You are required to develop and implement a training module. You need to consider the training needs of your topic, design a learning package with clear objectives and outcomes, develop appropriate materials and a detailed lesson plan.
Training and Performance Improvement
Training and development are integral parts of Human resource management. In order to increase performance standards training is a must. Training is like the direction compass to an individual, it sets the way of future development and success. Training molds the individual and make it fit for the role he/she is going to play in their lives. Training is not limited to only professional fronts but is required in every aspect of human life. Here in this report the aspect of performance management is considered and focused on measuring and understanding the performance determinants Kenny and Bourne (2015, pp. 1-3). Performance related feedback approach is also considered and training needs on performance management of a class is the main discussion topic of the report. The key coverage areas include training needs of performance management, designing of learning package having clear objectives and effective outcomes, development of an appropriate lesson plan, administrating the training package, outcome evaluation of a particular trainings session and finally providing recommendations of any change requirements. Group participation in the training session is encouraged to exemplify the importance of group processes.
“Tell me and I forget, teach me and I may remember, involve me and I learn” – this simple quotation provides the true essence of training Aguinis (2013). Training and performance are co-related to each other. If right training is provided at the right time then level of performance will automatically improve and it will be visible in the behavior of the individual. Creation of an effective training program is not everyone’s cup of tea. It requires systematic development of purposes and underlying objectives. Ineffective training has no meaning and is a waste of money and resources. Class performance is one of the most crucial areas where an individual is able to set its horizon in the unlimited sky of knowledge. Low level of performance lowers the confidence level and self-morale of the individual Salas et al (2017, pp 63-76). Unless and until an individual get to know about the performance levels, one cannot set higher benchmarks for better performances and for this feedback is undoubtedly the most important criteria to be considered. Proper feedback help in timely performance improvement. Effective training session will help rebooting the confidence level back and will provide ray of hope for future development.
The most suitable road map framework of developing and implementing an effective training module is discussed as under,
Key Components of an Effective Training Module for Performance Management
Situational assessment of why the training is needed is to be done first. Perceiving a problem is not the end, but assessment of the situation is equally important. The traning need assessment is a four step process.
Firstly, overall class performace is considered here. The goal of every class is to perform better with disticntion and if one class fails to make impressive results then analysis of the situation and problem area is necessary. Unclear and unsure organizational goal decreases the effectiveness of training process.
Secondly, the tasks individuals need to perform in the class is to be determined. Every student need to take active participation (presentation, comprehension activities, social activites, sports, debates, group discussions, examinations, speeches, writing skill sessions and other such class activities) to add to the performace of the whole class Mrazek et al (2013, pp.776-781). The performance gap is then calculated. It shows the difference between what the class can actually perform and what they are performing now. Strategies are then formulated according to the severeness of the gap. It may be found that some students in the class are below standard performace levels which is lowering the overall class performace.
Thirdly, training activities that will help the students to improve their performace standards is determined. The activities include simulation, similar case study assessment, role playing, in-house training, relevant study material supply, increased participation in class activites, coaching and mentoring, councelling if necessary, motivational sessions and other performace improvement sessions.
Lastly, the core characteristics of each and every student need to be studied and determined. However it is not always possible to study each student, so the average of their characteristics is considered in measuring performance Mester, et al (2018). For example some students are good at sport, some are good academicians, some are good social servers, some are good in debates and some have excellent comprehensive skills. Each group need to be segretted based on their traits and need to be used in the best-fit role of theirs in the overall class performance.
The relevance to organizational adult learning principles is not in the case of class performace. Class also has some learned and experienced students and also have some students will no experience at all Kenny and Bourne (2015, pp. 1-3). The experienced should take the elad role in motivating the less learned. They should be trend setter and less-experienced should follow them. The advanatge of using experienced students in training is they are self-directed, goal-oriented, understands the relevance of training, quick learners and could provide genuine feedback about the training program Hextall and Mahony (2013). They could easily train other students when needed, this increases the overall effectiveness of the training.
Development of a training module without learning objectives is of no meaning. Learning objectives are the set of things the student will be able to do after the training is complete. It will act as the connecting link between the actual and the desired performance levels. The learning objectives will include KSA (Knowledge Skill Attitude) areas, SMART ( specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and time-bound) objectives and ABCD part activities Cardy and Leonard (2014). A is an actor, who will perform the objectives, B is the behavior that the actor must perform, C is the condition under which the actor is to perform the behavior and D is the degree to which the actor must perform the behaviour.
It is the plan before the fianl action. Focus on the learning needs is to be given more importance. Training contents need to be in compliance with the learning objectives. Including hands-on activities and simulations will increase effectivenss. The trainer need to adopt delegative leadersh style and should encourage participants to take control of the learning process Campion and Campion (2015, pp.85-93). The students need to talka nd interact with the trainer and among the groups to the extent possible so that their grey areas gets cleared. Oppotunity for extensive feedback should be supported. Training materials need to be divided into smaller segements so that they became easy and comprehensible to the students. Blended or mixed training learning should be adopted that is both computer-based and instructor-led training approaches should be induldged.
Once the designing is complete it is time for developing the training materials. It is like menu of a meal is written and its time to cook following the menu. A variety of tools and techniques are helpful in developing the training material. Office tools like Word, Excel and Powerpoint will help in creating training outlines other tools incldue hands-on elements for role playing, practice sessions, posters, flip charts, visual graphics, visual short stories and documentries Buckingham and Goodall (2015, pp.40-50).
The students need to be informed in advance about the training so that they could complete all pre-training activities. Use of LMS (Learning Management System) software will help in the tracking the core functions of training like assign, delivery, track and report Bracken and Church (2013, p.34). But in case of class performance record purpose notification system will do. Other arrangements include buying tools, if any for the training, arranging halls and rooms, arranging refreshments and meals if required, arranging some outside trainers, travel logisitcs setting and the most important cost Bach (2013, pp.221-342). Budgeting the training is necessary and pre-finance arrangements need to be made at least 2 days prior to the training.
Determining Tasks and Performance Gap
Training implementation can be classroom instruction, role-playing exercises, performance management games, focus groups, case studies, group assignments and paper based hand-out provided for studying and reading purposes.
Implementation of the training is not the end of all. For effective training delivery it is necessary to evaluate the post-process. Kirkpatrick’s four level of evalaution will help in finding the actual effectiveness of the training Aragón, Jiménez and Valle (2014, pp.161-173). Students reaction to the training can be collected by paper-based surveys, actual learning of students could be known by case study assessment, simulations, exercies and classroom particiaption, the post training behavior of the students will show the difference in their class activities and lastly quantifiable results in overall classroom performance.
If students at any point of their training feels the need of imporvement in some specific areas the training module need to be modified as per their convinience Aguinis (2013). The ultimate aim is to have higher performance levels for the whole class and if processes need to be repeated then it should be.
Recommendation And Conclusion
Class performance is one of the most crucial areas where an individual is able to set its horizon in the unlimited sky of knowledge. Level of confidence and self-belief are the two most important attributes in a student that promotes its future opportunities and development aspects. Training is effective only when it promotes learning in individuals. Feedback is undoubtedly the most important criteria in adding effectiveness to training. But true fact is that no extrinsic force of training could increase the morale in an individual unless and until self-motivating factor is awakened. After the training session it is recommended that students should participate in more activities in the class and try to improve their weak areas mostly lack of interaction. The most effective training tool in this performance concern is role playing and group discussion sessions. The level of interaction is high in both cases. Not only from holistic perspective but from individualistic aspect as well students need to motivate themselves and increase their performance levels. Mentors, trainers will support them but effort need to be from their side only.
Aguinis, H., 2013. Performance management (Vol. 2). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Aragón, M.I.B., Jiménez, D.J. and Valle, R.S., 2014. Training and performance: The mediating role of organizational learning. BRQ Business Research Quarterly, 17(3), pp.161-173.
Bach, S., 2013. Performance management. Managing human resources: Human resource management in transition, pp.221-342.
Bracken, D.W. and Church, A.H., 2013. The" new" performance management paradigm: capitalizing on the unrealized potential of 360 degree feedback. People and Strategy, 36(2), p.34.
Buckingham, M. and Goodall, A., 2015. Reinventing performance management. Harvard Business Review, 93(4), pp.40-50.
Campion, M.C., Campion, E.D. and Campion, M.A., 2015. Improvements in performance management through the use of 360 feedback. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 8(1), pp.85-93.
Cardy, R. and Leonard, B., 2014. Performance Management: Concepts, Skills and Exercises: Concepts, Skills and Exercises. Routledge.
Hextall, I. and Mahony, P., 2013. Reconstructing teaching: Standards, performance and accountability. Routledge.
Kenny, G. and Bourne, M., 2015. Performance measurement. Wiley Encyclopedia of Management, pp.1-3.
Mester, B., Andrews, A., Allen, C. and Chiozzi, L., 2018. Performance management.
Mrazek, M.D., Franklin, M.S., Phillips, D.T., Baird, B. and Schooler, J.W., 2013. Mindfulness training improves working memory capacity and GRE performance while reducing mind wandering. Psychological science, 24(5), pp.776-781.
Salas, E., Prince, C., Baker, D.P. and Shrestha, L., 2017. Situation awareness in team performance: Implications for measurement and training. In Situational Awareness (pp. 63-76). Routledge.
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