Discuss About the Emerging Technology to Support Flood Resilience?
Basically, communication technology and innovation role has been acknowledged as integral to disaster mitigation and management for a while. However, the use of communication technology and innovation can limit the losses of flood. Flood struggle and toughness technologies grip substantial probability to constraint the losses resulted by floods. The new emerging communication and information technologies and innovations over the past twenty years impart themselves to higher possibilities of integration of diverse communication systems. As a segment of the variable and universal methodology, the application of flood pliability and flood resistance control tools at possessions and risk assessment measures has been preferred. The elements are such as itinerant perimeter hurdles, door sentinels or fluctuations to the drapery of the construction or house (Brown, Trown & Harrison, 2005). The procedures are principally advantageous where it is challenging to validate affluent capital outgoings, to safeguard essential infrastructure, to confine the visual commotion in traditional and heritage regions and whereby the traditional defenses are unsuitable, for instance in rush flooding in urban area.
There are social and technical features to the application of communication technologies in flood resilience and resistance. The current application of the emerging technologies and innovation for disaster management and mitigation rely greatly on the appropriateness for the social and economic background in which the emerging technologies and innovation are applied (Barnard, 2007. The paper includes the emerging role of communication technologies and innovation in flood resilience and resistance.
The significance of the research is to determine how serious is floods as a natural disaster and determine the efficiency of emerging technologies and flood resilience and resistance. From the global economic viewpoint, floods; riverine and coastal, are the peak destructive category of natural hazards in the world. The economic losses to nations and states, individual property, crops, business stock, utilities, and transportation are major indicators of flood losses. Presumably, of bigger magnitude are the damages experienced by entities that never go wet but are required to close because the suppliers or supply routes are impaired. Concerning loss of life, flood hazards are coarsely incomparable. It has been logically impossible to set a monetary value on human life (Robert & Philiph, 1976). However, if lives are evaluated by the one-time central standard of anticipated future earning power of persons, at usual rates of income, then the damages of property during floods, and the connected indirect and immaterial associated damages, far offset the monetary value of the lives lost. Less readily quantified, but evidently important, are the public health consequences of floods when they submerge water facilities, chemical waste stowage sites, and sewage treatment.
Flooding may impact to some benefits, for instance, the deposition of nutrients on agricultural lands in the flood plain and the renewal of groundwater. A flood plain location has large paybacks not only for cultivation but also for industrial and transportation activities. A flood plain may even be the most beautiful location for residential developments (Trevino et al 2003). However, the dominance of potential losses make flooding the world’s worst natural hazard.
The validity and the originality of the research is supported by the works of Edquist C. Systems of innovation: establishments, technologies, and associations. Abingdon: Routledge, 1997. The research was meant to determine the effect application of the emerging technologies and innovation. Efforts and attempts to digitize the information are under way attaining the greatest impression if the results are positioned into shared open databases online, for example, Open Street Map. The statistics were additionally enhanced and authenticated by the institution of National Support Council (Samson & Draft, 2014). The council had members from major participants. Granted the implementation of flood resilience as an invention in dealing with floods, research concentrates on two key extents of scholarship, flood hazard administration and revolution studies.
Flood risk management approaches help to contextualize the application of flood resilience. For instance, the Scottish Executive’s ‘4 As’ methodology to flood administration is a linear technique stretching from consciousness, mitigation, support and, finally, circumvention. The demarcation is intended to emphasis consideration on specific crucial points, for example, the preliminary responsiveness of flood menace among the community, experts, and authorities in an indebtedness of the conceivable mitigation procedures that might decrease the risk, for example, decisions about the enactment of flood resilience (Jabbour & Santos, 2008).
The literature on revolution transmission offers additional insights concerning mainstreaming of the flood resilience technologies. Furthermore, it offers a foundation on how the actors and agencies that will engage on the application can be reinforced. Innovation, in broad sense, denotes to new or better resources, services and the methods of generating the flood resilience which is a contemporary innovation in the management of the flood risk. Conventionally, many theoretical representations have been advanced to comprehend innovation dissemination. For instance, Rogers’ S-curve elaborates how implementation is reliant on four main elements; the innovation, how it is connected, time and the pertinent social system (Trevino et al 2003). Finally, an invention might reach ‘inundation point’, and becomes extensively accepted.
The S-curve is applicable in examples such as those important to flood resilience, where advantages are not always directly realized but can evade unwanted penalties at some forthcoming time As such, a variety of variables could constrain or ease the direction to market of latest innovations, from creating awareness of the opportunity to the steady agreement of the measure to the actual consideration in decision-making processes (Jabbour & Santos, 2008). Supporting the insights is a hypothesis that society, technology and innovation co-advance and that the reception of innovation is the interaction. Innovation is an interaction between a collectioin of attempts that includes the user behaviors, markets, governance structure and cultural values.
The awareness of the flood resilience broadly differed in various countries. The factors that mostly contributed to the difference are the manufacturing firm that promoted the floods resilience and the direct experience of floods. In the case instances where a substantial length of time , a range of 8-10 years and no flood events, the community awareness of flood assessment and the probability of the approaches that may be undertaken to stand flooding were unusually lower. Conversely, persons who experienced latest flooding were more possible to have some extensive awareness of flood resilience technologies. The public drew attention to the secluded sector producers and installers who aggressively advertised their products to prospective customers in the rouse of a flood occurrence. Thus, awareness of technologies among the public was moderately higher in countries with a dynamic flood resilience sector (Brown, Trevion & Harrison, 2005). Away from awareness of flood resilience technologies, end users need even to accept the use as a potential elucidation for the condition. The challenge is right related to the extension of flood risk management obligation as defined in the overview, a shift that has taken state in the background of wider swings towards neoliberal authority and general accounts that control and product risk management (Walker & Jones, 2012). Though, the data specified opposition to the argument that nations and societies need to take charge in the management of own flood jeopardy.
Essential finding from members in various nations and at different gauges was that there stood no sufficient information to assertively make a firm decision on application flood resilience. Connected to this, there was compromise inside the National Support Groups that there would be no sample case study the republic controlled a governing context that could assimilate flood resilience technology into flood risk management. The consideration had critical implication for perceptions of technologies (Robert & Philiph, 1976). Concurring to the data gathering, it is vibrant that there are various factors limiting the small scale flood resilience technologies being suitable and essential to handling flood peril. Generally, the diversity of challenges is suggestive of an inventive technology that freshly arose and is in attempts to fit into conventional authority practices and structures. There is a solid prominence on flood-plain and also catchment controlling that have varied options, for instance, retrofitting springiness less common. Critically, the aspects of flood risk management include legislation and regulation that have slowly incorporated the flood risk management.
Some steps are crucial to manage the research gap. Understanding the risk and conducting a survey on the risk. A thorough survey on flood mitigation should be conducted. Planning a scheme that entails the advantages and disadvantages of the risk management measure, cost and ease of performance. Cost of installation, repair and maintenance. Eventually, technologies and innovations exist. There is emphasis positioned on the understanding the incorporation into local and tactical backgrounds. Innovation wants support so as to go past the cultural and executive customs in dealing with flood risk. The management conversed has tried to exhibit how a joint methodology can classify and clarify the main steps (Thomas, 2007). Awareness on the flood assessment is required to safeguard the underprivileged associates of the public profit from the measures and that flood resilience measures circumvent creating inadvertent influences downstream.
Essentially, the data collection methods used aimed at qualitative data.The data collection methods used in the research included questionnaires. The method was preferred because it accommodated for dynamics flood situations. The method also offers solutions in cases of qualitative computation, narrative and quantitative data.The other data collection method used was the review Ethnographies, Oral History, and Case Studies (Barnard, 2007). The method is holistic because it combines other data collection methods such as interviews and sample.
Flood risk cannot be eliminated. Data analysis considered wide range of factors. The factors in the analysis included flood prone areas, value of asset, land use and distribution and hydrological and hydraulic studies. According to the questionnares and surveys, the flood prune areas, occur in smooth terrain areas, or swampy areas (Trevion et al 2003). For the 10 respondents that the questionnare focused on, people living around, swampy areas, and just around river banks, floods occur regularly, which degrades the environmental productivity.
Although floods on large rivers attract most attention, the often unaccounted floods in upstream areas are also significant. Flood damages in upstream areas have impacts on lives and properties. Over the coming decades, subject to several assumptions as to flood plain use, increases are expected in urban and diverse property damages. Average annual global flood damages have been increasing over the years (Jabbour & Santos, 2008). There is some implication that the rate has even accelerated. Damage and losses in urban and urbanizing areas will escalate the most.
The key issue regarding to floods is the element that the data on flood damages and losses are inadequate, lacking in wanted specificity, and inconsistent between urban and rural areas. Consequently, the aggregated approximations of flood loss for the world are available guesses. There is practically no systematic data as to flood plain use and production. Moreover, the other key data obligatory is the average annual loss of life from floods, it is accounted mainly by a few flash floods (Robert & Philiph, 1976). Nevertheless, little data is available on the frequency and dimensions of flash floods report.
International organisations should embark on supporting the flood menace. The organisations should major on granting loans and subsidies to national governments and flood prone affected regions. Furthermore, emerging technologies and innovation should be facilitated and enhanced to increase flood mitigation.
Barnard, C 2007, The Function of the Executive, Cambridge: Harvard University Press
Brown, M. E., Trevino, L. K., & Harrison, D 2005, Ethical leadership: A social Learning perspective for construct development and testing, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 97, 117-134
Jabbour, C. J. C., & Santos, A 2008, The central role of human resource management, Human Resource Management Journals, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 2133-2154
Robert, H & Philip, K 1976, "Leadership Effectiveness: Past Perspectives and Future Directions for Research", pp. 45-82
Trevino, L. K., Brown, M., & Hartman, L 2003, A qualitative investigation of perceived executive ethical leadership: Perceptions from inside and outside the executive suite, Human Relations, 56(1), 5-37.
Samson, K & Draft, S 2014, Communication in Business Strategy, Chapters 1. 3,7. London: Savage Publishers
Thomas, P 2007, The State of the Science, Journal OF Organizational Behavior: , Vol. 2 no. 5, pp. 298-312
Walker, T & Jones, N 2012, Sustainable supply chain management across the UK private sector, Norway: McGraw-Hill
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