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History

Question:

Discuss about the Educational Culture Within India.

Education system all around the world is transforming and so is in India. It is the country which is having the educational system from thousands of years. From ancient times there was a formal system that existed within the nation (Mogasale, et. al., 2012). In present times the condition of the school infrastructure on an average is very poor. This country poses an educational culture which is more study centric and the other activities within the nation are not promoted so much. It is not the case in all the schools that they are not promoting extra-curricular activities but in most of the parts it is the case. Apart from this it is also to be noticed that the economic architecture of the nation also forces families to promote their children towards studies rather than supporting them in extra-curricular activities. This research paper highlights the key points that provide the brief about educational culture within India that promotes Extra-Curricular activities. It also signifies the benefits of school based Extra-Curricular programmes well as the importance of increasing student outcomes inside the school educational system.

History

India is known for having a cultural and educational background. From thousands of years it is having a formal architecture of educational system named Gurukul. This structure was known for not only providing educational qualification inside the students rather they were responsible for the overall development of the personality which included all the extra-curricular activities (Afridi, 2011). They learned all the ways of living life at these schools i.e. from dance to drama, from cookery to fighting. But through the years of foreign king reigns in India destroyed this culture and the importance of the extra-curricular activities reduced. At the time of India being a colonial state, the modern day schooling culture was adopted. In the modern times the structure of Indian education does not promote extra-curricular activities. Or in the other words it can be said that the structure of modern schooling is more qualification centric and the focus on the extra-curricular activities has reduced considerably. In the past there were some of the initiatives taken by various people in the society who have had their own schools which promoted other extra-curricular activities.

One of the best examples can be found out in West-Bengal where the prominent people like Rabindranath Tagore opened Shanti Niketan which was known for providing education along with other art forms. After the freedom of India due to the influence of catholic school most of the schools diversified themselves as per the teachings they are giving to their students. This led to opening of various schools of Drama, Art, and Sport etc. It reduced the promotion of extra-curricular activities within the school along with the educational qualification. In the modern schools there are all the facilities available for performing extra-curricular activities but there is a problem that these activities are not supported with highest of priorities.

Nature of Problems

Nature of problems

In spite of higher benefits of promoting extra-curricular activity within the educational system it has not been implemented well in the schools of India (Srivastava, et. al., 2012). Nature of the issue is very much social and it is very much complex as well as needs a deep rooted approach to resolve it. It is essential to have extra-curricular educational programme as it assist in overall development of student’s personality. It also assists in bringing talents out of the students which can help them in selecting fields (Brooks, et. al., 2015). This may lead them to have good future. It is important to understand that most of the people inside the nation comes under middle class or poor people hence they forces their children to go towards studies rather than focusing on these activities also. It stops the development of the student’s own physical as well as mental abilities.

This research topic attracts because there are large potential of changing the whole educational system in which there is proper balance between educational qualification and extra-curricular activities. This will help in enhancing the overall approach of the people towards work. I am also interested in it because there is larger scope of making changes in the whole educational structure if proper analysis is done.

  • To explore the benefits of having school based extra-curricular programme.
  • To find the reasons that is acting as obstacle in this programme.
  • To find the importance of enhancing student outcomes within the Indian school education system.
  • To find out the effect of lack of such programmes on the student’s academic and personal career.

This research describes the ways in which extra-curricular programme will benefit the society as well as the educational career of students. This research draws the attention of the people towards the condition of Indian educational system which is more study centric rather than focusing on the holistic development of students. It also illustrates about the basic infrastructure that is present within the schools and is necessary for the promotion of such activities. In this report challenges that are present in front of the whole educational system in developing such program has also been illustrates. It also signifies the ways in which such programmes enhance the student’s outcomes of the whole educational system. Research here is also done on the issues of the policies related to the Indian educational system.

In second chapter i.e. the literature review part of this research will describe about the policies that are present in the educational system which will guide the whole programme. In the literature review part, view point about extra-curricular programmes has been illustrated. Here the different kinds of extra-curricular programmes in India and Abroad have also been described.

Benefits of Extra-Curricular Activities

In the third chapter, the research methodology that will be used for conducting this research will be discussed. The approach of the whole research will be elaborated in this chapter of the report.

In the fourth chapter data has been collected and then interpretation and analysis has been done on it. Various tools have been used for making the interpretations as well as the making the analysis.

In the fifth chapter, personal understanding or the reflective analysis of the overall research is done. Here personal understanding and future benefits can be understood.

In the sixth chapter, conclusion of the whole research is illustrated as well as the recommendations for the future has also been provided.

Many researchers have advocated that that there is a serious need of having an infrastructure inside the schools that promotes extra-curricular activities. It is to be understood that for the holistic development of student it is essential that a school system has a plan for development of extra-curricular activities. In the views of Deb, Strodl and Sun, (2015), such kind of extra-curricular diagram helps in the personality development of the students. They feel more confident while performing any task. Extra-curricular activities such as sports help to add the physical and mental development speed. As in the Indian Society more stress is paid on the educational qualification that is why most of the students are unable to develop their talents which could positively be fostered with the implementation of such culture. In other words there are many people that are brilliant in some other things but due to lack of infrastructure and promotional mind-set of parents they are unable to develop them. It adds to the career of the student in the negative sense. This is because he neither stays with the talent he has neither he is able to achieve through studies.

On the other hand Bundick, (2011), believes that the educational system of India is producing such a large number of academically good individuals. Their intelligence is appreciated world-wide but on the other side this country is unable to produce large number of sports person or some other kinds of talents. It is due to the fact that the early stage of schooling students does not get a proper infrastructure where they could develop their talents in a better way. This is a failure of the Indian educational system were qualification approach is only utilised.

Views on Extra-Curricular Activities in Indian Education System

On the contrary Devi, et. al., (2012), says that there are many loopholes in the educational system that restricts promotion of such a program. The major one is the fact that most of the schools do not have enough resources to make such an infrastructure. In order to develop such infrastructure within a school there is a requirement of funds which they do not have. This situation is even worse in the rural India where there is almost nothing with respect to infrastructure for extra-curricular activities. In the urban area this problem arises due to other factors like he complexity of space. Most of the schools in cities and towns do not have space to develop infrastructure for the development extra-curricular programs especially sports (Deb, Strodl and Sun, 2015). This condition is slightly better in the big private schools. Due to lack of such programs it is difficult to enhance the individual interest in such extracurricular activities.

In the views of Banerjee, et. al., (2016), school based extra-curricular activities program can be very beneficial in this regards. This is also the failure of government as they have the prime role in the development of such programmes and implementing them in the nation-wide curriculum. States and central governments have failed to implement it in their school. Even after having infrastructural base and abundance of funds for making this program successful, this has failed due to lack of care given in this regards. In order to make sure that it is properly implemented within the schools of India it is necessary that a proper plan must be made.

On the other hand Baradwaj and Pal, (2012), believes that school based extra-curricular program has extra-ordinary benefits. It is necessary for the creating new talents inside the country. It is difficult to grow any talent at the graduation level hence it is always beneficial that talents must be nurtured at the school level which can further developed at the higher stages of life. In most of the parts of India Sports or other activities has been considered to be as the activities that can be done after the studies is over. This mind set broadens in the middle class society where people cannot promote large sum of money in the nurturing of these activities. This kind of activities helps in broadening the number of talents inside the nation. In other words there are many students that are coming from backwards class of the society and without such programs it is not possible to nurture talents in them.

In the views of Muralidharan and Sundararaman, (2011), School based extra-curricular programmes are beneficial as they help in the physical and mental development of the students. The programs related to sports helps in the improving the health status of the students which will help them in the later part of their life. This ultimately helps in improving health condition of the individuals. Apart from this other talents such as arts and drama helps in enhancing creativity inside the student which is beneficial in their educational life also. Apart from this it is to be understood that they provide productive break from the studies which is necessary for the refreshing the minds of students (Muralidharan and Sundararaman, 2015). It also prevents students from distress which has become more common at young at age especially in the countries like India where the pressure on the students is extremely high due to higher competition.

On the contrary Woodhead, Frost and James, (2013), believes that such kinds of programs helps in developing multiple talents inside the students which always looks good in the resume. There are sports quota for admissions in big government and private universities and hence after schooling, students who are participating in such programs can easily get admissions.

In the views of Dobbins, et. al., (2013), there are many policies that are made by the state as well as central governments. The major problem is that most of them are only on papers and has not been implemented properly on grounds. The biggest board of affiliation for school education in India which is also a government institute has made many policies regarding the school based extra-curricular activities. These policies are not implemented in most of the schools as well as they are unable to provide expected benefits. Policies related to education get amended in every one or two years while the policies related to promotion of extra-curricular activities have not been given proper care.

According to Eime, et. al., (2013) Ministry of Human resource and development in the nation has made is guidelines in terms of policies so that extra-curricular activities also gets involved in the syllabus. In this regards CBSE has been promoting it in many ways as they are conducting exams for many of these activities like the Art, Sports and others. This kind of policy to make t in the syllabus helps in promotion of such activities. Department of Educational Affairs believes that active participation of students in such activities helps them in fostering leadership, encouraging cooperation and team work values. They also understands that such activities helps them in bringing a change in them so that they can take initiatives improves skills present in them as well as also helps in enhancing academic knowledge. Central board of secondary education has given clear guidelines to the affiliated schools that in a week there must be four classes so as to play or practice the extra-curricular talents.


In the views of Farb and Matjasko, (2012), India lacks in the Sports due to the reason that most of the students do not get the opportunity at the early stage of life to practice what their talents. If at early stage of schooling only proper infrastructure is provided then there is a sure chance that India could also produce good and capable athletes. The seriousness that has been given to the academic studies is not provided to other extra-curricular activities. In some of the parts of the India like the north eastern states like Bengal, Jharkhand and other tribal belts, the situation is little bit better. It is not only the role of the Central government to enforce such policies within the school rather it is also the responsibility of the state governments. This board has asked schools to have either separate rooms for dance, music, art or sports or have one special multipurpose hall that is capable to conduct all these activities at a time. Many schools have made the internal policies like having a Zero period at the start or end of the day. This period is fixed for the students who want to participate in the activities of their choice. This has proven to be one of the most successful ideas for promoting extra-curricular activities within the nation.

According to Fredricks, (2012) in India most of people believes that these extra-curricular activities are not beneficial for the growth of the individuals. They say that it is a waste of time and hence do not promote their students in these areas. They understand it to be the area where putting extra efforts can spoil the student’s base. They also think that it distracts students from their prime focus. This is also due to the reason that academic competitiveness in the society is higher which is not there in any other activities. This pressure from the society forces students to focus on the studies rather than putting efforts in these curricular activities. Doctors believe that ageing effect can be seen in the students that are only focused towards studies and practice no other activities. These extra-curricular activities act as a stress reliever. In the modern society students have given more concentration on the electronic mediums. Devices like Mobile phones have restricted people from coming out of their homes and take part in such activities.

On the contrary Simoncini and Caltabiono, (2012), believes that in the rural areas students are more interested towards such activities. It is also due to the reason that most of the families in the rural India do not have so much of money to teach their students and give them higher education. This leaves them with no choice other than leaving their children with their own interest. But it is also to be seen that in the rural India there is no such school that could offer them a platform where they can practice their talents. It is also to be understood that people in the rural India not even send their students for the studying then what can possibly be the condition of extra-curricular activities.

In the views of Kort-Butler and Hagewen, (2011), it is also to be understood that in most of the school it is thought that India does not have an infrastructure that can give boost to their extra-curricular talents. This restricts them from promoting their students also only towards studies. It is the fact that except cricket no other sports or activities have bright future (Kort-Butler, 2012).

Dimech and Seiler, (2011), has a different view point regarding the school based extra-curricular program implementation. He believes that there is a cultural aspect that is also associated with it. In most of the culture around India, study has been given more preference than other activities. An illusionary understanding in this regards is that India is a country of scholars but it is a myth. In olden times almost all the activities have been equally promoted. In the modern times this is not true. Families understand it to be a matter of pride if their children achieve something academically while other achievements are not given so much importance. It is also not their complete mistake it is also due to the reason that every parents wants their students to become successful in their life. They want that their children have an excellent career but this is not possible in any other co-curricular activities and hence they are not promoting students to practice these.

Bajaj, (2012), states that if the students comes to the participate in such activities then there is a peer pressure on him to manage studies as well as give more focus towards studies only. This is also the reason that most of the students hesitate to participate in such activities. Apart from this it is also to be understood that there are many students that are good in both but they cannot come to perform in this field because they have to give more attention towards studies. Till the time the co-curricular activities will be considered as the thing that distracts students rather than being an activity that attracts students it is not possible to promote such an activity. Such kind of extra-curricular programs can be beneficial for the mental state of the students and can remove their boredom tiredness from studies. The policies made by the government cannot be successful without the help of parents and teachers.

In the views of Cort, (2018), extra-curricular activities at the schooling stage helps in developing of the social values inside the children. Student starts to work more as a group which helps them in their learning. He also believes that it is better that a teacher must promotes extra-curricular activities over confidence building classes. This is also due to the reason that extra-curricular activities have this learning inbuilt in them. Sometimes it is also understood as confidence booster activities. In the research it has been seen that academic grades of students improves when they attend such kinds of regular classes. As these activities boost their personal or subject understanding even when it does not relate with it. These activities helps in bringing new passion inside the student that can give him or her to find new career opportunities.

In the views of Spark, (2016), in India it has been noticed that only few of the students engages in school as they get detached with the type of schooling they get. This enhances attention of students towards the classroom teaching and activities that has been performed there. It helps in bringing an ideal environment where more friendships can be created and teaches them the habits about the ways in which mutual goals can be achieved. This also helps them in teaching the skills that are related with managing activities. With such programs students develops management skills inside them which they can use in their later stage of the life. One of the major skills that these co-curricular activities teach is to manage time. Students that are participating in such activities are understood to be a better manager of the time as they make balance between the academic and other activities. They internally develop their skills for managing their time as they organise their activities in a way that they can enjoy activities of their interests. It somehow also helps in building of self-esteem in student which is necessary for their future. Participating in such programs helps them in learning the skill of setting up of goals. This is due to the reason that while participation they learn how to integrate and coordinate ideas and information to others. This is one of the primary skills that will help them in their professional career.


On the contrary Mullen, Kulinna and Cothran, (2014), states that school level of such program is more beneficial. It is also due to the reason that in the graduation or at other academic levels it is hard to develop new skills in them. It is a famous proverb that “Child is the father of man” which illustrates that the skills learned at the earlier stage of life stays with them throughout their life span (Singh, 2015).  Apart from this it is also to be understood that at higher qualification levels students have to put more efforts towards their studies and hence such programs cannot be so successful. At school levels such programs can help students in understanding their career path that in which path they are more comfortable in. It is also the reason that most of the people in India are in the field that does not suit them and hence they are not satisfied with what they are doing. These kinds of attitude promote lack of satisfaction in their life.

Metsäpelto and Pulkkinen, (2014), believes that these activities helps students in improvising their talents, learning the value of improvisation, sharing of ideas and offering support to peers in challenging circumstances. These activities set to develop a student force that is happier and have knowledge about different things. In various researches it was found that students who are actually participating in the sports related extra-curricular activities have less complains related to obesity. Childhood obesity has become one of the biggest problems in the society and such programs can become an excellent method to eliminate this problem. Only 21 % of the participants of such programs are suffering from the problem of obesity as compared to 33 % of the non-participants (Gao, et. al., 2011). Such activities in the schools promote students to practice it at homes also. This helps in eliminating the health issues that children are developing at early ages because of being glued to the television or their mobile accessories.

According to Stevenson and Clegg, (2011), it is important that children gets time for such activities which is not possible without making and implementing such programs. It has been found that it is harder for any student to learn any new things at later stage of their academic career as compared to what they can learn at the early age of schooling. This also provides them with extra opportunities for their professional career also as it has been seen that practicing with such activities promotes students in pursuing their career in this field.

Knifsend and Graham, (2012), believe that in other parts of the world this condition is better as the mentality of the people is more supportive in other countries. But this also depends on the type of nation it is. Like in the developed nation the condition of school is better they have a very good infrastructure. This is the reason why they have much more ahead in sports and other extra-curricular as compared to India. Families also promote students for such kind of activities because they find that a student can find better career opportunities in any of these fields (Moilanen,  Markstrom and Jones, 2014). Apart from this students coming from any background of the society is allowed to pursue their career in fields of interests.

In the views of Seow and Pan, (2014), in other European countries also the condition of programs related to extra-curricular activities is very good. This is also the reason that why these countries have achieved success in many fields while India is respectively poor. The governments in these nations have also promoted the program related to extra-curricular activities. In many parts of the world the policies that are related with such activities has helped countries in making a happier youth. In the countries like Norway or China government have made policies in the schools so that they will have to give more attention towards the talent of the student.

On the other hand Okamoto, Herda and Hartzog, (2013), says that in the countries like Arab and African countries, such kind of program is having worse condition then in India. In African nations they do not have enough money to build such infrastructure that could promote this kind of activity while in the Arab country cultural barriers comes into place. This condition is even worse for girls. In many Arabian countries there is a sharia law that restricts from practicing many things. In other parts of the world like the South American developing nation this condition is good. The society present there does not force student to choose any particular path and leave them with their own choice. But the infrastructure present there is a bit poorer.

According to Pano and Markola, (2012), implementing of such program needs overall support of the society and families in it. There are multiple benefits of such programs. It can only be successful when the program is clear and has been elaborated in a proper way. A detailed plan can only bring changes in the Indian educational system. Government also need to allocate funds to the schools under it so that their schools can also become ready for promoting such programs inside it (Annu and Sunita, 2013). This will help the new talents to come up in the country especially in sports in which India lags from other countries. There must be a balanced policy that has to be implemented in the schools so that extra-curricular activities and educational qualification can go hand in hand.

References

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