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  1. This should be a brief introduction to the topic which describes the basic background to the ideas of quality and manufacturing organisation and outlines the aims and objectives of the assignment.
  2.  Manufacturing Organisation:  This is your literature review of the field of manufacturing organisation. Here the ideas of how manufacturing is organised (e.g. factory layout) should be discussed.
  3. The Benefits of Manufacturing Organisation:  This is the “integrating” part of your article. Essentially you need to discuss the effects, benefits and problems of using organisation systems.  Bear in mind that while effective factory organisation bring benefits, they may also bring disadvantages.

For this assignment, you must write a review article entitled:

“Manufacturing Organisation: Systems and Benefits”

In this assignment you should discuss the current thinking on how manufacturing processes can be organised to maximise benefits

In completing the assignment, you should research the topic fully.  Consult the library and the web to find books and articles (e.g. academic journal papers, magazine/newspaper articles, conference papers etc) which will help to inform your discussion.  You should list your literature/reference sources at the end of your review.

Manufacturing organization efficiency

Manufacturing is the creation of the stock for the sale by the use of labor, machines, chemicals, tools, biological formulation and processes. The term may refer to the range of human action from the handicraft to the high technology is normally used to the organizational production where there is the transformation of the raw materials to finished goods on the large scales. Such finished goods can be sold to the manufacturer to produce more complex products such as the appliances of the households, aircraft, and equipment of sports, automobiles and furniture or sold to the wholesalers who later sell them to the retailers who sell them to the end users and consumers. The main purpose of the manufacturing industries is to create the wealth which should be used to improve the quality of the lives of the population.

The success of the industrialized organizations is measured by how it does at making the money. It is measured by the profits made by the ratio of this profit to the resource value it has employed. The benefit of the manufacturing company that has effectively makes the money should be protected and pay the employees well for the workforce, better conditions for the working, stimulating the local economies around the plant of manufacturing, and the contribution towards the national economy.  The objectives of this research paper are to analyze the benefits and problems of the manufacturing organization, and also to explain the manufacturing organization for the quality and manufacturing organization for efficiency.

Manufacturing organization efficiency

Manufacturing system; better understandings are for the manufacturing systems to optimize the performance and costs of the organization. The systems are complex and need the skills of making the decision and analytical analysis. The many functions and processes involved in the maintaining and building this system demand the high level of the knowledge (Köp, 2010).

Custom manufacturing; this is the most popular type of the manufacturing system in the existence. It is associated with the highest and the lowest quality of the efficiency of the product. In the manufacturing system’s customs, every item is produced by the single craftsperson who work by the machine or solely by the hand. When the machines are used, they tend to be highly specialized in their task and cannot produce more than an item at a time. Custom manufactured products are of the best and highest quality but are the most expensive products on the market (Robert, 2011).

Custom manufacturing

Intermittent manufacturing; this system is made to produce a large number of single products at a time.  It is mostly known as the job shop because of the rise of such systems in the countries with cheap labour making the products for multinational based thousands of the miles away. The products made by this systems are usually identical to each other and feature very little differentiation which simplifies the process of manufacturing.  

Continuous manufacturing; these are the systems made to enable the mass production of the single product. The products go through the line assembly with the dissimilar stations where the parts are added or worked on a little further. This system is ideal when the company or organization has very high volume targets since it reduces the unit cost of the product. It needs more capital at the startup because of the investment in the labour required and the equipment (Lewis, 2014).

Flexible manufacture; this is the modern manufacturing system that is very popular. It involves the important investment in the machinery, it reduces the cost of labour by implementing the robots eschewing the labour of human altogether. These machines can be reconfigured easily to manufacture the different products in different quantities, and the process as a whole is automatic. It is called flexible manufacturing because of the flexibility in many high volume products it can produce. Because of the process which is automated, the control of quality is easier and unit cost are low (Merli, 2014).

Factory organization; A factory in the industrial site consisting of the machinery and the buildings or the complex one having more structures where the workers produce the goods or control the machines to manufacture and process one product into another. Most current plants have the modern warehouses with any equipment used for the production in assembly line production. Large factories are usually situated with the access to many means of transport with some of them having the rail, water and highway and facilities for unloading and loading (O'Hagan, 2010).

Cellular manufacturing; this is the manufacturing process and is the subdivision of JIT and lean manufacturing incorporating the group of technology. The objective of this type of manufacturing is to quickly move and make the range of same products while making very little wastes. It involves the use of many cells in the assembly of the line fashion and every cell consists of the one or many dissimilar types of machinery which performs certain tasks. The products move from one cell to another and every station finalizing the portion of the process of manufacturing. The cells are usually arranged in the U shape to enable the overseer to move the less and are able to watch over the process entirely. This system is very flexible and since most of them achiness are programmed, simple variations can be made frequently. This enables the variety of the scaling for the product, small changes to the whole designs, and also changing the overall designs in the extreme cases (Frank, 2014).

Intermittent manufacturing

Just in time manufacturing; it is also known as the Toyota production and it is a methodology aimed at reducing the time of flow within the system of production as well as the time of response to the customers from the suppliers. It originally referred to the production of the goods that exactly meet the demand of the customers, in time quantity and quality. Just in time can help in the management of the cash flow especially when the goods are stocked up and bought in the bulk. It also reduces the clutter since the space of the operation efficiently will be present. Just in time reduced the number of wastes because of it further predicts and demands and purchase the inventory. The elements of the just in time are;

Continuous improvement; it attacks the fundamental problems, devises the system to identify the problem, strives for the simplicity, controls the quality at the source and preventive maintenance.

eliminating the wastes; the type of the wastes are; wastes for the waiting time, from overproduction, transportation wastes, wastes of the motion, processing wastes, inventory wastes, and the waste from defect product (Pal, 2011).

Figure 1: Just in time manufacturing process (Pal, 2011).

Kanban; is the billboard or single board in Japanese and is a system for the just in time and lean manufacturing. It was developed to improve the efficiency of manufacturing and it is the one, a method to achieve the just in time. The system takes this name from the cards that track the production within the factory. It became the effective tool for running the system of production as a whole and the best way to promote the improvements. The goal of the Kanban is to reduce the buildup of many inventories at any point of production. The limits on the items numbers waiting at the point of supply are made and then reduced as inefficiencies are removed after identification. Kanban reduces the wastes through the pull production, a model that regulate the production of items based on the supply of the consumers and demand. It produc es the items in the direct relation to the number requested by the market (Publishing, 2013).  

Lean manufacturing; this is the systematic method for the minimization of the wastes within the system of manufacturing without the sacrificing the productivity. It also takes into account the wastes produced through the overburden and the ones created through the unevenness of the load (Harinder, 2010).

Continuous manufacturing

Inventory control and stock; It refers as the activity of checking the stock of the shop by also focusing on the related facets of the inventory management such as the forecasting in the demand in future within the organization to meet the demand of the business economically. Other facets of the control inventory are the management of the supply chain, control of production, the satisfaction of the customers and the flexibility of the finance.  

Figure 2: Inventory control (Harinder, 2010).

5S; this represents the words of Japanese that describe the steps in the workplace business course. The equivalent words in English are; sort, straighten, shine, standardize and sustain. In the simple terms, the five S help an organization to remove the item that are not important and is known as sorting, organize the items to enhance the flow and efficiency and this referred to straightening, clean the region to identify the problems easily (shine), implement the coding color and labels (standardize) and develop actions that keep the workplace organize over a long time (sustain) (Taisch, 2013)

Quality control; is the method by which the individuals evaluate the qualities of the factors used in the production. It is the part of the quality management focused on the fulfilling the requirements of the quality. This approach emphasizes three major aspects;  

  • Elements such as the management of job, management processes, integrity and performance criteria, and the records identification.
  • Competence like the knowledge, experiences, skills and qualification.
  • Soft elements like confidence, integrity, personnel, team spirit, motivation and culture of the organization.

The inspection is the major part of the quality control, where the physical product is examined visually or the end results are analyzed. The inspector of the products will be having the descriptions and the lists of the unacceptable defects products like the cracks and the surface blemishes (Köp, 2010).

Quality assurance; this is the way of avoiding the errors and the faults in the products that are manufactured and escaping the complications when distributing the services or solutions to the customers. The defect prevention in the quality assurance differs from the fault detection and rejection in the quality control. The quality assurance encompasses the practical activities and managerial activities executed in the quality system so that the goals and the requirement of the product will be fulfilled. The quality assurance has two major principles; fit for the purpose where the product should be appropriate for the purpose intended and the right first time where then mistakes should be removed. The quality assurance includes the management of the raw materials quality, components and the products, assemblies, services related management, production and processes of inspections.

Flexible manufacture

Quality system; this is the collection of the business processes focused on the meeting the requirement of the customers and improving their approval. It is aligned with the purpose of the organization and the strategic direction. It is expressed as the organizational processes, goals, inspiration, policies, resources needed and information documented to implement and maintain it. Early the quality management system major on the predictable outcomes of the production line of the industry using the random sampling and simple statistics. The QMS ha converge with the initiatives of transparency and sustainability as both the customers and investors’ satisfaction and perceived quality is tied to these factors increasingly (Robert, 2011).

Quality management; this ensures the organization, service or the product is consistent, it has four major components; quality planning, control, assurance and improvement. This quality management focused on both the quality of the service product and also attain it. It, therefore, uses the quality control and the quality product to achieve to deliver consistent quality. Quality management is modern but very important for the organization. The civilization that sustained the crafts and arts allowed the customers to choose the products meeting the quality of higher standards rather than the normal goods (Merli, 2014).

Six sigma; is a discipline, based on statistics and data-driven approach for eliminating the defects in the process, product and services. This is the set of techniques and the tools for the improvement processes. This strategy of six sigma seeks to increase the products quality of the output of the process by categorizing the defects and eliminating and also removing the causes of the faults and reducing the manufacturing variability and the processes if business. It uses the sets of methods of quality management and creates the infrastructure of the people in the organization who are the experts in this field. every six sigma project done in the organization follow the sequence defined steps and has the specific target value such as reducing the time cycle of the process, reducing the costs, reducing the pollution. Increasing the profit and increasing the satisfaction of the customers (O'Hagan, 2010).

Kaizen quality control; it is the word of Japanese for the upgrading and in the field of business, it is the activities that improve continuously all the purposes and comprise the all employees from the CEO to the workers of the assembly line. It applies to the processes like logistics and buying that cross the boundary of the organization into the supply chain. By improving the programs and processes of standardization, the kaizen aims in wastes elimination (Harinder, 2010). The kaizen is the daily procedure, the purpose goes beyond the simple improving the productivity. This process when done correctly, humanize the workplace, eliminate the hard work, and also educate the people on how to do the experiments on their work by the use of scientific methods and also how to learn to spot and reduce the wastes in the business processes (Pal, 2011). It is most commonly used in the manufacturing operations but can also be used in the non-manufacturing fields. The format of the kaizen can be individual, large and small groups or the suggestion system.

Factory organization

Total quality management; this describes the management approach to the success of the long-term through the satisfaction of the customers. Consist of the efforts of the organizations to fit and make the lasting climate in which the business improve the ability to produce products and services of high to clients continuously. The total quality management efforts normally draw on the developed techniques and tools of the quality control. All the members of the organization normally participate in the improving the products, process, and service and also the culture in which they work (Publishing, 2013). The eight principles of the total quality management are; customer focused, the total involvement of the employees, the process is centred, the system is integrated, systematic and strategic approach, the improvement is continuous, the decision is made on facts and effective communication.

Figure 3: Total quality management (Pal, 2011).

The ISO 9000; it is the family of the system of quality management and is designed to help the organization meet the stakeholders and customers' needs while meeting the regulatory and statutory requirements related to the services or the products. It deals with the quality management systems including the seven principles of the quality management where the standards are based (Harinder, 2010).

Statistical process control; this is the method of quality control that uses the methods of statistics to monitor and control the process. This help in ensuring that the process works efficiently and giving out more conforming and specification products with fewer wastes. It can be used to any process where the conforming products can be measured. The key tools used in the statistical process control are run charts, experiment designs, continuous improvement and the control charts. The SPC must be used in the two stages, the first stage is the initial launch of the process and the second one is the even production use of the process. in the 2nd stage, the decision of the time to be tested must be made depending on the man, machine, method, materials environment and movement, the advantage of the SPC over the other methods of quality control is that it detects and prevent the problems rather than trying to correct the occurred can also reduce the time needed to produce the product and makes it less likely the finished product will require to be scrapped and reworked, and also reduced the

Wastes (Publishing, 2013).


Manufacturing is the creation of the stock for the sale by the use of labour and machines, chemicals, tools, biological formulation and processes. the term may refer to the range of human action from the handicraft to the high technology is normally used to the organizational production where there is the transformation of the raw materials to finished goods on the large scales. Such finished goods can be sold to the manufacturer to produce more complex products such as the appliances of the households, aircraft, and equipment of sports, automobiles and furniture or sold to the wholesalers who later sell them to the retailers who sell them to the end users and consumers. For the efficiency of the manufacturing organization, manufacturing system, factory organization, just in time, lean manufacturing and cellular manufacturing are very important to address. Also for the quality of the manufacturing organization, quality control, assurance, systems, and management, six sigma and total quality management are important to address too.


Frank, P., 2014. Manufacturing planning and control. Perth: Elsevier.

Harinder, S., 2010. Strategic Decision Making in Modern Manufacturing. Colorado: Springer Science & Business Media.

Köp, B., 2010. Cooperative Design of Manufacturing Systems in SMEs. Toledo: GITO mbH Verlag.

Lewis, M., 2014. Causal Factors that Influence Turnover Intent in a Manufacturing Organisation. New York: University of Pretoria.

Merli, G., 2014. Total manufacturing management: production organization. California: Productivity Press.

O'Hagan, T., 2010. Advances in Manufacturing Technology. Perth: John Wiley & Sons.

Pal, M. K., 2011. Productivity In The Organised Manufacturing Sector. Mumbai: Concept Publishing Company.

Publishing, E. G., 2013. Managing innovative manufacturing. Toledo: Emerald Group Publishing.

Robert, H., 2011. Dynamic Manufacturing. Michigan: Simon and Schuster.

Taisch, M., 2013. Advanced Manufacturing.. Michigan: CRC Press.

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