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Identify and evaluate risks associated with different mining methods and operations ?generate and evaluate multiple mine design options ?present and defend a complex design and decision making process ?Develop a spreadsheet-based model for a longwall mining operation. The purpose of this model is to compare various extraction strategies for safety, reliability and cost effectiveness.

Apply the model to the coal seam reserve shown in figure 1. Include the following parameters in your modelling.

  • Pit Pillar (100 m)
  • Seam thickness (3.6 m)
  • Main gate development dimensions
    • 4 headings (3.6 m x 4.5 m)
    • 3 pillars (8.0 m wide)
  • Main gate pillar width (50 m)
  • Head and Tail gate development dimensions
    • 2 headings (3.6 m x 4.5 m)
    • 1 pillar (8.0 m wide).

Room and Column Mining for Safe and Environmentally-Friendly Mining

Room and column mining is a non-subsidence for a mine, safeguarding the valuable farmland above. It is among the most secure and a standout amongst the most biologically benevolent ways to deal with mining coal today, making a non-subsidence condition and keeping up clean water principles.

The extent of the pillar relies upon the quality of the coal creases, the nature of the rooftop and the hardness floor of the mine, the impact of the gasses accessible in the air and to what extent the columns should bolster the coal crease, also called the time subordinate strain. At the point when the coal is solid, the mining operation will require columns with lesser width. The column edges will be influenced by the quality of the rooftop; if the rooftop is solid, the edges will be pulverized (Hout & Stein, 2014). The strain on the columns increments with the progression of time while the heap conveyed stays steady. In this way if the column is not adequate in estimate, it might come up short regardless of being steady in the beginning times.

Camp affirms that columns are essential for the security of the laborers in the mines in this way the principle motivation behind the columns that are set at the head entryway section and the last part passage is supporting the overlying strata. The head entryway is utilized for transporting the excavators, coal and the provisions while the tail section is utilized for ventilating the mine from clean. The measure of the columns to be utilized relies upon the thickness of the creases, the gear being utilized and the profundity at which the mining is to be done (Eberhardt, Woo, Stead & Elmo, 2015).

At the point when the column is too thick, there are misfortunes made since the coal at the column is not mined. In spite of the fact that there is a probability to mine the coal at the column as the mining propels, there is still coal misfortune by a negligible rate when withdraw mining is connected. At the point when the column is too thin, there is the likelihood that the coal rooftop will crumple into the mining region.

The crumple will prompt specialists being hurt, backing off the procedure because of interruption of ordinary stream of work, and lost a level of the coal that should have been mined because of aggravation to the strata and the mistake with clean and other undesirable components. An average column measures six to forty five meters in width and six to twelve meters long. To help the help of the columns, extra help is given by rooftop shooting.

Method of mining

Long wall mining is a very gainful underground coal mining procedure. Long wall mining machines comprise of various coal shearers mounted on a progression of self-progressing water powered roof underpins. The whole procedure is motorized. Long wall mining machines are around 800 feet (240 meters) in width and 5 to 10 feet (1.5 to 3 meters) tall. Long wall diggers separate "boards" - rectangular pieces of coal as wide as the mining hardware and as long as 12,000 feet (3,650 meters). Monstrous shearers cut coal from a divider confront, which falls onto a transport line for evacuation. As a long wall excavator progresses along a board, the rooftop behind the digger's way is permitted to fall (Xu, Mei & Ge, 2016).

Method of Mining: Longwall Mining

Financially, the speculation costs are twice higher for Multi Slice Long wall technique when contrasted with Long wall top coal folding strategy. Contrasted with the Multi Slice Long wall strategy, the Long wall Top Coal Caving technique is more successful as it is more temperate as it requires less work and gear and can be connected to thicker creases all the more effectively. Created by the French in their coal mining industry, the Long wall top coal giving in strategy has one face of the crease worked on the base while the coal that is left on top is taken from the window through the rooftop bolster.

Best sequence for long wall mining

There are two methods for mining coal productively: Mining and progress Long divider techniques. At the point when the coal is less than six meters profound, the best strategy is to utilize the single cut Long divider technique. While if the coal mine will be more than 6 meters, the financial matters security and dependability of the technique ought to be viewed as. For example if the mining profundity is 20m, the multi cut technique can be utilized 5 times for crease thicknesses of 4 m or the Long divider top coal giving in strategy can be utilized to extricate a layer at the base of say 4m and the rest can be permitted to collapse with a specific end goal to take into consideration the recuperation of the coal crease that breakdown.

Of the two, the Long divider top coal strategy (Chen, Chang, Sofia & Tarolli, 2015) is best as it lessens the cost of the operation. The measure of coal lost in the rubble amid the crumple is unimportant and can be discredited by the advantages collected when contrasted with the assets that would have been spent exhuming the 4 layers utilizing the multi cut technique. The methodology utilized amid the mining procedure is process is either withdraw or progress. For the withdraw technique, the passages are utilized to hinder the Long divider board and once this is done, the extraction of the coal from the creases starts from the finish of the board and advances towards the front and fundamental section of the coal mine.

In the propel framework, nonetheless, the mining starts at the fundamental passage and moves towards the finish of the board. As the coal is evacuated, water driven frameworks and control frameworks are initiated to enable the transport to advance and transport the coal to the assigned area. Constant improvement on the two passages on each side that is for all intents and purposes dead work is disadvantageous in the progress long divider strategy (Xue, Duan & Deng, 2015). This is so as to guarantee that the sections are both open because of the gob framed when the hollows crumple. The ventilation of the mine is additionally frenzied while utilizing the progress Long divider technique. The withdraw strategy is favored as it removes coal from the creases and the ventilation work is considerably less and there is no requirement for additional dead work amid the procedure.

Best Sequence for Longwall Mining

Panel width choice while mining

Gob inlay includes setting particular material into the mining territory with the end goal of supporting overburden. For long wall mining, gob inlay is likewise called finish inlay. Ordinarily, there are three essential challenges for coal mines to execute inlay, of which one is that the low profitability with inlay can't facilitate the high mining creation. All in all, the coal profitability of 1 million tons for every year can't be picked up for an entire refilling long wall confront, which is a long way from the necessities of a high-proficient current coal mine (Nguyen & Niedbalski, 2016).

It decides the situations of the head and tail sections. Setting up the required machines and work process relies upon the measure of the board and could take averagely nine to a year. The size likewise decides the measure of coal that will be removed notwithstanding the kind of gear that will be utilized. The border cut out for the board ought to take into consideration the persistent operation of the mine utilizing the gear being used.

As a rule, the hardware being used is self-progressing pressure driven rooftop bolsters, a heavily clad transport line parallel to the coal divider face to transport (Zhang, Zhang, Han, Qian, 2014) the coal when it mined to the assigned zone and the coal shearing machine that takes into consideration the coal to be shared and put on the transport line. Typically, if the nature of the mine is good, up to 80% of the coal being mined will be recovered.  Around the board, there ought to be 10 to 15 feet space left to take into account adequate space for the excavators to work notwithstanding the gear (Fengyu, Dongjie, Haiying & Delin, 2015).

Now applying the Simpsons rule for the given geometry as The given values for the above geometry are as follows

  • Pit Pillar (100 m)
  • Seam thickness (3.6 m)
  • Main gate development dimensions
    • 4 headings (3.6 m x 4.5 m)
    • 3 pillars (8.0 m wide)
  • Main gate pillar width (50 m)
  • Head and Tail gate development dimensions (Newcomen & Dick, 2016)
    • 2 headings (3.6 m x 4.5 m)
  • 1 pillar (8.0 m wide)

Now the volume of the coal mine (L = 1000) will be-

Volume of coal mine L= 1000

Width

Length

Height

Volume

1150

3100

3.7

13190500

1150

3050

3.7

12977750

1150

3000

3.7

12765000

1150

2950

3.7

12552250

1150

2850

3.7

12126750

1150

2750

3.7

11701250

1150

2750

3.7

11701250

1150

2950

3.7

12552250

1150

2650

3.7

11275750

1150

2450

3.7

10424750

1150

1450

3.7

6169750

1150

1300

3.7

5531500

 

total

132968750

x

f(x)

h/3

f(x)ii

h/3

0

3100

400

2800

400

1200

3050

400

3100

400

2400

3000

400

2900

400

3600

2900

400

2500

400

4800

2900

400

1400

400

6000

3000

400

1300

400

7200

2500

400

800

400

Pillar volumes

 

Type of pillar

Length

Width

Height

Volume

Pit pillar

100

100

3.7

37000

Main gate

50

50

3.7

9250

3 Pillars

8

8

3.7

236.8

Volume Of Seam Coal Using Panel Length As 1400M

2400

3000

3.7

26640000

2400

3100

3.7

27528000

2400

2900

3.7

25752000

2400

2900

3.7

25752000

2400

2800

3.7

24864000

2400

1400

3.7

12432000

x

f(x)

h/3

f(x)ii

h/3

0

3100

600

2700

600

1800

3000

600

3050

600

3600

2800

600

2850

600

5400

2700

600

1900

600

7200

2500

600

700

600

Coal recovered percentages will be-

length of panel

volume (Simpsons)

volume (panels)

pillar volume

volume remaining

% of coal recovered

1150

135454000

127849000

45702

7794000

7%

2300

135846000

132846000

45702

5080000

4%

The examination then of the above estimations is that when the boards are bigger, more coal is mined from the creases and along these lines the sum recuperated (i.e. that remaining parts) is significantly less, at 4% while with boards of lesser width, more coal remains along these lines the sum recuperated is 7%. The column sizes likewise change as indicated by the board width because of the heap they convey. Boards with lesser width require boards that have lesser measurements.

References

In't Hout, C. W., & Stein, R. T. (2014). U.S. Patent No. 8,876,220. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Eberhardt, E., Woo, K., Stead, D., & Elmo, D. (2015, January). Transitioning from Open Pit to Underground Mass Mining: Meeting the Rock Engineering Challenges of Going Deeper. In 13th ISRM International Congress of Rock Mechanics. International Society for Rock Mechanics.

Xu, N., Zhang, J., Tian, H., Mei, G., & Ge, Q. (2016). Discrete element modeling of strata and surface movement induced by mining under open-pit final slope. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 88, 61-76.

Chen, J., Li, K., Chang, K. J., Sofia, G., & Tarolli, P. (2015). Open-pit mining geomorphic feature characterisation. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 42, 76-86.

Xue, J., Wang, H., Zhou, W., Ren, B., Duan, C., & Deng, D. (2015). Experimental research on overlying strata movement and fracture evolution in pillarless stress-relief mining. International Journal of Coal Science & Technology, 2(1), 38-45.

Nguyen, P. M. V., & Niedbalski, Z. (2016). Numerical modeling of open pit (OP) to underground (UG) transition in coal mining. Studia Geotechnica et Mechanica, 38(3), 35-48.

Zhang, N., Zhang, N., Han, C., Qian, D., & Xue, F. (2014). Borehole stress monitoring analysis on advanced abutment pressure induced by longwall mining. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 7(2), 457-463.

Fengyu, R., Dongjie, Z., Haiying, L., & Delin, S. (2015). An Approach of Open-pit and Underground Cooperative Mining and Filling. Metal Mine, 3, 007.

Zhao, H., Ma, F., Guo, J., & Wei, A. (2014). Characteristics and mechanisms of mining-induced fault reactivations in an open-pit mine. Project Planning and Project Success: The 25% Solution, 385.

Newcomen, W., & Dick, G. (2016). An update to the strain-based approach to pit wall failure prediction, and a justification for slope monitoring. Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 116(5), 379-385.

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