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GY113 Arts With Human Rights

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Human rights are deemed as the most important and hold a lot of value for the United Nations, i.e., UN. In order to uphold the regards to these very rights, the UN formed different human rights bodies, which not only offer the best expertise in this regard, but also support the different human rights monitoring mechanisms under the UN system[1]. These UN Charter[2] based bodies are created under the international human rights treaties and they are comprised of autonomic experts which have been mandated to monitor the compliance of the State parties with regards to the obligations under the treaties, and includes the Human Rights Council. These bodies receive the secretariat support from this council and also from the Treaties Division of the OHCHR, i.e., the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights[3]. In order to deal with different aspects of the issues or on the basis of the different bodies, the procedures are drawn. Though, at times, it has been stated that the procedures which are implemented by the human right treaty bodies of the UN are superficial exercises and that they do not serve any useful purpose with regards to the enforcement of the obligations of the human rights in international context. However, in the following parts, this very notion would be proved wrong, with the help of examples to establish the same.  

The treaty system of the UN establishes in a definitive manner, the authenticity of the international interest with regards to the human rights protection. It cannot be disputed that the sovereignty has been limited in the matters of human rights. For the domestic actions, which have an impact over the human rights, the states are held accountable by the international authorities through global supervisions. The standards set by the treaty are not only the benchmarks for the assessment, but also for the concern. The primary goals of the treaty stems relate to the encouragement of the human right culture, focus upon obligations and standards of the human rights system, providing remedial forum for the individual complaints, concluding the observations for the individual states, identifying benchmarks, encouraging serious nation process of reform and review, mobilizing community of UN to help in implementation of the human rights and the ensuing obligations, and operationalizing of standards for the mainstream human rights in the UN system, amongst the various other key goals[4].

In order to achieve these goals, it becomes crucial that a system and a procedure is laid down, which can be adopted so as to enable the individuals in attaining or even opting for these goals. This is the reason why the human right treaty bodies bring out different procedures, to achieve these objectives. The very nature of these procedures is crucial, as these procedures, although may take time, but in a logical and chronological order, not only address the breaches of the human rights granted through the UN treaties, but also provide interim measures in urgent or emergency cases[5]. Due to the time taken under these procedures, it is often stated that the result is not attained. However, for evaluation of each case, so as to keep the human rights supreme, it is necessary that each stage of the procedure is done in a careful and analytical manner, which takes time. The superficiality of these procedures is also quoted in the number of compliances which have to be done in each of the steps/ stages of the procedures. However, the upcoming discussion would show the need to have a detailed and structured procedure. This need lies in the proper documentation of the facts and the contraventions of each of the provisions contained under the treaty, so as to enable the evaluator in properly assessing whether or not a human right has been contravened and also to give equal chance of representation to each of the parties, to enable them in stating their point and given justification for the undertaken acts. The need for each of these procedures can better be understood by highlighting some of the procedures, which have to be followed for the purpose of protection and upholding of the human rights, granted through the UN human rights treaties and which are regulated through the human rights treaty bodies[6].

The human rights treaty bodies have to carry out different functions, in order to monitor the manner in which the treaties are implemented by the member states[7]. And even though these are coordinated activities, the practices and the procedures which are adopted for these purposes are differentiated. For instance, the Committee on Enforced Disappearances, the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women and the Committee against Torture are four such treaty bodies which can initiate an inquiry, when the reliable information is received by them with regards to serious contraventions in a particular member state. The procedure of this inquiry is kept as confidential and the state parties are required to cooperate in these proceedings at all times. On the other hand, the procedure with regards to urgent actions and early warnings are developed through the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, back since 1993. The early warning procedures are based on the prevention of the pre-existing problems which are present between the state parties, so that the same are not escalated in new conflicts and also so that the resumption of the conflicts can be prevented. The urgent actions procedures are based on responding to the problems which require instant attention in order to restrict or prevent the scale, or the number of the grave contraventions of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination[8]. These procedures are overt in nature, as compared to the ones carried on by the four treaty bodies mentioned above.

An inter-governmental body, which consists of 47 states for the protection, as well as, promotion of the human rights across the globe, within the UN system is the Human Rights Council. The Special Procedures which have been drawn by the Human Rights Council are the autonomous human rights experts, and they not only report, but also advise on the human rights from a nation-based or a thematic perspective. The Special Procedures system is central to the human rights machinery of the UN and it comprises of all the human rights, whether they are social, political, civil, economic and cultural. As on March 24th, 2017, there were thirteen nation and 43 thematic mandates[9].

Through the support from the OHCHR, the special procedures include the nation visits, and the individual cases are acted upon, as these are the concerns of broad and structural nature. This is done by sending the communications to the States and to the others where the alleged violations are brought in and the abuses are given the attention. The thematic studies and the expert consultations are conducted and convened, the international human rights standards applicable on the international scenario are contributed and developed, advocacy is engaged in, technical cooperation advice is provided and the public awareness is raised. The Human Rights Council is given the annual reports of these special procedures, and the major portion of the mandates reports to the General Assembly[10].

The special procedures, which have been established over the years, have not only formed relationships with the civil society actors but have also cooperated with them. These special procedures have assisted in being provided the protection to both potential, as well as, actual victims; along with this, they work towards the empowerment of these individuals. Different forms of collaborations and participations have been developed owing to different mandates. The effectiveness of this system of special procedures is attained when the human rights are protected and the contraventions are prevented. This depends on the human rights actors being actively involved, which includes the civil society. Along with this, the international, national and the regional NGOs also play a crucial role[11].

For the special procedures, the rapporteurs are nominated by the UN regional groups, the international organizations, NHRIs, NGOs and the governments. Interviews are conducted by the candidates by the Consultative Group of Council, where the motivation letter and the desired appointment are to be submitted. Expertise and experience are the criteria for selection, along with the independence, objectivity, personal integrity, impartiality and mandate of the applicant. The equitable geographical representation and gender balance are also taken into account. OHCHR logistically assists the rapporteurs and there are a range of standards which govern the methodology and conduct. A Special Procedures Code of Conduct presents the conditions for the mandate holders of the special procedure, whereby they have to refrain from using the office for personal gains, have to be loyal, and the like. The mandate holders also have the authority of receiving the letters of allegations, conducting field visits, hear urgent appeals and on the basis of these, they make their conclusions and recommendations[12].

Ireland, since 2001 March, by issuing a standing invitation, to all of the rapporteurs, opened its gate for visiting its jurisdiction and the nation has been subjected to two formal visits since that time[13]. In order to focus upon the austerity measures, after the economic crisis, the special rapporteur visited Ireland in 2011 January for extreme poverty and human rights. The recommendations which were contained in the report of the rapporteur re-iterated the obligations regarding human rights and they continued to exist even when the economic hardship continued. As a result of this, the Irish government was urged to make certain that the national recovery plan respected these rights, even for the poorest of its population. This was in addition to the suggestions which called for the social protection system to be strengthened, as well as for the social services and the infrastructure. The rationale behind this was to make certain that the economic, cultural, and the social rights of the population could be fully enjoyed, and any such barrier, which could prevent the vulnerable segments of the society from enjoying the entitlements cold be removed[14].

An official visit was conducted by the special rapporteur with regards to the situation surrounding human rights defenders back in 2012 November. And in this report, it was noted that even though Ireland promotes human rights, the same is not the case always, especially when the individuals seek to defend the sexual and reproductive rights, the environmental rights, the rights of the whistleblowers, asylum seekers, travelers and the refugees who work for the rights of the communities[15]. The nation was also asked to give their response to the individual complaint which was filed in a joint manner with the special rapporteur on human rights and on extreme poverty, the special rapporteur on the rights of every other person with regards to the enjoyment of their mental and physical health to the highest attainable standards, the independent expert on the minority issues, which was being experienced by the travelers who lived in the nation and who experienced the systematic rights denial for the enjoyment of this right, in addition to the right to employment, accommodation and education[16]. A response was given by the Irish government through a letter sent in 2013 July, where the legislation in place for ensuring the right to health was noted, along with the explanation of the National Drugs Strategy and accommodation policy, the funding schemes, the National Action Plan for Social Inclusion, and the ‘Healthy Ireland’ initiative[17]. Though, these initiatives were not made publically available.

The Human Rights Council, on June 18th, 2007, adopted the 5/1 resolution which entitled the institution building for the council, and through this, a new complaint procedure was established so as to address the consistent patterns of reliably and gross attested contraventions of all of the human rights, as well as, the fundamental freedoms which took place in different part of the world and in any situations. The communications which are submitted by the groups, NGOs, individuals are addressed under the complaint procedure where the claims are made by the victims of the human rights contraventions, or by the ones who had direct and reliable knowledge of these contraventions. Even this procedure is confidential, so that the cooperation with the state can be enhanced. And there has been an improvement in the new complaint procedure, in the necessary case so as to make certain that the procedure has been conducted in a timely manner, victims oriented, objective, impartial, and efficient[18].

Through these very complaints, the human rights are given the concrete meaning. The fundamental concept behind the mechanism of complaint lies in the human rights treaties, where an individual can initiate a complaint against a part of a State and allege the contravention of the rights granted through the treaty, to a body of experts, who monitor the treaty[19]. As are often known as, these treaty bodies are the committees of the autonomous experts, who have been elected by the state parties to such treaty. The implementation of these treaties is monitored by the state parties, as well as, of the rights, which are contained in these treaties; and these are the individual who decide upon the complaints which are initiated against the States[20].

A complaint can be filed under any of the nine treaties; though, the same can only be brought against a State and has to satisfy the two conditions laid down. Firstly, there has to be a party, either by accession or through ratification, to the said treaty which gave the rights which have been alleged to be contravened. And secondly, there is a need for the state party to have recognized the competence of the committee responsible for the monitoring of such treaty, so as to consider and received the complaints which are sent by the individuals. Eight of the human right treaty bodies are such for which can listen to the individual complaint mechanism, which  have been entered into force, but for the 9th, i.e., for the CMW, also known as the Committee on Migrant Workers, the same has not been entered into force. The other eight include CAT, i.e., Committee against Torture, CERD, i.e., Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, CRPD, i.e., Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, CED, i.e., Committee on Enforced Disappearances, CESCR, i.e., Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and CRC, , i.e., Committee on the Rights of the Child[21]. 

If the conditions stated above are satisfied and a complaint is made under the aforementioned treaties, a complaint can be made against the state. The complaint should be made in legible writing and is proffered to be in typed manner, along with the signatures of the complaining party. It has to in a chronological manner, state all the facts on which the complaint is based. The rights which have been set out in the treaty have to be stated in the complaint so as to show that the same had been contravened. The steps taken to exhaust the available remedies also have to be contained in this complaint. This document is crucial as on the bases of these documents, the decisions is made by the committees and so, the facts and the duties breached have to be clearly highlighted. The complaint is to be made as soon as the other possible measures for the domestic remedies have been exhausted by the individual[22].

A procedure has also been laid down for the complaints to be submitted under the human rights treaties. There are two major stages in which the complaint is to be examined. The first one is the admissibility stage, where the formal requirements have to be satisfied in a complaint before the committee can check it for its substance. The second is the merits stage where the substance of the made complaint is analyzed and on this basis, the decisions is made by the committee about whether or not, the contravention alleged by the complainant was undertaken. Once the complaint is replied to by the state, the complaint gets the opportunity to comment on the same. The final decision is made, after taking all such things into consideration[23]. For instance, the reply given by Ireland for the list of issues presented to the Human Rights Committee, were taken under consideration[24].

At any stage of this procedure, the committee can request the state party to undertake the measures for the prevention of irreparable harm to the alleged victim or the complainant, with regards to the case claims. Such measures are given the name of interim measures and these requests are undertaken in order to prevent the actions which cannot be undone later on. For instance, if the death sentence is executed, it cannot be undone; and hence, it is crucial to prevent the death sentence to analyze the situation. Similarly, if an individual is deported without the timely evaluation of the complaint, he may be tortured. This does not mean that the determination is on the merits of the case or its admissibility, but for the committee to take into consideration that the individual would suffer in an irreparable harm. The complaints are admissible only after a number of factors have been taken into consideration. For instance, whether the authorization has been taken by the person who makes a complaint on the behalf of others; or is the complainant has been a victim of the contravention alleged. The entire procedure can be better understood with the diagram given below[25].

(Source: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2013)

This is a general procedure which is carried on under the nine treaties mentioned above. However, each of these nine treaties carries some specific procedures. The Procedure under the Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights[26] covers the issue of civil and political rights like the prohibition of discrimination, equality before law, freedom of expression and free trial. For the alleged contravention of these articles, this treaty can be invoked. In order to analyze the complaints in their jurisdiction, a Human Rights Committee has been formed with eighteen independent experts, and they address the complaints with regards to the breaches of rights given through this covenant this committee appreciates the opportunities taken by the nations, for engaging in constructive dialogues. The Special Rapporteur of the committee decides if the evidence is sufficient to accept the complaint and whether the case requires registration, so that the same could be transmitted to the state party for their comments. Due to the large number of complaints which are filed with the committee, there is often a delay of a number of years between the initial submission of the complaint and the final decision of the committee. This is one of the reasons why the procedures laid down by the human right bodies of the UN are criticized for being superficial. However, in absence of such defined procedures, there would be a chaos. These procedures not only time the complaints and present them in a logical manner, but also keep the urgent matters in priority, so that the rationale for which such procedures have been set up, i.e., adherence and upholding of the human rights, can be kept[27].

Similarly, different procedures, on the specific basis of the treaty have been laid down. And these procedures include the ones brought forward for the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment[28], the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination[29], the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women[30], the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities[31], the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance[32], the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families[33], the Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights[34], and the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on a communications procedure[35][36].

The compliant procedure is laid down for the individual complaints. For the complaint of the state as a whole, there is a state reporting system[37]. The extents of the compliances by the state parties, in relation to their duties, which have been set through the human rights treaties, are monitored through the system of state reporting[38]. Through each of these treaties, a duty is undertaken by the state parties to explain the progress which has been made by them, as well as, the problems which they encounter when they implement the obligations contained under the treaty[39]. This system intersects with the individual complaints systems, and is used for the advantage of the complainant. Even though the state reporting system has differentiated processes, based on the applicable treaties, there are certain common elements in each of these. For instance, the very first step in this is the submission of the initial, as well as, the periodic reports by the state parties. As per the time frame which has been specified through the treaty, the initial report is submitted by the state parties[40]. After this, the issues are listed and a formal consideration is made regarding the report of the state party. And lastly, the observations or the comments are made, where the concerns with regards to the non-compliance are identified[41].

As the procedures which have been laid down by the human right treaty bodies of the UN, steps are being constantly taken in order to strengthen the human rights treaty system of the UN[42]. As has been highlighted earlier, the UN system is often under attack or is criticized for being too superfluous, in order to improve upon the impact of the treaty systems over the duty bearers and over the rights-holders, recommendations are given time and again[43]. It has been stated that human right treaties have informally been evolved over the time and there has been a development of the human right treaties and even the obligations under it. Due to the continued adoption adopted of new treaties, there has been a periodic expansion in the individual complaint and the reporting procedures[44]. In 2009, after being appointed as the present UNHCHR (United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights), Vavanethe Pillay stated that there was a need to reflect upon the streamlining and strengthening of the treaty body system, so as to attain better coordination within the systems, and also with regards to the interaction with the special procedures. And the need highlighted through the UNHCHR Report with regards to the strengthening off the treaty body system, for a simplified reporting and aligned reporting procedure is also justified. A need to streamline and harmonize the report system is indeed required[45]. The suggestions have been laid down to improve upon the reporting procedure, so that the procedure and its stages can itself be made efficient.

However, an analysis of the suggested procedure, does not, in the view of the writer, bring much change to the present day system. The first reason for this lies in the cutting down of the documentation and the time required by the treaty body for listing of the issues. However, with the increase in the complaints, on daily basis, the practical applicability of this suggestion does seem a little superfluous. The next reason lies in the submission of core documents and the regular updates.  Due to the duplication of time, often there is a need for regular updates and hence a dedicated consultation process has been suggested. However, this is not only a repetition of the steps taken in the earlier stages of the present system, but also acts as a burden, to submit all the documentation at one place, due to the possibility of the same resulting in the compilation of a bulk of documents, which would take a longer time to go through and thus, beat the purpose proposed in the first stage of these recommendations.

To conclude, the present day procedures laid down by the human right treaty bodies, may seem to be over the top, or superfluous, but are quite effective in dealing with the problems. Moreover, the recommendations brought forward by the UNHCHR Report, seems to overcomplicate and make the already cumbersome procedure, more complex.

Bibliography

Primary Sources

EU Legislation And Cases

Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Treaty Series 2515 (2006): 3

Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (adopted 10 December 1984, entered into force 26 June 1987) 1465 UNTS 85 (CAT)

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.” Treaty Series 1249 (1988): 13.

Convention on the Rights of the Child on a communications procedure A/HRC/RES/17/18

International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance 23 December 2010, No. 48088

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, G.A. res. 2106 (XX) ... A/6014 (1966), 660 U.N.T.S. 195, entered into force Jan

International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families A/RES/45/158

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (adopted 16 December 1966, entered into force 23 March 1976) 999 UNTS 171 (ICCPR)

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights ‎A/RES/2200

UN Charter 1 UNTS XVI

Statutes And Statutory Instruments

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, ‘Letter dated May 17, 2013 to Special Rapporteurs’.

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, ‘Letter dated July 30, 2013 from Irish Ambassador to the Special Rapporteurs’.

Secondary Sources

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Connors J, ‘An Analysis and Evaluation of the System of State Reporting’ in Anne F. Bayefsky, The UN Human Rights Treaty System in the 21st Century (Kluwer Law International, 2000)

Egan S, Reform of the UN Human Rights Treaty System (2nd edn, Oxford University Press, 2017)

Gutter J, Thematic Procedures of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights and International Law: In Search of a Sense of Community (Intersentia, 2006)

Joseph S, Seeking Remedies for Torture Victims: A Handbook on the Individual Complaints Procedures of the UN Treaty Bodies (Boris Wijkstrom, 2006)

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Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, ‘IV. Human Rights Treaty Bodies’ (2008) <http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/NgoHandbook/ngohandbook4.pdf> accessed 07 July 2017

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Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, ‘Standing Invitations’ (2017) <http://spinternet.ohchr.org/_Layouts/SpecialProceduresInternet/StandingInvitations.aspx> accessed 07 July 2017

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, ‘Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights Defenders, Magaret Sekaggya’ (2013) <www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/.../A-HRC-25-55_en.do> accessed 07 July 2017

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, ‘Individual Complaint Procedures Under The United Nations Human Rights Treaties’ (2013) <http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/FactSheet7Rev.2.pdf> accessed 07 July 2017

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Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, ‘International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights’ (19 August 2014) <http://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsieXFSudRZs%2FX1ZaMqUUOS9yIqPEMRvxx26PpQFtwrk%2BhtvbJ1frkLE%2BCPVCm6lW%2BYjfrz7jxiC9GMVvGkvu2UIuUfSqikQb9KMVoAoKkgSG> accessed 07 July 2017

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[1] Jeroen Gutter, Thematic Procedures of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights and International Law: In Search of a Sense of Community (Intersentia, 2006)

[2] UN Charter 1 UNTS XVI

[3] Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, ‘Human Rights Bodies’ (2017) <http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/Pages/HumanRightsBodies.aspx>  accessed 07 July 2017

[4] Bayefsky, ‘Introduction to the UN Human Rights Treaty System’ (2017) <http://www.bayefsky.com/introduction.php> accessed 07 July 2017

[5] International Justice Resource Centre, ‘Human Rights Committee’ (2017) <http://www.ijrcenter.org/un-treaty-bodies/human-rights-committee/> accessed 07 July 2017

[6] Christen Broecker, ‘The Reform of the United Nations’ Human Rights Treaty Bodies’ (2014) 18                 American Society of International Law.

[7] International Justice Resource Centre, ‘UN Human Rights Treaty Bodies’ (2017) <http://www.ijrcenter.org/un-treaty-bodies/> accessed 07 July 2017

[8] Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, ‘IV. Human Rights Treaty Bodies’ (2008) <http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/NgoHandbook/ngohandbook4.pdf> accessed 07 July 2017

[9] Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, ‘Special Procedures of the Human Rights Council’ (2017) <http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/SP/Pages/Welcomepage.aspx> accessed 07 July 2017

[10] Ibid

[11] Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, ‘Special Procedures’ (2017) <http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/NgoHandbook/ngohandbook6.pdf> accessed 07 July 2017

[12] Tamara Lewis, ‘The Procedures of the United Nations Human Rights Council’ in Suzanne Egan, International Human Rights: Perspectives from Ireland (Bloomsbury Professional, 2015)

[13] Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, ‘Standing Invitations’ (2017) <http://spinternet.ohchr.org/_Layouts/SpecialProceduresInternet/StandingInvitations.aspx> accessed 07 July 2017

[14] Philip Alston, ‘Tax Policy is Human Rights Policy: The Irish Debate’ (12 February 2015) <http://www.rightingfinance.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/speech.pdf>

[15] Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, ‘Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights Defenders, Magaret Sekaggya’ (2013) <www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/.../A-HRC-25-55_en.do> accessed 07 July 2017             

[16] Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, ‘Letter dated May 17, 2013 to Special Rapporteurs’.

[17] Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, ‘Letter dated July 30, 2013 from Irish Ambassador to the Special Rapporteurs’

[18] Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, ‘Human Rights Council Complaint Procedure’ (2017) <http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/ComplaintProcedure/Pages/HRCComplaintProcedureIndex.aspx> accessed 07 July 2017

[19] Andrew Byrnes, ‘An effective complaints procedure in the context of International Human Rights Law’ in Anne F. Bayefsky, The Un Human Rights Treaty System in the 21st Century (Kluwer Law International, 2000)

[20] Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, ‘Individual Complaint Procedures Under The United Nations Human Rights Treaties’ (2013) <http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/FactSheet7Rev.2.pdf> accessed 07 July 2017

[21] Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, ‘Human Rights Bodies - Complaints Procedures’ (2017) <http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/TBPetitions/Pages/HRTBPetitions.aspx> accessed 07 July 2017

[22] At 20

[23] Ibid

[24] Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, ‘International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights’ (19 August 2014) <http://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsieXFSudRZs%2FX1ZaMqUUOS9yIqPEMRvxx26PpQFtwrk%2BhtvbJ1frkLE%2BCPVCm6lW%2BYjfrz7jxiC9GMVvGkvu2UIuUfSqikQb9KMVoAoKkgSG> accessed 07 July 2017

[25] At 20

[26] International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (adopted 16 December 1966, entered into force 23 March 1976) 999 UNTS 171 (ICCPR)

[27] Ibid

[28] Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (adopted 10 December 1984, entered into force 26 June 1987) 1465 UNTS 85 (CAT)

[29] International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, G.A. res. 2106 (XX) ... A/6014 (1966), 660 U.N.T.S. 195, entered into force Jan

[30] Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.” Treaty Series 1249 (1988): 13.

[31] Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Treaty Series 2515 (2006): 3

[32] International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance 23 December 2010, No. 48088

[33] International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families A/RES/45/158

[34] International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights ‎A/RES/2200

[35] Convention on the Rights of the Child on a communications procedure A/HRC/RES/17/18

[36] Ibid

[37] Icelandic Human Rights Centre, ‘International Supervisory Mechanisms For Human Rights’ (2017) <http://www.humanrights.is/en/human-rights-education-project/human-rights-concepts-ideas-and-fora/part-i-the-concept-of-human-rights/international-supervisory-mechanisms-for-human-rights> accessed 07 July 2017

[38] Philip Alston and Ryan Goodman, International Human Rights (Oxford University Press, 2013)

[39] Sarah Joseph, Seeking Remedies for Torture Victims: A Handbook on the Individual Complaints Procedures of the UN Treaty Bodies (Boris Wijkstrom, 2006)

[40] Jane Connors, ‘An Analysis and Evaluation of the System of State Reporting’ in Anne F. Bayefsky, The UN Human Rights Treaty System in the 21st Century (Kluwer Law International, 2000)

[41] Bayefsky, ‘How To Complain About Human Rights Treaty Violations’ (2017) <http://www.bayefsky.com/complain/47_state_reporting.php> accessed 07 July 2017

[42] Susan Egan, Reform of the UN Human Rights Treaty System (2nd edn, Oxford University Press, 2017)

[43] Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, ‘Treaty Body Strengthening’ (2017) <http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRTD/Pages/TBStrengthening.aspx> accessed 07 July 2017

[44] Suzanne Egan, ‘Strengthening the United Nations Human Rights Treaty Body System’ (2013) 13 Human Rights Law Review

[45] Navanethem Pillay, ‘Strengthening the United Nations human rights treaty body system’ (June 2012) <http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/HRTD/docs/HCReportTBStrengthening.pdf> accessed 07 July 2017

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