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write an essay on both parts

a. what is partipation and what does it seek to achieve? 

b. what are the issues and factors that influence the extent to which the aims to which participation are achieved in practice? which of these factors are important and why? 

Discussion

The development can be termed as contentious process which works best when there is participation of the citizens in the decision making process. An increasing number of nations are engaging their citizens in their process of development in order to make the government entities more accountable (Elliott 2012). The involvement of the citizens in the decision making process has an intrinsic value as the process of training them in matters of democratic governance would enhance their dignity as well as promote their quest for freedom. The participatory form of development emerged in the 1970 and it was introduced as basic approach to address the development needs (Mansuri and Rao 2012). It has become a popular development method, which is increasingly adopted by the organizations and is often treated as an alternative to the “top-down” development model. This essay would address the meaning of participation and its aim. It would also explore the factors and issues which influence the different aims of the participation in the communities. The importance of this task would be enumerated with practical examples from developing countries.

The participatory form of government is defined as the type of intervention by the local communities in the matters of the government so that there is overall development of the society (Keränen 2014). It aims to include the citizens in the development of the society and design projects so that they are benefitted from it. This also gives them a hope that the community projects would be successful and sustainable if there is active participation of the community members. Such engagements of the citizens and the governments have the capability to induce positive change (Johnson and Andersen 2012). The participatory intervention has proved to be successful in many societal transformations all around the world. It also supports growing environmental movements that aim to seek the human and political rights. There can be forms of participation such as induced as well as organic, which are often inter-linked (Keränen 2014). The induced projects that are large scale may develop along with the organic activism. The induced participation is more fostered as per as the development perspective is concerned (Green and Haines 2015).

The community development initiatives do support the development of the villages and the urban neighborhoods by undertaking a project based approach through proper management of the various resources. The community development advocates believe that there is need of collective action so that there is community cohesion or strengthen the social capital (Eshliki and Kaboudi 2012). It would also solidify the ability of the poor as well as deprived so that they can get good public services as well as receive greater responsiveness from the government. The citizens get a “voice” when they engage in participatory intervention (Eshliki and Kaboudi 2012). These kinds of community participations are usually implemented through the process of formal local governments and they aim to gather the maximum number of participants for this purpose (Meins 2013). There can be a wide variety of the project designs that aim for “community-based” interventions for the selected beneficiaries. This kind of interventions can be witnessed in developing countries, where there is lack of government initiatives that are implemented for uplifting social, economic and health status of the society.

Factors Influencing the Success of Participatory Interventions

As defined by the “social development” perspective, the participatory intervention can be defined as the mobilization of the people so that there is elimination of unjust knowledge, hierarchies and economic distribution (Sandoval et al. 2012). The empowerment participation is considered when the primary stakeholders are willing to initiate as well as take part in the process of social development. The “institutional perspective” views participation as the inclusion of different inputs by the significant groups, which are designed and implemented by one development project (Eshliki and Kaboudi 2012).

The aim of the participatory interventions in the community based projects is the careful selection of the natural units of the solutions as the critical units of practice and selects the process of intervention (Lloyd Michener et al. 2012). The community members are the ones who would have an in-depth knowledge about the community processes and knows their well-being well. An insider understands helps in the identification of problems existing in the community and aims to find the best solutions for them (Eshliki and Kaboudi 2012). This process also aims to strengthen the community welfare through the creation of the different kinds of network linkages such as informal social networks and the various connections among the community organizations. The common concerns of the community can be addressed through the help of the participatory intervention and it can comprise of a variety of issues including healthy issues (Mayne and Stern 2013).

There are different factors that influence the extent to which the participatory interventions aims are accomplished. There is a mix of the financial as well as non-financial analysis needed for the community members to participate in the social development causes (Mao et al. 2013). The financial incentives should be implemented carefully as there are times when the implementation of such incentives causes less attention on the unpaid tasks (Tulenko et al. 2013). The incentive should be used as a tool to enhance the participation of the communities and give them multiple tasks to be performed (Mao et al. 2013). The other factors that drive the local community to participate in such initiatives are training and supervision (Lifson et al. 2012). The government should support different forms of primary and secondary levels of training so that the communities can perform their job duties in a better manner. The aim of such projects is to increase the credibility of the community workers and diminish their workload so that they can be satisfied while contributing to the society (Mao et al. 2013). The policy makers should be informed about the development of the community interventions and the community should be provided with adequate tools that would help in high performance of the community projects. There are other factors such as communication between community members, good awareness, continuous learning and development, knowledge about program outcomes and great vision of the particular benefit that the project would bring about (Lifson et al. 2012). The fulfillment of these factors would not only ensure community participation but would also ensure quality assurance. The awareness about the vision of the project is important factor for local participatory intervention so that they can give their greatest contribution the community (Mao et al. 2013). This would also help the citizens to involve themselves in a way so that there is enhanced productivity and hence the program objectives would be met. The clarity of the vision would help in the determination of the path to follow in order to achieve the goals of the program.

Practical Examples from Developing Countries

The developing countries have sufficient practical demonstrations of participatory interventions in their community based programs. In Africa, they are used for intervention into the cases of HIV patients. The community based participation is made for reducing the risk factors of patients with HIV patients (Tanser et al. 2013). The community based interventions tend to increase the public awareness about HIV/AIDS and try to participate in the risk reduction behaviors. This kind of community intervention is prevention focused multidisciplinary and guided partnerships in the areas where the victims live or work (Tanser et al. 2013). The participatory intervention is considered as one of the key measures to bring about behavioral as well as environmental changes which would improve the health of the community and its members (Yancey et al. 2012). The community approaches help in the mobilization of the resources and improving the relationships between the parties so that they can act as catalysts to bring in the social change (Tanser et al. 2013). The communities in the public health programs in Africa engage in the demographic surveillance, piloting, questionnaire design, participant recruitment, intervention planning, control assignment and the intervention session development (Yancey et al. 2012).

The intervention mapping is used as a “participative approach” in developing an HIV intervention program in the rural American African communities (Eldredge et al.  2016). The south-eastern states of Africa are one of the most prone areas of HIV epidemic and there are racial disparities in the different rates of HIV. The community based participatory research (CBPR) is applied for the HIV prevention intervention (Hacker 2013). It is important to implement “family based” intervention, which would involve the caregivers and the youth. The intervention mapping (IM) is used to improve the health promotion programs that are used to link the performance objectives and the health behavior theory (Tanser et al. 2013). IM is involved in the maximum participation of the partners in the planning process so that there are maximum program outcomes. The CBPR principles are coupled with IM methodology in order to develop HIV prevention intervention for several African communities (Eldredge et al.  2016).

There are varieties of issues that are linked with the community participative initiatives. The CBPR has an increasing element of ethical obligation and there is often breach of ethical guidelines (Hacker 2013). It is important that the community based initiatives are done in an ethical manner. The confidentiality level of the participants should be maintained and consent where there is involvement of information sharing. There are instances when the private information is leaked out without the consent of the participant. There can be professional or legal issues that are confronted by the community when they are engaged with a particular project (Elliott 2012). There are many social accreditations such as American Psychological Association or National Association of Social Workers which work for engaging the citizens in community affairs (Elliott 2012).There can be lack of organizing tasks and legal constraints that may come in the path of the citizens (Elliott 2012). The non-cooperative attitude of the community may pose problems for the participants in participation intervention. There can be situations where the participants need to work in abusive environment where the people would try to take advantage of the participants for sexual, social and financial gain (Elliott 2012). This may initiate negative feelings in the participants, which may prevent them from giving their full output. There can be conflict of interest between two or more community members, which may lead to disadvantage of the community or how the program would run smoothly (Hacker 2013). There may be issues with mentoring of the new community participators in which there may be unavailability of the old employees who would be eager to give training sessions. This may lack of skills in the youths or the new members who engage themselves in the community interventions (Elliott 2012). It is important to take seek probable alternatives for the effective solutions of these issues are sought. The participatory interventions functions best when the same is supported by responsive government.

Conclusion

The induction of the participatory intervention is often viewed as unpredictable and there is heterogonous kind of outcomes. There is a greater civic engagement in the matters of social development which is affected by the local population. This essay strived to understand the different dimensions of participative intervention, especially in developing countries. The community development is explored from different perspective. It underlines the fact that there is a need of collective action when engaging in projects concerning social development. The citizens feel satisfied while they are engaged in projects concerning their own social development. The social development perspective emphasizes on the fact that the mobilization of people is important for eliminating hierarchies, economic distribution and unjust knowledge. There is also reference of the “institutional perspective”, which witnesses participation as including different inputs by the significant groups. The aim of this kind of intervention is to gain the knowledge and skills of the community members, which would be instrumental in designing solutions for their own issues. It also helps in the creation of community connections. There are different factors that influence this kind of intervention such as financial, non-financial, communication, good awareness, continuous learning and development, knowledge about program outcomes and great vision. The practical demonstrations of participatory programs in Africa are sought. 

References

Eldredge, L.K.B., Markham, C.M., Kok, G., Ruiter, R.A. and Parcel, G.S., 2016. Planning health promotion programs: an intervention mapping approach. John Wiley & Sons.

Elliott, J., 2012. An introduction to sustainable development. Routledge.

Eshliki, S.A. and Kaboudi, M., 2012. Community perception of tourism impacts and their participation in tourism planning: a case study of Ramsar, Iran. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 36, pp.333-341.

Green, G.P. and Haines, A., 2015. Asset building & community development. Sage publications.

Hacker, K., 2013. Community-based participatory research. Sage Publications.

Johnson, B. and Andersen, A.D., 2012. Learning, Innovation and Inclusive Development: New perspectives on economic development strategy and development aid. Aalborg Universitetsforlag.

Keränen, L., 2014. Public engagements with health and medicine. Journal of Medical Humanities, 35(2), pp.103-109.

Lifson, A.R., Demissie, W., Tadesse, A., Ketema, K., May, R., Yakob, B., Metekia, M., Slater, L. and Shenie, T., 2012. HIV/AIDS stigma-associated attitudes in a rural Ethiopian community: characteristics, correlation with HIV knowledge and other factors, and implications for community intervention. BMC international health and human rights, 12(1), p.6.

Lloyd Michener, M., Cook, J., Ahmed, S.M., Yonas, M.A., Coyne-Beasley, T. and Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., 2012. Aligning the goals of community-engaged research: why and how academic health centers can successfully engage with communities to improve health. Academic Medicine, 87(3), p.285.

Mansuri, G. and Rao, V., 2012. Localizing development: does participation work?. World Bank Publications.

Mao, A., Kamar, E., Chen, Y., Horvitz, E., Schwamb, M.E., Lintott, C.J. and Smith, A.M., 2013, November. Volunteering versus work for pay: Incentives and tradeoffs in crowdsourcing. In First AAAI conference on human computation and crowdsourcing.

Mayne, J. and Stern, E., 2013. Impact evaluation of natural resouce management research programs: a broader view. Canberra: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.

Meins, E., 2013. Security of attachment and the social development of cognition. Psychology press.

Sandoval, J.A., Lucero, J., Oetzel, J., Avila, M., Belone, L., Mau, M., Pearson, C., Tafoya, G., Duran, B., Rios, L.I. and Wallerstein, N., 2012. Process and outcome constructs for evaluating community-based participatory research projects: a matrix of existing measures. Health Education Research, 27(4), pp.680-690.

Stringer, E.T., 2013. Action research. Sage Publications.

Tanser, F., Bärnighausen, T., Grapsa, E., Zaidi, J. and Newell, M.L., 2013. High coverage of ART associated with decline in risk of HIV acquisition in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Science, 339(6122), pp.966-971.

Tulenko, K., Mgedal, S., Afzal, M.M., Frymus, D., Oshin, A., Pate, M., Quain, E., Pinel, A., Wynd, S. and Zodpey, S., 2013. Community health workers for universal health-care coverage: from fragmentation to synergy. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 91(11), pp.847-852.

Yancey, E.M., Mayberry, R., Armstrong-Mensah, E., Collins, D., Goodin, L., Cureton, S., Trammell, E.H. and Yuan, K., 2012. The community-based participatory intervention effect of “HIV-RAAP”. American journal of health behavior, 36(4), pp.555-568.

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