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Analysis in terms of theories and models

Discuss about the Ethical Decision Making Ability.

The decision making theme that had been selected for the analysis is that political decisions are greatly affected by the psychological factors. These factors also influence the patterns of social interaction. Working as a group calls for decision making every single minute of the discussion and the same has been observed during our group decision as well. The only decision that resulted in great distress was the time when the group assignment needs to be submitted. There were four members in our group. Two of us decided that we would submit the assignment with a week but two of them had other opinion. Two of the members said that they will submit the assignment later and that they will take enough time to do the assignment. In this respect, it has to be said that it is important to come to a particular decision when it comes to any group decision and it is only when all the members completely agreed to the fact that the final decision could have been taken. This particular paper aims at understanding the decision making process and the various factors that play among an individual when it comes to decision making. In order to do so, the discussion and the argument shall be supported by the means of certain theories as well.

The decision making is made by various means. If considered psychologically, heuristics are considered as simple and efficient rules that are used by people in order to make judgments and ultimately narrowed down to a particular decision. These decisions are perhaps related to the mentality of the people and are more focused in solving a particular problem. However, as commented by Newell, Lagnado and Shanks, (2015), the rules of such decisions are not depended on particular things and are found to change accordingly as the complexity of the work changes. The problems recognized by a person might not be felt by the other at that point. This particular situation is known as the cognitive bias and it definitely changes with people and time. In this respect it can be said that the idea or the thought of the individual person varies. It might happen that at the time of the submission, two of the group members thought that if they do not submit the assignment on time, they might be penalized for the same and they would actually loss their marks. On the other hand, other might thought that if they take more time, they would get more time to do the research and they could produce a better outcome of the overall assignment. In both the cases, there are probabilities and no one actually knows the actual outcome that the decision might bring on the implementation of the particular action.

Critical discussion

As pointed out by Heckerman, Horvitz and Nathwani, (2016), that human judgments are limited to the information that they have. The information might be available in various form but they are definitely bounded by certain limitations. The rationality of mind and the approach made by a person towards a particular situation is what add to the decision making. For instance, the decision on the submission date of the assignment remained in a dilemma due to several of reasons. It might happen that the members know their professor well and could be sure that if they do not submit the assignment on time, it would be a poor decision and that they ultimately have to suffer (Knowles, Holton & Swanson, 2014). On the other hand, the other one including me believed in the fact that if we would submit a paper that is very accurate only after carrying out a detailed research on the subject, the professor would understand that we have been trying out best and that we have given the best as per our ability.

As pointed out by Beach and Lipshitz (2017), the decision making also varies according to the situation in which a particular stands on. There always remain risks to the decision to the decision that one makes. For instance, there were chances in both the terms of submitting the assignment before or later. For example, if the assignment was submitted without good quality research work, the professor would not have given any kind of marks on the paper and would rather ask for the resubmission. This would automatically increase the effort that was given by us. On the other hand, if the paper was submitted late by doing good quality research, the professor could have got furious and would have never accepted the paper also (Newell, Lagnado & Shanks, 2015). In this respect, it can be mentioned that the decision making is always accompanied with certain experiences. When one takes any decisions there are certain factors that act in the decision making process that are gained from the previous experiences (Velasquez & Hester, 2013). It can be easily said that the ones who afraid of the late submission are well aware of the consequences that the late submission could bring to them and so they do not wanted to take a chance with the professor and wanted to submit it within the stipulated time as given by the professor.

Recommendations

I was on the other side of the decision and wanted to complete the assignment properly with great research that would fetch good marks. Some extension in the time could have been asked from the professor. If the decision making theory is considered, it has to be said that the decision is made on considering the consequence of the outcome. In this respect, Pettigrew (2014) commented that decisions come with uncertainty and there remain the risk that the particular decision might fail and the person ultimately has to suffer. When it comes to a group decision, the decision might result in the something extraordinary that would actually hamper the complete group as well. Therefore, it is very crucial to estimate the outcome of the decision and then undertake the best possible solution that would suit the particular situation and the members would not have to suffer at all (Alba, 2016). No such decision should be made that would create worse situation for a person in the near future and one should be careful in doing so.

The decision making ability definitely varies from one person to the other and it is depends on several factors as well. This depends on the experience of the person and the people who are associated with the particular decision making. Estimating the risk and planning the decision accordingly is important. This definitely varies from person to person and cannot be considered as common to all (Grillo, Ward & Santos, 2016). However, certain abilities like cognitive behavior or the ability to estimate the outcome does add to the decision making ability of a person, the power of the decision making can be improved as well if people are more exposed to those situations that makes them more capable of dealing with the situations and make them more capable to dealing with the situation. Experiences matter a lot and this help a person to estimate the probable risk of the decision that bring. Whatever, be the reason, every individual should have the capability to take decision of their own for every aspect in every stage of life.

The detailed discussion has made it clear that there are many factors that come into play when one makes decision. The decision might be a big one or a small one but the decisions remain the most crucial part for a person at a particular time. I have made several big and small decisions in life that have directly contributed to the different stages of my life. If the above case is taken into consideration, it was better to submit the assignment on time and not to miss the deadline because the deadline had been set by the professor quite a long time and one should not risk of not following the orders of the professor. If the other factor is taken into consideration, it has to be said that the research work could be done better within the time given by the professor. Moreover, there always remains the scope of improving the paper if the professor permits the same. Being punctual and abide by the rules and the conditions of the University should be the prime responsibility of a student.


It should be recommended that one should understand the risk of the outcome of the decision before settling to a particular decision. One must formulate the pros and cons of the decision and the probable outcome that the particular decision could bring. The best possible option should be utilized and then the decision should be formulated. If this is not done, the consequences might not be fruitful and the person might have to suffer ultimately. In addition to this, one should have the wisdom and the insight to understand the best possible means that would not create any problem in the future.

References:

Alba, B. (2016). Factors that impact on emergency nurses’ ethical decision-making ability. Nursing ethics, 0969733016674769.

Beach, L. R., & Lipshitz, R. (2017). Why classical decision theory is an inappropriate standard for evaluating and aiding most human decision making. Decision Making in Aviation, 85.

Grillo, T. L., Ward, A. F., & Santos, C. P. D. (2016). Head in the ‘Cloud’: Online Information Search Inflates Consumers’ Self-Confidence in Personal Decision-Making Ability. ACR North American Advances.

Heckerman, D., Horvitz, E., & Nathwani, B. N. (2016). Toward normative expert systems part i. Methods of information in medicine, 31.

Knowles, M. S., Holton III, E. F., & Swanson, R. A. (2014). The adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development. Routledge.

Lerner, J. S., Li, Y., Valdesolo, P., & Kassam, K. S. (2015). Emotion and decision making. Annual Review of Psychology, 66.

Newell, B. R., Lagnado, D. A., & Shanks, D. R. (2015). Straight choices: The psychology of decision making. Psychology Press.

Pettigrew, A. M. (2014). The politics of organizational decision-making. Routledge.

Velasquez, M., & Hester, P. T. (2013). An analysis of multi-criteria decision making methods. International Journal of Operations Research, 10(2), 56-66.

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