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Name of policy/program. Why does it exist? What is its purpose? Who provides the funds? How are the funds currently administered? How is it implemented and by whom?

Description of the field placement site: Who does it serve? What activities take place there?

Clearly state the reasons why a decision or direction is needed: What is the problem? What’s currently not working? Who are the stakeholders? How are they affected? What is the history of this issue? Were there past attempts for improvement?

Summary of what influences this issue: e.g. demographics, economics, social variables that impact this issue. What makes this case unique and how does it compare to others like it?

Clearly describe the recommended action: i.e. the solution, who can help and how? Clearly state the rationale: how would the recommended change make thing sbetter? Clearly state the considerations: possible risks, impacts, stakeholder reactions, challenges.

Clearly describe at least two other less preferred options, and the rationale behind not recommending them.
 

What is Racism and its impact on children?

Description of the policy

The policy that has been chosen for the discussion is the anti-racism policy taken up by the Allenby Daycare’s Anti-Racism protocol. Racism can be defined as the discrimination procedure that is directed towards an individual based on the skin color, ancestry, race, their ethnicity, the national origin, their citizenship, cast, creed, faith, belief or adornment (Kubota, 2015). Racism might can be intentional or unintentional, but the occurrence of racism. Racism can be considered as significant psychological stressor that has negative psychological and physical health consequences on the children and their family (Kubota, 2015). Racism is related to negative emotions among children and can affect their cognitive growth.

The purpose of the antiracism policy is to provide a stimulating program for meeting the diverse needs of the children. The main goal of the anti-racism policy is to identify and validate the experiences and the issue linked with racism as well as the factors contributing to them. Antiracism policy exists in order to create an environment that is fee from discrimination and where all the children and childcare staffs are treated with courtesy, dignity and respect, encouraging or reporting any behavior that causes a breach in the policies , protecting each and every child and the childcare employees in an appropriate manner (Kubota, 2015). 


There are antiracism community grant programs that provides grants to the organizations in order to implement the anti-racism policies. There are also several Non-governmental organizations that provides grants to such day care centers. Furthermore, lobbying with the politicians and influential people might be helpful for arranging grants for the antiracism policy. Some of the licensed home child care agencies are funded by the Ministry and contracts with individual providers who use their own home for providing care to the children. Allen day care center for children is located within the school and there almost 63 5 of all the child care spaces ar located in schools that also provide before and the after school programs.

Description of the field placement site

Allenby Daycare is located in Allenby school on 391 St. Clements Avenue Toronto ON M5N 1M2, Ontario.  It is a non-profit child care center that has been opened in 1983, for meeting the needs of the children present in the Allenby community center. The organization is solely run by the Board of directors consisting of the Allenby Day care parents. The day care is licensed by the Ministry of education. The organization provide care for 15 toddlers, 16 preschoolers, 135 school-aged children and 78 junior and senior kindergarten children. They also provide subsidized childcare spaces for eligible families. The day care center provides a wide range of activities like summer camps, fun workshops like Hands on Exotics”, “Messy Hands”, “Super Science”, “Ten Ten Sports Academy”. The organization also arrange for the weekly themed programs like “Science Exploration and Beyond”, Art Attack, Body , “Mind & Spirit’, Technology Art & Design.

Purpose of Anti-Racism policy in Daycare Centers

Reason for the antidiscrimination policy

In spite of all the policies and the procedures to mitigate racial discrimination, incidents of racial discrimination were common in the schools and the societies. The curriculum or the childcare activities taking place in the centers might not always consider the culture or the tradition of children. Again, cultural discrimination is visible in each and every sectors like employment, schools, and private sectors and more (Greenwood & de Leeuw, 2012). Hence, a common approach was necessary to understand racism as a combination of power and prejudice. It require to make the childcare services more equal and accessible for all the sections of the society (Greenwood & de Leeuw,2012). One of the main problem that has been identified is that most  of the people are unaware of the actual definitions of “racism” and thus also lack the perception as of how the racial discrimination can be mitigated (Hiranandani, 2012).. It should be mentioned that the practice of multiculturalism in liberal democracy is jeopardized by the lack of clarity in the term “racism’ and “anti-racism”. In most of the cases the antiracism policies simply cannot be acted on in real  or the policies that can be intended for a particular group might be disadvantageous for the other group (Craig et al., 2015) .  

The main stakeholders for the policy procedure are- children, the parents, the governing body of the school, the assistant heads, the staffs, the indigenous educators and the children. This is because they are the most effected by the racial discrimination and it is also the responsibility of the assistant head and the governing body of the school to implement the antiracism policy at the school. While researching on this particular day care center, it has been found that in most of the cases the care workers are English speaking and there are no Asian or African staffs in the center (Currie et al., 2012). The children who are receiving care from this organization often have diverse culture and traditions. In spite of this, most of the actions and practices taking place in this organization is as per the convenience of the white children.  Instances can be found in the day care centers where Asian or the African children are bullied or are restricted from participating in games. This kind of exclusion might make children upset and it is essential that the teachers should have a complete acquaintances about these kind of discriminative behavior (Craig et al., 2015). 

Community Grant Programs for Anti-Racism Policy Implementation


It should be mentioned that the incidence of racism in Canada has deep colonial roots (Priest et al., 2013). Ethnicity became a common dividing line in the British North American society in the middle of the 19 the century and racism was imbibed more deeply by the arrival of Irish immigrants (Dei 2014). The ethnic and the sectarian intolerance divided the upper communities in the Upper Canada and the Maritime with the arrival of the Irish immigrants. In order to address racial discrimination across the indigenous Canadian community, Canadian residential schools were established in the 19th century (Currie et al., 2014). The Canadian government believed that it was necessary for educating the aboriginal people in Canada. But the Canadian government developed the “aggressive assimilation” policy in the schools in order to mold the students in order to prepare for the mainstream society (Priest et al., 2016). In the name of assimilation the young indigenous children were abused or were subjected to harsh treatment. With the introduction of the Anti-Black Racism strategy in 2017, the government tried to reduce the overrepresentation of the black children. Additionally, the ministry of the children and youth service has introduced the Ontario Black Youth Action plan aiming to preserve the rights for the Black children such that they can access the development programs, the family support services (Anti-Racism Directorate.,2017).. A similar action plan- Canada’s Action Plan Against Racism (2005 – 2010): was a five years horizontal plan by the Department of Canadian Heritage aiming to ensure social inclusion in the society by the elimination of the social and the economic barriers.  

Summary of what influenced the issue

In the year 2011, the foreign borne population was about 6,775,800 people, that represents about 20 % of the total population of Canada. The large population of the foreign borne population lived in the provinces of Ontario, Toronto. More than 200 ethnic origins have been reported to be staying in Canada according to the National household survey and three largest ethnic minority groups that can be visible are the South Asians, Black and Chinese (Statistics Canada., 2017). Other groups included Latin Americans, South East Asians and Koreans. Immigration and assimilation of people of different culture has influenced the population of the workforce, schools, hospitals and even the child care centers. Reflecting on the economic scenario, it has been noticed that the ethnic minority group had been facing racism in both education, employment and the health care sector (Statistics Canada., 2017). The earnings gap experienced by the Black men had been an issue since 1990 and no progress had been made so far in closing the earning gap. This low economic mobility and the vast differences in income between the whites and black had largely affected the societal class. Racial discrimination in every sector has set its paws even in childhood education sectors eventually affecting the overall development of a child.

Allenby Daycare - a Non-profit Center for Childcare

Strategies meant for improving the anti-racism policy should be made both at the institutional level as well at an individual level. Any changes that has to be incorporated should start from the upper hierarchy of the organization (Miller et al., 2014).  The board of directors and the managers should be in the frontline to create an inclusive culture inside the day care center. 


One of the main motto of the antiracism policy is to eliminate the racial inequalities related to the access to a high quality of early childhood program, elimination of the racial  inequalities within the childcare program , ensuring an inclusive pedagogy that promote their sense of self worth from an ethnic or a racial standpoint (Gérin-Lajoie, 2012). Any antiracism policy in day care center should be meant for challenging the Eurocentric nature of practice and curriculum, recognizing the rights of each and every child. The management committee should ensure that the service complies with legislation . The service manager should be responsible for monitoring that all the care workers are aware of their responsibilities and are provided with the training for the development of cultural competency (Gérin-Lajoie, 2012). The service managers are also responsible for taking the appropriate actions in case of any discrimination (Gérin-Lajoie, 2012). The staffs should be trained efficiently so that they can identify and challenge the bias of stereotyping and dealing with any kind of discriminatory incident. Provisions should be made such that they remain updated on the equality issues (Roberts, 2017). Discussing about the role of the carers or the parents, they should always keep themselves aware of the equal opportunity policies and understanding that it applies to all the children and all those that are involved with the services (Escayg, Berman & Royer, 2017). It should be kept in mind that the information for the parents are easily accessible , taking in account of the literacy difficulties in an user friendly language and other languages other than English. Furthermore, supporting the staffs in a shared understanding and the appreciation of the benefits of the anti-discriminatory approach (Hiranandani, 2012). Hence, the best recommendation is to educate the care workers about the cultural sensitive practices that embraces diversity.  

Some of the barriers in the implementation policy is the presence of negative emotions among the parents or the care workers towards children coming from different ethnic minority group. Lack of cultural sensitivity and education might give rise to stigmatization. For examples, parents of white children might instruct their children not to interact with the African and the Asian children (Hiranandani, 2012). Another biggest problem, is the personal perception of the stakeholders. The stakeholders should identify the true meaning of the antiracism and anti-discriminatory practices and should be able to embrace diversity at the personal level (White et al., 2012). Another barrier that can be faced with in the implementation of practices is limited funding (Dei, 2014). Education and training would require hiring of educators or cultural friendly resources for the origination that would require a separate funding. Furthermore, conduction of workshops with children and parents to celebrate different cultures and diversity would also require effective finance management (Roberts, 2017). 

Challenges in Implementing Anti-Racism Policy

Description of the other less preferred options and rationale behind not recommending them

Day care centers for children are often faced with crowding due to the increasing numbers of the working mothers and the emergence of the economic class. Due to the shortage of the staffs and the workload of the day care centers, it becomes impossible to race relation education or training programs (Reading, 2014). In such cases, personal mail might be sent to the workers containing a copy of the antiracism policies or newsletters might be published in the bulletin board of the day care center. Newsletters and personal mail might be an excellent method to disseminate a practice, but in an organization with heavy workload, shortage of staffing and financial constraints, the care workers are likely to omit or overlook such emails or newsletters. The staffs and the careworkers should be informed about the legal obligation of the careworkers as well as the penalties that can be imposed, if they do not comply with the policies and the procedures (Reading, 2014).

Another less preferred option is the multicultural programs and the policies as they typically does not reflect on racism as they fail to recognize the boundaries and the concept of diversity. Reading, (2014) have argued that multicultural programs recommended exclusively for the ethnic minority group is another form of racism as such a program and the activities often objectify a particular race. Such a focus on the minority leads to victim blaming.  The multicultural policies and the procedure should be broad enough and should be made on the basis of the experiences of people who had been the victims of racism (Escayg, Berman & Royer, 2017).

It should be remembered that the policies and the procedures might serve as a form of indirect racism if all the approaches taken re irrespective of any cast and creed. Addressing racism would require a broader and specific policy procedures implemented both at the organizational level and the institutional level. 

References

Anti-Racism Directorate. (2017).Ontario’s Anti-Black Racism Strategy. Access date: 9.2.2019. .Retrieved from: https://www.ontario.ca/page/ontarios-anti-black-racism-strategy

Craig, G., Atkin, K., Flynn, R. & Chattoo, S. eds., (2012). Understanding'race'and ethnicity: theory, history, policy, practice. Policy Press.

Currie, C.L., Wild, T.C., Schopflocher, D.P., Laing, L. & Veugelers, P., (2012). Racial discrimination experienced by Aboriginal university students in Canada. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 57(10), .617-625.

Dei, G.J.S., (2014). A prism of educational research and policy: Anti-racism and multiplex oppressions. In Politics of anti-racism education: In search of strategies for transformative learning (pp. 15-28). Springer, Dordrecht.

Escayg, K.A., Berman, R. & Royer, N., (2017). Canadian Children and Race: Toward an Antiracism Analysis. Journal of Childhood Studies, 42(2),.10-21.

Gérin-Lajoie, D., (2012). Racial and ethnic diversity in schools: The case of English Canada. Prospects, 42(2), .205-220.

Government of Canada. (2018) .Deepening Understanding, Developing Ideas: A Cross-Country Conversation on Anti-Racism. Access date: 12.2.2019. Retrieved form :https://www.canada.ca/en/canadian-heritage/campaigns/anti-racism-engagement/deepening-understanding-developing-ideas.html

Greenwood, M.L. & de Leeuw, S.N., (2012). Social determinants of health and the future well-being of Aboriginal children in Canada. Paediatrics & child health, 17(7),.381-384.

Hiranandani, V., (2012). Diversity Management in the Canadian Workplace: Towards an antiracism approach. Urban Studies Research, 2012.

Kubota, R., (2015). Race and language learning in multicultural Canada: Towards critical antiracism. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 36(1), .3-12.

Miller, D.P., Bazzi, A.R., Allen, H.L., Martinson, M.L., Salas-Wright, C.P., Jantz, K., Crevi, K. & Rosenbloom, D.L., (2017). A social work approach to policy: Implications for population health. American journal of public health, 107(S3), .S243-S249.

Priest, N., Paradies, Y., Stevens, M. & Bailie, R., (2012). Exploring relationships between racism, housing and child illness in remote indigenous communities. J Epidemiol Community Health, 66(5),440-447.

Reading, C., (2014). Policies, programs and strategies to address aboriginal racism: A Canadian perspective. National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health.

Roberts, W., (2017) Trust, empathy and time: Relationship building with families experiencing vulnerability and disadvantage in early childhood education and care services. Australasian journal of early childhood, 42(4), 4.

Statistics Canada., (2017). Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity in Canada. Access date: 13.2.2019. Retrieved from: https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/as-sa/99-010-x/99-010-x2011001-eng.cfm

White, K., Budai, J., Mathew, D., Deighan, M.R. & Gill, H., (2012). Educators' Perspectives about a Public School District's Aboriginal Education Enhancement Agreement in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 35(1), .42.

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