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Chest compressions and proper CPR technique

  • Age: Age plays a major role in determining the care of the patient as for instance several treatments as well as medications may vary in concerns to the patient’s age.
  • Anesthesia: This relies upon the sort of operation and on which section it is going to execute. Therefore nurses can decide how much anesthetic is necessary. There are numerous sorts such as general and local anesthesia. Furthermore, it is also vital to discover whether a patient is allergic to anesthetic before to delivering it.
  • Surgery: Nurses must remain informed of the various obstacles the patient may confront throughout treatment. Also mentioning prior operations is also crucial to establish the appropriateness for current surgical technique.
  • Cognitive status: The three most prevalent conditions are dementia, delirium and depression. The nurse must be able to differentiate the three in order to choose the data from their family and friends.
  • Deep vein thrombosis: It happens in the distal veins of the calf and it changes in the vessel walls. There are initiated on a dual therapy treatment regimen that involves parenteral anticoagulants in the form of vitamins K antagonist and low molecular weight heparin.
  • Venous thromboembolism: It implies both deep veins thermbosis and pulmonary embolism. It causes high mortality and morbidity. There are different dangers such as obesity, varicose veins and hormone treatment.
  • Pulmonary embolism: This is important cause of death and morbidity. Up to 15 percent of fatalities in hospital are related to pulmonary embolism (Jimenez et al., 2019). Therefore the evaluation must be undertaken to limit the risk.
  • Immobility: It leads to diminished joint motions and bone demineralisation. This mainly affects the musculoskeletal system such as stress injuries, contractures and heart stasis.
  • Length of stay: The lengthier the patient remains in the hospital the more they are vulnerable to hospital infections. So the nurses has to alert about the stay of patients.
  • Mental health condition: The psychological  condition of a patient gives a chance for the nurse to begin the foundations for creating a therapeutic connection as well as construct an appropriate treatment plan in partnership with the doctor. Also, if the patient is not psychologically sound, then a nurse needs to be fully informed of it so that competent representatives may be designated to take control of his care.
  • Non-compliance: This occurs when patients do not cooperate with medical instructions. It is the job of the nurse to understand the behavior of the patient and also to guarantee that the nurse also respects the rules, regulations and laws that pertain to healthcare practices else they might lose their licence.
  • Nutritional status: It is crucial o get information on patient’s appetite, dysphasia, support necessary for eating, feeding and drinking. This may have an influence on the care that is to be delivered.
  • Pain: It is a very significant indication that assists the nurse to adopt effective pain management. The nurse must know the drug history so as to give the optimum pain relief to the patient.
  • Presence of morbidity: It signifies medical concerns that are produced by a therapy. If patient has had a history of morbidities developing after treatment, the nurse has to put in place frequent observations of vital signs.

(Griffiths et al., 2018).

i. Recommended depth of compression when performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in adults and the rationale for it.

Compressions are performed to a depth of one-third of the chest at a pace of 100 p/m to ensure continuous pressure on the heart, allowing it to continue circulating blood throughout the body and supplying oxygen to important organs.

ii. What happens to an unconscious person’s upper airway during head tilt/chin lift intervention?

It enables the individual to receive oxygen effectively.

iii. Examples of situations where you could cease providing CPR.

Put an end to CPR If there is no response to life. In such a scenario the medical officer present announces the moment of death, it is practically pointless to sustain, or there is a danger, the rescue effort is terminated.

iv. Recommendation to avoid fatigue interfering with the delivery of adequate chest compressions when there are multiple rescuers.

Chest compressions should always be conducted at a rate of 100-120 compressions per minute by rescuers of all ages (Bladi et al., 2019). While doing compressions, it is possible to switch rescuers every two minutes to minimise fatigue and a deterioration in compression quality.

v. How will you prepare a client’s skin prior to AED pad placement?

Ascertain that the skin is completely dry. If necessary, shave the chest. Take off any jewellery.  One pad should be worn on the upper right side of the chest. The second pad should be placed on the lower left side of the chest, just below the left armpit.

vi. How will you ensure safety when using AED and administering shock?

Always shout aloud “stand clear” and visibly confirm that individuals have walked aside before firing the defibrillator. Never touch the patient while he or she is being defibrillated. Ascertain that the person is not in close proximity to flammable liquids, vapours, or chemicals that might ignite. Ascertain that no liquids or water are present.

vii. Discuss the use of MET call and Code Blue in a hospital. What is the expected response to MET call and Code Blue?

The MET call is a hospital-based system that enables a nurse (or other member of staff) to notify and summon additional personnel for assistance when a patient's vital signs fall outside predefined thresholds. These criteria were developed in response to research indicating that specific vitals ranges and indications occur prior to the onset of poor patient circumstances that may result in mortality (Kearsley et al., 2018). Occasionally, a choice to make a MET call may rapidly devolve into a code blue. The responders are normally required to react to a call under five minutes of being alerted.

  • Ensure that the environmental hygiene is well maintained.
  • Ensure that the medications are properly administered.  
  • Require the patient to drink the prescribed quantity of liquids.
  • Assist the patient if he or she is unable to feed on his own.
  • Give the patient's preferred oral fluids if he is able to tolerate them.
  • Prioritize oral hygiene.
  • Cover the patient with light sheets to create a more comfortable environment.

(SA.gov.au., 2020)

  • Maintain a demure stance in front of her bed.
  • Put her personal and self-care products near range.
  • Put her personal and self-care products near range. Unfamiliar noises should be detected and explained, such as monitor alerts.
  • Always speak with and introduce yourself to a person with limited vision
  • Contact should be initiated only if the patient feels at ease.
  • Additionally, it is a sign of respect that proper attention and eye contact is maintained during dialogue. 

(SA.gov.au., 2020)

  • Ensure the well-being of all patients, parents, and caregivers
  • Maintain low beds and use brakes to secure them in place.
  • Side rails and cot sides must be elevated for appropriate age and patient groups.
  • Patients must be supplied with appropriate non-slip footwear.
  • Educate patients and family members of its utility.
  • Maintain enough room lighting; set the nightlight to a low setting.
  • Maintain a clutter-free floor.

(SA.gov.au., 2020)

The purpose of this assessment is to ascertain the fall history, risk factors for falling, and injury assessments. The form aids in the establishment and documentation of prevention strategies and user engagement programmes, as well as references, revaluations, and discharge plans.

  • Muscle weakness: A patient's feeble feet and legs make it more difficult to bear his own weight and overcome obstacles.
  • Flexibility: If a patient is stiff, he or she has a more difficult time recovering from stumbles or errors.
  • Balance: When moving unevenly, improved balance maintains the patient on flat ground.
  • Footwear that is not properly fitted, whether it is too large, too small, or any other mismatch, may cause trickling, sliding, and loss of balance and/or pain.
  • Medications: Certain medications might cause edoema, weakness, or even dehydration. All of these indicators might increase the likelihood of falling.

(SA.gov.au., 2020)

Bedridden individuals are more likely to develop pressure sores, which may be quite uncomfortable. Exercise, in addition to regular skin washing and a well-balanced diet, may help avoid pressure sores (Liu et al., 2020). Physical exercise improves blood flow to the skin, which helps prevent bed sores from forming. Under the expert guidance of a nurse, a bedridden patient may execute the following exercises:

  • Stretching one’s: One of the easiest exercises one may perform in bed to enhance his mobility tolerance by palm stretching.
  • Plantar flexion and dorsal ankle exercise: This exercise might assist an individual to keep his ankle mobile and promote circulation.
  • Arm lifts: An arm raise is a great strength workout that one can do  alone or with the help of a partner.
  • Leg lifts: If one is fit enough, doing leg lifts multiple times a day may prove to improve circulation and mobility.

Skin preparation for chest compressions and defibrillation

(Liu et al., 2020)

Because deep breathing and coughing are required, the following exercises may be performed readily after the procedure. These exercises help to enhance breathing, cleanse the lungs, and reduce one's chance of contracting pneumonia. Consider the following while encouraging respiratory and coughing exercises:

  • One may experience dizziness. If this occurs, it is critical to halt the exercise and monitor the patient’s vital signs.
  • Maintain basic life and seek aid if sputum obstructs the airway.
  • The patient may experience pain during surgical exercises or because to their condition therefore lighter exercises can be undertaken
  • Respiratory balloons can also be used as a form of exercise as it strengthens lungs and aids in removing fluids from lungs.

(Marotta et al., 2020)

Proper skin care is a critical component of exceptional care. Skin failure and pressure injuries (PIs) have become a standard by which hospitals are examined and rated, since they may increase morbidity and mortality as a result of establishing PIs as a patient safety issue. Most PIs are preventable with the proper precautions. To minimise friction/shear skin injury when the resident is doing manual handling tasks, protective gear, manual handling, and appropriate lifting methods must be used. The majority of pressure damage and skin rashes may be avoided with simple measures such as proper nutrition and hydration, frequent but careful mobilisation, great skin hygiene, and a well-functioning hydration system (Ogai et al., 2020).

Daily life tasks and routine duties are important, which the majority of healthy young people can do independently. Failure to do fundamental daily duties might result in unsafe situations and a low quality of life. To ensure that patients who need help are recognised, the importance of ADL evaluation should be made known to health workers. This exercise highlights daily activities and emphasises the interprofessional team's involvement in assessing ADLs in order to enhance patient medical treatment. The following are the fundamental kinds of ADL:

  • Ambulate: the degree to which a person is capable of moving and walking independently from one location to another.
  • Feeding capacity: a person's ability to feed themselves.
  • Dressing: the ability to select and put on appropriate clothing.
  • Personal hygiene refers to the ability to wash and take care of one's personal health, nails, and hair.
  • Continuity: The ability of the blood and bowels to work normally.
  • Toilet: having ability to access and exit the toilet, as well as to use and clean it.

(Pashmdarfard and Azad, 2020).

Elimination refers to the excretion of urine and faeces. As a result, the following should be documented by a nurse if patients need help in requesting assistance throughout the elimination process:

  • What you must consider, although subconsciously, is respecting the individual's privacy and being sensitive in its management.
  • Evaluate the individual's ability to manage his or her own excretions.
  • Take notice of the time period during which they often perform the act of elimination.
  • Cover their lap with a towel to avoid embarrassment while using the commode/couch, pee, or urinal.
  • If the person is capable of self-care inside the room, the toilet roll should be easily accessible.
  • Remain with the patient if he is frail and confused to prevent fall hazards.
  • If the patient is capable of self-care, exit the room but remain on call.
  • Discourage the person from shutting the door for safety reasons.
  • If the person is ill or injured, it is vital to rapidly cleanse him to guarantee his comfort and hygiene and to avoid embarrassment, and to instruct them to clean their hands after cleaning.

Two incontinence aids used in clinical setting are stated as follows:

Adult diaper: Adult diapers are a widely used product by both men and women who are prone to incontinence concerns as a result of a variety of health conditions. Mobility disability, dementia, acute diarrhoea, and injuries and accidents are all examples of medical difficulties. Diapers contain ultra absorbent layers that retain moisture for extended periods of time, making them perfect for nighttime protection and travel.

Catheter: A urinary catheter is a tubular structure into the body for the purpose of draining and collecting urine from the bladder. Urinary catheters can be used to empty the bladder, particularly in those who suffer from incontinence.

(Bothing et al., 2020).

Strategies that a nurse could implement to ensure the physical comfort of a patient are as follows:

  • Provision of good beds and utilities
  • Addressing on pain areas
  • Provision of good food and potable water
  • Ensuring that the medications are taken on time to speed recovery
  • Ensure that the patient is doing enough activity to keep mobility
  • Allow for the patient and family to interact well to fuel their emotional needs

It is indeed true that when patients are brought to a therapeutic environment, they might have sleep issues. This can be due to several factors attributing to change in space, feeling of aloofness, noise of machines, usage of medicines as well as feelings of insecurity. However, certain strategies can be used by nurses to ensure that the patients sleep better and the mentioned strategies are as follows:

  • Preparing for bed early  
  • Creating an Environment That Is Sleep-Friendly
  • Diet that Promotes Sleep
  • Providing opportunities for leisure and relaxation
  • Confronting Emotional Anxiety
  • Sleep-Inducing Substances

(Delaney et. al., 2018).

Brushing teeth: With the assistance of water and a bendable suction catheter, an effective oral hygiene routine may be performed using a small toothbrush with a soft bristle and toothpaste. Carefully clean teeth, gums, and tongue. Carefully clean teeth, gums, and tongue.

  • Dentures are to be cleaned using a denture brush and gentle soap to eliminate plaque from all surfaces.
  • Carefully handle the dentures and rinse them in a dish in the sink to avoid any breaking if they are dropped.
  • Always wash your hands before and after cleaning your dentures.
  • When using an alcohol-free mouthwash, ensure that the patient spits it out and does not consume it.
  • Use mouthwash after brushing their teeth to help eliminate foul breath.
  • Always dilute the mouthwash with water if the concentration is too high for the patient.
  • Do not forget to practice pre- and post-operative hand hygiene.
  • Dental floss may be employed for this purpose.
  • Gently saw amongst teeth until they are completely cleaned.
  • If the floss is unclean or fragile, discard it.
  • Hand hygiene should be practiced both prior and after cleaning.

ADL evaluation to improve patient medical treatment

(Zhao et al.,2020); (Bouzid et al., 2018).

Using one's nursing procedural knowledge and psychomotor abilities while caring for patients who are unable to move is essential when caring for patients who are unable to move.

  • Traction, splints, braces, and casts are examples of orthopedic devices that may be applied, maintained, and removed.
  • Instructions on how to walk safely and without risking one's physical health should be provided to the patient
  • Maintain optimal body alignment and adjustment of traction devices, such as external fixation, halo traction, and skeletal traction, as necessary.
  • Techniques for increasing circulation, such as active or passive movement, posture, and mobilization, should be used.
  • Evaluate the patient's response to immobility issues in order to prevent fatal complications from developing.

(Liu et al., 2019).

In medicine, an examination of the respiratory system is a means of determining how well it is working. It is essential to monitor breathing rates and symmetry along with depth and sound as well as auxiliary muscle usage and tracheal deviation in order to conduct a thorough respiratory examination. Aside from that, the evaluator looks at the skin's oxygen saturation (SpO2) and colour. Important to note is how the chest rises and falls, as well as how quickly and deeply the lungs make sounds. The ABCDE assessment consists of the following components:

  • Identifying and evaluating the patient's patent airways (A): The goal of identifying and evaluating the patient's patent airways is to determine the patient's capacity to defend its airways and the risk associated with this ability.
  • After it has been determined that the airway has been appropriately checked and treated, the breathing function (B) is carried out. Breathing rates of 12-20 breaths per minute are typical for the count and correlate to the normal human breathing rate.
  • When it comes to measuring the circulatory system, the purpose of circulation (C) is to identify how effective the cardiac output is. Called cardiac output, it is the quantity of blood that the heart pumps out per minute.
  • Disability (D): This evaluation comprises an examination of the patient's neurological condition, and it should only be carried out after all other parameters have been optimised, since each of these factors may have an influence on the patient's neurological condition.
  • The term "exposure (E)" refers to the incorporation of additional data such as patient medical records, medical diagrams, observational diagrams, and research results to help in the evaluation and continuation of the patient's treatment plan.

(Peate and Brent, 2021).

The following nursing processes should be incorporated in a clinical care plan for patients with heart failure: surveillance of vital signs, changes in the patient's lifestyle, changes in the patient's food, administration of drugs, and oxygen treatment. Vital signs, airway patent, and neurological status are all monitored, as is pain management. Other nursing procedures include the assessment of the operating site, the assessment and maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance, and the distribution of comprehensive status reports to the unit nurse who is the recipient of the patient's and patient's family's detailed status reports (Bohula et al., 2019). Pre-exercise tests are used to identify those who have medical issues and are at a higher risk of developing a health problem while participating in physical activity, such as running.

Pain evaluation determines the intensity of pain and assists the nurse in determining the efficacy of pain management measures. A pain assessment should be performed during admission. Patients must try to optimise acute pain therapy and collaborate with other members of the health care team in designing and providing comfort regimens. Further, a nurse should ensure the following:

Facilitating Healing

Restorative health care for physical, emotional, and social well-being

Providing patients with the greatest possible outcomes

(Liu et al., 2021).

The evaluation findings inform care planning and, in turn, resource allocation decisions. Allocating resources entails the following:

  • The person, or his or her family's or career's history and requirements
  • Individual, family, or caregiver resources may be available.
  • Possibilities for risk reduction and capacity and independence enhancement
  • Service offerings and current resource requirements for the organisation
  • Demand within the context of a broader community care system.
  • One may report on an individual's whereabouts without being directed by a tool or control list in a conversation. Individual beliefs, social and cultural identities are all respected.
  • Individuals are self-sufficient and have the ability to express their desires.
  • The individual is helped in defining, making his or her own choices, and achieving realistic, attainable objectives.
  • During the early stages of the partnership, unrealistic expectations and risks are explained.
  • Approach that is adaptable, dynamic, and customized.

(Fathian et al., 2019).

The basic kinds of sensory impairment are blindness and sightseeing, hearing loss and surgery, sour-blindness, and sensory processing disorder. They are often classified as amplified phones, communications, personal amplifiers, and television streamers. Numerous sensory devices, such as the Tactile Sensory Bag, stimulate several senses (Sorgini et al., 2018). Several examples are the sensory pod, dark the toolbox, and the nature's sound pyramid.

Cognitive deficit is an umbrella term that refers to impairments in an individual's mental processes that result in information and knowledge acquisition, as well as the way a person sees and functions in the environment.

  • Memory loss: Forget recent occurrences, repeat the same questions and narratives, miss the names of close friends and relatives, forget planned appointments and activities, forget to speak, and often get disoriented.
  • Language difficulties: Has trouble finding the words you desire and comprehending written or spoken information.
  • Justification and judgment: Anticipating challenges and overcoming obstacles, as well as making tough choices.
  • A sophisticated decision-making process: It may be challenging, but it is capable of doing complex tasks such as bill payment, medication administration, shopping, cooking, cleaning, and driving.
  • Dementia is a general word that refers to a progressive loss of mental function that interferes with daily tasks.
  • Physical activity on a regular basis, a balanced diet, social activities, hobbies, and intellectual stimulation are all advocated as measures to postpone cognitive decline. Recommend national and local services to the individual and caregiver, including support groups. It is vital for caregivers to comprehend and use respite care.

(Sheffield et al., 2018)

Discharge planning is the method by which the patient, caregiver, family, and other engaged staff make the necessary arrangements to ensure a seamless transition from the patient ’s perspective, residential care, or another location. It entails taking into account a variety of criteria, including the following: Appointments and follow-up tests

  • Personal health goals, drugs, and rehabilitation equipment, among other things.
  • All tests and their findings, as well as the drugs provided to the patient.
  • Future hospital visits will be determined by the patient's health state.
  • If required, a diet chart.

Strategies for physical comfort and better sleep

Admission planning refers to the process through which a health practitioner or health provider organisation accepts responsibility for a patient and/or their treatment and care, as well as the procedures, tools, and tactics utilised to officially initiate an episode of care. During the hospitalization time, the healthcare organization's strategic aim is to maintain patient flow.

  • Hospitals may rearrange patient flow to maximise efficiency and therapeutic results by integrating process management and information technology. Any approach for patient flow must begin with data.
  • Patient flow is built on the collection, integration, and sharing of information both inside and between departments and workers.
  • With many information systems and departments, hospitals may find this foundation rather challenging.
  • Actionable data is used to trigger patient care events, and scheduled reminders are enabled.

(Mileski et al.,  2020).

Health observation and assessment is a systematic method of gathering data about a patient. This data is used to provide information on the patient's condition and to direct the patient's treatment. In all clinical settings, nurses are constantly examining and analysing patients' health.

  • The nursing care cycle's initial step is to monitor and analyse your health.
  • The practise of eliciting qualitative data about a patient's condition is called health history.
  • To collect data, an interview with the patient and/or significant others is conducted. The data collected may be primary or secondary.
  • Physical examination: obtaining objective facts about a patient, such as information about his or her symptoms. The data is acquired during the patient's physical examination, which includes techniques like as inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation, as well as the measurement of vital signs and other key physical indications.
  • Nurses are not obliged to be specialists in the health practises, values, beliefs, and behaviors of all cultural groups with whom they contact.
  • Each nurse approaches a head-to-toe examination differently. The only criterion for a full head-to-toe examination is that it be systematic and exhaustive, with no data omitted.

(Redley and Waugh, 2018).

Zimmer frame is a framed metal walking aid for patients who find it difficult to walk on their own (Harwood and Saboori, 2020). Therefore, while making use of the same, the following strategies can be used by a nurse to aid the patient:

  • Firstly, ensure that the equipment is good and free of any damages.
  • Put the patient in position and ensure that he grabs the handle properly
  • Ensure that all four points are on the ground
  • Help in moving the dominant or strong side of the patient
  • Again ensure that all four points are on the ground
  • Help in moving the weaker side of the patient
  • Blood glucose level: This may be determined by pricking the finger with a tiny needle, collecting a little amount of blood onto a strip, and then inserting the strip into a glucometer to record the blood glucose level. It is essential to use a sterilized needle while undertaking this procedure.
  • Blood pressure (manual method): Blood pressure may be measured manually using a sphygmomanometer or stethoscope. The rubber bag has two tubes, one of which may be attached to a hand-connected bulb that can be compressed and relaxed, and the other to a manometer that displays millimetre calibrations. Take notes on the pressure sounds.
  • Height, weight, and body mass index: To determine the height of someone who is able to stand, a height ruler is used on the wall. Weight may be determined using a weighing scale  if the individual is able to stand, alternatively a weighing chair can be utilised.
  • Pupil reaction: Penlight is used to test pupil response since the eye should track the motion of the light. Pupils may be dilated by rubbing the open eye with the light pen.
  • Neurological reflexes: This may be accomplished in two ways: by giving a stimulation to the skin, such as stroking it with your finger, or by monitoring muscle contraction. The other is to strike something with a percussion hammer and observe the reaction.  The other is to strike something with a percussion hammer and observe the reaction. 
  • Peripheral circulation: It is performed by touching or squeezing the skin and examining the mottling pattern.
  • Assessment for eyesight within your scope of practice:  Assure that you are seated directly in front of the patient, with your head and eyes at the same level as the patient. Additionally, inspect the patient's alternate eye and confirm that he or she is comfortable.
  • Skin colour, integrity, and turgor: These are observed externally. Pallor, jaundice, cyanosis, or any other abnormal coloration. Dryness or oiliness of the skin, increased perspiration, and fluid retention all contribute to the skin's hydration. Turgor is where we take up and release the skin. It is essential that gloves are worn during this.
  • Temperature, pulse, respirations:Temperature, heart rate, and respiration rate are all monitored using a thermometer. Temperatures often vary between 36.1 and 37.2 degrees Celsius. Pulse and respiration rates are determined visually and tactilely.
  • Urinalysis: Checking the acidity, content, protein, ketones, blood, and indications of infection with a dipstick. The urine sample collected must be sterile.

Health data refers to a person's medical history, which includes symptoms, diagnoses, treatments, and outcomes. A health record comprises a patient's history, laboratory results, X-rays, clinical data, demographic information, and notes.

  • The source of information on a person's health must be reliable.
  • While analysing health data, quality control should be implemented to provide the best possible health care.
  • Always maintain privacy and confidentiality while evaluating and analysing health information.
  • Always get information based on facts, not on preconceptions.
  • The information must be current and well-explained in order to conduct an appropriate assessment.

(Demeris et al., 2019).

Consciousness clouding is a subtly altered level of psychological health in which the patient demonstrates neglect and diminished alertness. Confusion is a more serious weakness that includes disorientation, confusion, and difficulty following commands.

  • Lethargy is characterised by excessive drowsiness, with the patient falling asleep in response to little stimulus.
  • Obtundation is analogous to lethargy, wherein the patient exhibits less interest in his or her environment, delayed responses to stimulus, and sleeps more than normal with excessive drowsiness in sleeping settings.
  • Stupor occurs when a person is only aroused aggressively and frequently, and the patient rapidly reverts to an unresponsive state when left alone.
  • Coma is a persistent state of unconsciousness.

The scale is divided into three subscales: eye opening, optimal motor response, and ideal verbal response. It assigns a numerical value to each answer. Three is the minimum score. The maximum is fifteen. A 15 indicates that the patient is fully alert and oriented, while a 3 indicates that the patient is in a severe coma (Fitzpatrick-DeSalme et al., 2022).

Signs of a deteriorating patient can be as follows:

  • Fluctuations in the respiratory rate
  • Fluctuations in blood pressure
  • Level of consciousness
  • Extreme body temperature
  • Hourly urine output

In case the patient is deteriorating, the following steps can be undertaken:

  • Communicate the patient conditions immediately to the presiding doctor
  • Collaborate with the doctor to undertake proper care management
  • Inform the family members of the patient concerning the patient’s condition
  • Closely monitor patient health

Take notice of the following strategies:

i. Maintain eye contact: Maintaining eye contact communicates care and sympathy. Additionally, it might convey your patient's sensitivity and inquiry. Your patients are connected to you via eye contact, social touch, and communication of understanding.

ii. Empathy Demonstration: Empathy is the capacity to grasp another person's situation, viewpoint, and experiences. You can give the patient with more customised care. The empathetic nurse talks with and assists your patient in understanding.

iii. Maintain an open line of communication: Research suggests that effective communication is critical for patient outcome improvement. Understanding your patient's needs and preferences concernign communication and state of mind as it might aid in relationship development. This is one method of informing your patient of new instructions or status changes.

iv. Personalize the process: Being a patient might be terrifying. Utilize this chance to get acquainted with your patients in order to facilitate your stay. Inquire about their family, friends, hobbies, and interests, as well as other essential aspects of your life.

v. Active Listening: Active listening is a critical component of holistic medicine. The manner in which patients' thoughts and emotions are shared is non-intrusive.

(Kwame and Petrucka, 2020).

References

Baldi, E., Contri, E., Bailoni, A., Rendic, K., Turcan, V., Donchev, N., Nadareishvili, I., Petrica, A.M., Yerolemidou, I., Petrenko, A. and Franke, J., 2019. Final-year medical students’ knowledge of cardiac arrest and CPR: We must do more!. International Journal of Cardiology, 296, pp.76-80.

Bohula, E.A., Katz, J.N., Van Diepen, S., Alviar, C.L., Baird-Zars, V.M., Park, J.G., Barnett, C.F., Bhattal, G., Barsness, G.W., Burke, J.A. and Cremer, P.C., 2019. Demographics, care patterns, and outcomes of patients admitted to cardiac intensive care units: the Critical Care Cardiology Trials Network Prospective North American Multicenter Registry of Cardiac Critical Illness. JAMA cardiology, 4(9), pp.928-935.

Böthig, R., Domurath, B., Kutzenberger, J., Bremer, J., Kurze, I., Kaufmann, A., Pretzer, J., Klask, J.P., Kowald, B., Tiburtius, C. and Golka, K., 2020. The real daily need for incontinence aids and appliances in patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction in a community setting in Germany. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare, 13, p.217.

Bouzid, M., Cumming, O. and Hunter, P.R., 2018. What is the impact of water sanitation and hygiene in healthcare facilities on care seeking behaviour and patient satisfaction? A systematic review of the evidence from low-income and middle-income countries. BMJ Global Health, 3(3), p.e000648.

Delaney, L.J., Currie, M.J., Huang, H.C.C., Lopez, V. and Van Haren, F., 2018. “They can rest at home”: an observational study of patients’ quality of sleep in an Australian hospital. BMC health services research, 18(1), pp.1-9.

Delaney, L.J., Currie, M.J., Huang, H.C.C., Lopez, V. and Van Haren, F., 2018. “They can rest at home”: an observational study of patients’ quality of sleep in an Australian hospital. BMC health services research, 18(1), pp.1-9.

Demiris, G., Iribarren, S.J., Sward, K., Lee, S. and Yang, R., 2019. Patient generated health data use in clinical practice: a systematic review. Nursing outlook, 67(4), pp.311-330.

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