis, L., Greenstone, M. and Walker, R., 2015. Environmental health risks and housing values: evidence from 1,600 toxic plant openings and closings. American Economic Review, 105(2), pp.678-709.

El-Zaatari, Z.M., Chami, H.A. and Zaatari, G.S., 2015. Health effects associated with waterpipe smoking. Tobacco control, 24(Suppl 1), pp.i31-i43.

Gilderbloom, J.I., Riggs, W.W. and Meares, W.L., 2015. Does walkability matter? An examination of walkability’s impact on housing values, foreclosures and crime. Cities, 42, pp.13-24.

Hystad, P., Davies, H.W., Frank, L., Van Loon, J., Gehring, U., Tamburic, L. and Brauer, M., 2014. Residential greenness and birth outcomes: evaluating the influence of spatially correlated built-environment factors. Environmental health perspectives, 122(10), p.1095.

Maidment, C.D., Jones, C.R., Webb, T.L., Hathway, E.A. and Gilbertson, J.M., 2014. The impact of household energy efficiency measures on health: A meta-analysis. Energy Policy, 65, pp.583-593.

Mueller, N., Rojas-Rueda, D., Cole-Hunter, T., de Nazelle, A., Dons, E., Gerike, R., Götschi, T., Panis, L.I., Kahlmeier, S. and Nieuwenhuijsen, M., 2015. Health impact assessment of active transportation: a systematic review. Preventive medicine, 76, pp.103-114.

Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J., Khreis, H., Verlinghieri, E., Mueller, N. and Rojas-Rueda, D., 2017. Participatory quantitative health impact assessment of urban and transport planning in cities: A review and research needs. Environment international, 103, pp.61-72.

Parsons, K., 2014. Human thermal environments: the effects of hot, moderate, and cold environments on human health, comfort, and performance. CRC press.

Sandifer, P.A., Sutton-Grier, A.E. and Ward, B.P., 2015. Exploring connections among nature, biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human health and well-being: Opportunities to enhance health and biodiversity conservation. Ecosystem Services, 12, pp.1-15.

Santamouris, M. and Kolokotsa, D., 2015. On the impact of urban overheating and extreme climatic conditions on housing, energy, comfort and environmental quality of vulnerable population in Europe. Energy and Buildings, 98, pp.125-133.

Tainio, M., Monsivais, P., Jones, N., Brand, C. and Woodcock, J., 2017. Mortality, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Consumer Cost Impacts of Replacing Short Car Trips with Cycling: A Health Impact Assessment Study. Journal of Transport & Health, 5, p.S71.

Triguero-Mas, M., Dadvand, P., Cirach, M., Martínez, D., Medina, A., Mompart, A., Basagaña, X., Gražulevi?ien?, R. and Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J., 2015. Natural outdoor environments and mental and physical health: relationships and mechanisms. Environment international, 77, pp.35-41.

Vagenas, P., Azar, M.M., Copenhaver, M.M., Springer, S.A., Molina, P.E. and Altice, F.L., 2015. The impact of alcohol use and related disorders on the HIV continuum of care: a systematic review. Current HIV/AIDS Reports, 12(4), pp.421-436.

Woodcock, J., Tainio, M., Cheshire, J., O’Brien, O. and Goodman, A., 2014. Health effects of the London bicycle sharing system: health impact modelling study. Bmj, 348, p.g425.

World Health Organization and World Health Organization. Management of Substance Abuse Unit, 2014. Global status report on alcohol and health, 2014. World Health Organization.

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