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Discuss about the Cultural Studies, When she was five years old, she had undergone female circumcision which was done on her forcefully. 

Key issues in the case

The case study mainly involves a lady that was affected by the act. The lady is known as Daris Warie who is better known as an author, an actress and also a model. She has been involved in most of the scenes in various activities that have taken place across the globe. She comes from Somalia as her native homeland where she was born. She was raised in a community which was guided by the laws that had been set by the various people in leadership.

She suffered one of the cultural activities that her community was practicing. When she was five years old, she had undergone female circumcision which was done on her forcefully. She, later on, moved on and became a successful lady who is now serving various people across the world. She is working with the UN embassy, and she is an ambassador of the organization whereby she is fights against these cultural practices to the girls.

The issues that are majorly involved in the case study are about female circumcision in the various communities. The study is using this particular lady as an example showing how she had been a victim of such activity and how she has managed to overcome these events that had earlier on happened to her. She is now an ambassador who is campaigning against such activities.

This involves individuals knowing the meaning of female genital mutilation, how it operates and also the regions where the practice is being carried out. Female genital mutilation can, therefore, be described as the partial or total removal of the female genitalia or the other female genital organs for reasons. It, therefore, means that the genital parts of the females are the sections which are being removed from them. It is also commonly known as the female circumcision that involves the cutting of female genitals. Their genitals can be partially or can be entirely cut.

There are several continents or regions where the practice has been in existence over the years, and some of them are still carrying out the activity up to date. Some of the continents that are highly practicing the activity include; Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. These are the areas where there are a significant number of communities that carry out this activity up to date (Abdulcadir, Margairaz, Boulvain, & Irion, 2011). In Africa, it records a high number of communities that are practicing female genital mutilation. Even though there have been rules that are against it but most of the communities still practice it.

It involves age that is considered for them to undergo the activity. Each and every activity does have a particular age in which they consider the girls to be ready for them to undergo the cut. This enables communities to preserve these girls until they are of a particular age when they are presented to the individuals who are believed to have the skills of carrying out the activity. It, therefore, involves each and every community having its own time of the particular age in which it carries out the practice (Alsibiani & Rouzi, 2010).

Background to the case study

There is a need for research for people to be able to understand the meaning of female genital mutilation, how it works and also its effects. When a person has a good method in which he/she can use to know more concerning this practice, the individual will be able to understand all the events that are accompanied by this act. One of the researches needed for a better understanding of female genital mutilation is that there should be articles explaining about female genital mutilation (Ball, 2008). There should be various articles that are established by different individuals coming from different countries especially the affected areas. These articles will have all the details that a person will need to know more about female genital mutilation.

These articles that have been published will be having the various details entailing these activities. These articles will be have the information concerning the meaning of female genital mutilation, how it had started, why different communities are practicing it, at what age are these communities carrying out these activities and also providing some of the effects of these practices on the individuals and also to the community itself. Some sources are needed to enable researchers collect the data concerning these practices to which the data will be brought together and then put in the various articles for individuals to have a better understanding regarding these activities. There are significant ways that are used by these people to have all the resources that they need so that they may be able to have all the information they need to act as their reference to establishing these articles. Some of the ways include the following;

  •    Use of questionnaire

This is one of the research methods that would apply to these individuals who are writing these articles so that they may be able to provide the various people with a variety of information concerning female genital mutilation. This method of research involves the researcher to be able to come up with some questions. The questions will be of the particular research topic that the researcher would want to know more about. These questions will be put down in papers or handouts that will be distributed to various groups of individuals. They will be able to give the feedback concerning female genital mutilation (Berg & Denison, 2012). Each and every question is different and has set of data that is expected out of the question that had been set. Individuals will give their views concerning the various issues on female genital mutilation according to the question that has been stated in the paper.

  •    Use of observations.

This is also another major way in which the researcher can use for him/her to be able to get the information that concerns. This method involves the researcher to see all the activities that are taking place actively. This means that the researcher to personally move to the particular region in which the activity is taking place.  This type of research will make the researcher move to the particular location to which the activity is being carried out. The researcher will move to either one or more regions in which female genital mutilation is being carried out (Berg & Underland, 2013). This will make the researcher go the particular location for him/her to be able to observe the activities involving female genital mutilation. This enables the researcher be able to get first-hand information because the researcher will be the one observing the activities and taking the events in notes that will be used to publish the various articles.

  •    Interviews.

Research needed

This is also another important way in which research can be carried out. This particular method of research involves the researcher engaging with various individuals one on one and asking those questions relating to the specific topic that the researcher is interested in. The researcher will be having several questions on the mind, or the researcher can decide to have them on paper. The researcher will then ask the particular individual questions inform on an interview.  The interviewee will then answer the questions that will be asked by the interviewer. He/she will be giving further details concerning the female genital mutilation that has been asked. This will make the researcher have all the data needed to be able to write down the various articles.

For an individual to be able to know of the practices that are being carried out in the form of circumcision there is a need for evidence. The evidence will be able to convince the individual that the practice of female genital mutilation is real. When a person has the evidence showing that the practice is real, there will be an easy way of taking action. One of the evidence is that several girls have run from their homes and have moved to different regions. There are a significant number of young women who have fled from their original homelands due to the circumcision that they were to face or they had faced (Berg, Denison, & Fretheim, 2010). Most of the girls have moved to other regions where they feel they will be safe without having to undergo this particular practice. Some girls have also been seen in various streets and when they have been asked of the reason as to why they are on the streets is because of the female genital mutilation carried out in their communities (Bewley, Creighton, & Momoh, 2010).

This has highly raised a call that many girls from these communities need assistance and that measures must be taken. This is because the girls are suffering in the areas in which they have relocated to as most of them end up being housemaids while others are on the streets. This makes them to be disadvantaged, and hence should be assisted (Chibber, El-Saleh, & Harmi, 2011). This is evidence that most of the girls are being affected by the female genital mutilation. When an action is taken, these girls will be able to live a normal life whereby they would be fulfilling the various goals they might have set.

There are desirable solutions that would be implanted by the various individuals who intend to take actions concerning female genital mutilation. The solutions are believed will be able to assist in eradicating the activities involving the circumcision of the female and that the girls will be able to live the normal life that most of them would desire to live.

One of the desirable solutions is that the individuals who are trying to eradicate this practice are to come together with the various organizations or individuals to support them in eradicating this type of activity. The partnership can be able to assist the people who are planning on carrying on with the female genital mutilation (Feldman-Jacobs & Clifton, 2014). These individuals or organizations will be able to help the person concern with taking actions with the funds that they would need for them to be able to carry out these operations.

Evidence

When there is a good partnership that has been formed between the persons planning to take action and the other individuals or organizations, they will be able to work well. The funds will be able to fund the projects that have been set that would be eradicating the practice of female genital mutilation (Utz-Billing & Kentenich, 2008). Therefore, this is a desirable solution that would be used for the benefit of girls that are living in these communities practicing female circumcision (Simpson, Robinson, Creighton, & Hodes, 2012). It would be recommended that there exist a partnership that is formed between individuals who are to take action and the various organizations so that they might be able to eradicate this type of activity in the different communities practicing it.

After carrying out the research in knowing more concerning female genital mutilation, some solutions have been solutions that are being backed up by the research. These are solutions that will be used to eradicate the activity of practice of female circumcision on the young girls. The solutions that have been provided by the research are intended to stop or to control the level at which the various communities across the globe are practicing female genital mutilation (Organization, 2011). The research aims to make the girls also to have a normal life in which they can grow in an environment where they are likely not to face any threat on their lives. Some of the solutions suggested by the research include the following;

  •    Banning of the practice of female genital mutilation.

Various countries are practicing the female cut on young girls, and it has affected the lives of different girls in these countries. The governments of these countries, however, have tried to do away with the practice of these cuttings to these young girls who are facing the challenge (Foldes, Cuzin, & Andro, 2012). The research has suggested that the government of these countries ban the act of practicing circumcision on girls. These countries should set a law that does not allow any particular community to practice these cutting activities. This will be able to make the communities to follow the laws that have been made by the government since the government is the body in authority in a given country (Gupta, 2013).  This type of suggestion is highly essential as it will be able to assist greatly. It will ensure the rights of the women are respected by the people whom they leave with and also other people who come from other communities (Jaeger, Calflisch, & Hohfeld, 2009).

  •    The other suggested solution is that the efforts of the grassroots activists must be supported.

There are many activists in the world today that fight against various forms of inhuman practices. One of the practices is female genital mutilation; these activists usually fight against the practice of female circumcision that has affected the young girls in most of the countries (Johansen, Diop, Laverack, & Leye, 2013).  The activists always know the change that is needed in the various communities, and they also know the ways in which they can be able to achieve them. They need to partner with different organizations both the government and the private individuals. When they have partnered together, they will have more support to fight against the practice of female circumcision by practicing the campaigns against such acts (Kontoyannis & Katsetos, 2010). This is a suggestion that had been brought by the research so that it may be able to reduce the level at which the communities are practicing female genital mutilation.

  •    There should be equality between women and men.

Research has found out that female genital mutilation is highly contributed due to lack of inequality between the female and the male in the various communities. The women in most of the communities are considered to be inferior to the men in the community. This has made the women be forced into doing the cutting practice (Lavazzo, Sardi, & Gkegkes, 2013). The research suggests that there should be equality between the male and the female that will make them be treated at the same level. This is to make the girls not to be considered inferior, but they can also perform activities just like the men always carry out their activities in their daily lives.

Various legal considerations have been made concerning female genital mutilation. The major legal consideration concerning the female genital mutilation is that it is an offense to practice circumcision on a female (Momoh, 2010). The legal consideration states out that it's not human nature that the women should be treated in such a kind of manner. Their rights should be considered just like the rights of the male have been considered (Organization, 2008). This is to fight the practice of female genital mutilation that is affecting most of the girls in various communities that are still practicing female circumcision.

There are also ethical considerations that are being done by the various communities. The communities consider the practice as a tradition in which they honor their ancestors (Rouzi, 2010). The communities feel that after they have done the practice, the ancestors will be pleased and they will be able to protect the communities. This makes it be an ethical consideration according to the communities.

References

Abdulcadir, J., Margairaz, C., Boulvain, M., & Irion, O. (2011). Care of women with female genital mutilation/cutting. Swiss Med Wkly, 140(8), w13137.

Alsibiani, S. A., & Rouzi, A. A. (2010). Sexual function in women with female genital mutilation. Fertility and sterility, 93(3), 722-724.

Ball, T. (2008). Female genital mutilation. Nursing Standard, 23(5), 43-47.

Berg, R. C., & Denison, E. (2012). Does female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) affect women’s sexual functioning? A systematic review of the sexual consequences of FGM/C. Sexuality research and social policy, 9(1), 41-56.

Berg, R. C., & Underland, V. (2013). The obstetric consequences of female genital mutilation/cutting: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obstetrics and Gynecology International, 2013.

Berg, R. C., Denison, E. M. L., & Fretheim, A. (2010). Psychological, social and sexual consequences of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C): a systematic review of quantitative studies.

Bewley, S., Creighton, S., & Momoh, C. (2010). Female genital mutilation.

Chibber, R., El-Saleh, E., & El Harmi, J. (2011). Female circumcision: obstetrical and psychological sequelae continues unabated in the 21st century. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 24(6), 833-836.

Feldman-Jacobs, C., & Clifton, D. (2014). Female genital mutilation/cutting: data and trends. Update 2010.

Foldès, P., Cuzin, B., & Andro, A. (2012). Reconstructive surgery after female genital mutilation: a prospective cohort study. The lancet, 380(9837), 134-141.

Gupta, G. R. (2013). Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A statistical overview and exploration of the dynamics of change. Reproductive Health Matters, 21(42), 184-190.

Jaeger, F., Caflisch, M., & Hohlfeld, P. (2009). Female genital mutilation and its prevention: a challenge for paediatricians. European journal of pediatrics, 168(1), 27-33.

Johansen, R. E. B., Diop, N. J., Laverack, G., & Leye, E. (2013). What works and what does not: a discussion of popular approaches for the abandonment of female genital mutilation. Obstetrics and gynecology international, 2013.

Kontoyannis, M., & Katsetos, C. (2010). Female genital mutilation. Health Science Journal, 4(1), 31-36.

Iavazzo, C., Sardi, T. A., & Gkegkes, I. D. (2013). Female genital mutilation and infections: a systematic review of the clinical evidence. Archives of gynecology and obstetrics, 287(6), 1137-1149.

Momoh, C. (2010). Female genital mutilation. Trends in Urology, Gynaecology & Sexual Health, 15(3), 11-14.

World Health Organization, & World Health Organization. (2008). Eliminating female genital mutilation: An interagency statement–OHCHR, UNAIDS, UNDP, UNECA.

World Health Organization. (2011). An update on WHO's work on female genital mutilation (FGM): Progress report.

Rouzi, A. A. (2010). Epidermal clitoral inclusion cysts: not a rare complication of female genital mutilation. Human reproduction, 25(7), 1672-1674.

Simpson, J., Robinson, K., Creighton, S. M., & Hodes, D. (2012). Female genital mutilation: the role of health professionals in prevention, assessment, and management. BMJ, 344, e1361.

Utz-Billing, I., & Kentenich, H. (2008). Female genital mutilation: an injury, physical and mental harm. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 29(4), 225-229.

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