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What is socialization?

Discuss about the Impact Of Socialization On the Children Learning.

In order to describe the personality development of human beings the concept of socialization is used. The term socialization is not only used in academic disciplines but also in everyday life. The integration of social values and norms, the adaptation to the social environment and the endeavor to become what society expects an individual to be that is the process of becoming social. The term socialization can be categorized in to primary and secondary. Primary socialization occurs at our home and in school. It includes etiquettes, manners, our way of talking, eating and so on. Secondary socialization phase occurs in our adulthood and takes place outside our home, at work and in public (Hurrelnann & Bauer, 2018).

Every child goes through definitive phases of social development. Socialization helps to prepare a child to become a useful member of the society. A child learns how to satisfy his basic needs and coordinate his behavior with others in various situations. However, socialisation is not just confined to adulthood in fact it is an eternal process. This means a person continues to grasp to take appropriate expected actions associated with whatever new position he occupies as an infant, a toddler, a boy, a youth, and an old person (Angelus, 2011).

Self-Concept is a perception of one’s image, abilities, and individual uniqueness. An individual consists of attributes and personality traits that differentiate them from other individuals. Self-concept helps to make a child realize that he exists as a separate identity from others. In the initial stage of childhood the distinguishing categories that children apply to themselves is very specific and definite (e.g. height, gender). Later on self-description and comparative evaluations also begin to include in their physcological traits. An individual distinguishes his/her identity from that of others in terms of age, gender, size, skills and many more. It is important to be noted that self-image does not need to coincide with reality. A self-image is a mix of various aspects such as physical characteristics, personality traits, and social roles. For example:-A boy might consider himself as an accomplished musician whereas in real he is not. So here, he himself has developed self-concept of an accomplished musician. The understanding of self-concept is important as it influences our thinking, feeling, and act in everyday routine life. A healthy self-concept helps to get ahead in life and maximize our potential, strengths, talents, and abilities. A fragile self-concept may hinder one’s performance and will most likely lead to self-sabotaging behavior (Explorable, 2018).

Primary and secondary socialization

The ability to control and postpone one’s desire, behavior, and emotions at an appropriate time, place, and situation. It also involves ability to tolerate and control annoyance and to alter them in accordance with the demand of the situation. Self-regulation reflects our ability to act in a way consistent with our upbringing, self-conscience and deeply held values. In other words, one has to think before doing any kind of act. For example:-A fitness freak always tries to control his craving for food in order to maintain his weight and to be in shape. Self-regulation skills help us to improve our resilience and ability to cope up with complicated and difficult circumstances of life. In children, the ability of self-regulation helps them to control their impulses and stop behaving negatively. Lack of self-regulation in a child can adversely affect and hinder a child’s learning capabilities, ability, and skills. Self-regulation is considered as a powerful skill that has a great impact on children throughout their lives. A child must learn and develop self-regulation skills for its own future benefit (Verywellmind, 2018).

 The first and foremost key agent of socialization is family. A child’s first world is his family. In his family, a child develops an initial training of eating, sleeping, drinking, and talking. Parent’s plays a significant role in guiding their children. Mother, father, siblings, grandparents, and the extended members of an family imparts values, knowledge and skills that a child is expected to acquire and inherit in that particular society. Some of the basic abilities are genetically transferred to a child when he/she is born. Hence, the initial process of socialization begins in a family. Children value the teachings given by their family members (Sociologydiscussion, 2018).

Primary socialization takes place within the family but in complex societies, children are also socialized by the educational system, which prevails in their society. Learning at school is an intellectual process. A school is a place where children formally learn about their society in which they live apart from that a teacher teaches them reading, writing, arithmetic, history and many more. In schools children are socialize when their teachers and mentors formally introduce them to the values, beliefs, customs, and taboos of the society. Here a teacher plays a significant role in inculcating the learning skills among the children and encouraging the developmental skills by motivating them (Churchill,, 2011).

Today a child spends a considerable amount of time with other individuals outside his home and family. As a child starts growing his peers, begin to influence him. Here children are generally not present under the supervision and control of their family members. Peer group of a child provides support and companionship to him. Influence of peer group can be both negative as well as positive. The group may encourage an individual to follow such things that are admirable in society whereas it may encourage violating the norms of the society by driving recklessly, involving in illegal activities and such other activities, which are not admirable by our society (Handel, 2011).

What is self-concept?

Today media technology is quite interactive. Impersonal information is distributed to the general public via newspaper,television,internet,videos,DVD’s,books,magazines,computers and cellular phones. Media acts as a socializer as it presents a set up in which a child can view the whole world (Kehily, 2010).

Community shares something in common such as norms, values, religion, and identity. In a community, children learn by doing things. Children experiences and observes what and with whom they interact in the community are similar or diverse whether people in the community advocates for children or not (Sociologydiscussion, 2018).

 The Affective method of socialization primarily focuses on attachment and affection formed between a child and his parent or his primary caregiver. It is not necessary that affection exists only between a child and his parent it can also occur between a teacher and a child. If a child admires a particular quality of a teacher such as discipline then he may absorb it in his life. This method deals with emotions and feelings that vary from person to person. For example: - if a child forms an attachment for his mother, he is likely to absorb some good and admirable qualities, values, and characteristics of her (Kearns, 2010).

Operant methods of socialization are reactions that a child receives because of his performed actions and behavior. Through operant method, a child learns values, beliefs, and desired attitude. Sometimes the operant method is used to socialize children. Reinforcement takes place when a child gets reward for his positive behavior or attitude. For example:- when a bright student of a class help his class fellow who is a mediocre then this attitude of him will be appreciated by his teacher. Extinction occurs when a child’s negative behavior receives no response from his teacher. For example: - A student speaks when it is not his turn in the class in that case he is ignored by his teacher. Punishment is used as a tool when the behavior of a child is inappropriate and not up to the mark. For example:-Expelling a student from his school for his inappropriate behavior (Corsaro, 2010).

Under this method, an expert of his field guides a child to participate and learn how to do something. In a school, a child is taught and guided by his teacher or his mentor who has mastered the desired skills through learning and practice process. For example: - A dance teacher can help a novice child in acquiring effective dancing skills. Apprenticeship method helps a child in acquiring and learning the skills required for performing a particular task effectively. This method is often associated with imparting training to the novice in the field (Anderson & Thomas, 2013).

The importance of self-concept

The process of socialization begins from the day when the birth of a child took place and continues lifelong. Socialization is a lifelong process and continues until the end of our life. Through socialization an individual, learn how to adjust in an environment and how to behave in a proper manner in a society in which he lives (Watne & Brenann, 2011).

Gender socialization always existed in our society. A girl and a boy are not always considered, as equal .When a child is born the first question that parents ask is that whether it is a baby girl or a baby boy. The first lesson, which parents provide to their child, is about gender. For example:- girls are often given toys such as dolls, kitchen set, doll house and so on as a gift to play whereas in case of boys cars,guns,football,basketball and many more is given to them. The type of task performed by them varies as if girls are often expected to help their mothers with their household chores. Most of the societies define gender rigidly. For instance, it is always expected from boys to be brave and aggressive whereas in case of girls they are supposed to be sensitive and emotional. In educational system, also influence of gender can be easily seen let suppose a teacher may believe boys to be more analytical than girls so it is assumed that they will excel in subjects like mathematics and accounts. Even in making career choices and at workplace impact of gender socialization can be easily seen (Carter, 2014).

Self-Esteem deals with the concept of how a person values himself. Development of positive concept of self-esteem is very important. Having good and positive opinion about oneself is high self-esteem whereas if one feels himself to be incompetent and unlovable this is called low self-esteem. A person with low self-esteem considers him inferior from others. The attitude and behavior of others also plays a vital in developing self-esteem. Self-confidence is very important to boost our morale and to excel our performance in any field. For example: - if a child is taking part in an extempore competition and he has a positive opinion about himself that he can perform well then he can easily speak out in front of whole audience without any hesitation. Self-esteem is largely affected because of various factors such as environment and surroundings in which a child is growing up, upbringing by his parents, relationship of a child with his family members and sometimes-widespread violence, poverty, low standard of living and poor health status can adversely affect a child (Kidshealth, 2018).

What is self-regulation?

Social factors involve interaction with others such as family and peer groups. In the beginning for a child, his family plays an influential role as a child in his initial stage of growing very dependent on his family members. Children who grow in a pleasant and healthy family will get advantage in their learning and development process. for example:- if a child’s parents are living in an estranged relationship then he  may not receive the same level of attention as compare to a child living with his parents and extended family members. Family leaves a great impact on a child’s attitude and desire towards education. An economically stable and highly educated family provides best suitable opportunities within education to their children. As a child grows his personality traits and characteristics reflects his attitude and moral values, which he has inherited from his family (Berns, 2015).

Culture plays a vital role in the development and training of a child. The culture and the community in which children are raised leave a lasting impression on their overall developmental activity.  The family background in which a child is nurtured affects a lot. Let suppose if a child is living in an unsafe, abusive and violent surrounding then they are more exposed to domestic abuse, violence, and cognizable or non-cognizable offence and criminal activities. Children who have witness violence and war personally will show their fear and apprehensions in different way. Media such as television, internet, and newspaper, magazine and so on also influence a child’s development for example:-if a child views too much violence in television and games then there are chances that he will react more aggressively and violently (Qvortruo, Corsaro & Honig, 2016)

A child’s personality development is determined by its surroundings and environmental factors where he lives.  A child cannot choose his location on its own he keeps on rely on his family members for the place where they live. Here environment refers to a place where a child lives, plays and perform various activities. Families living in rural areas will have less access to various resources and they will have limited facilities. So children brought up in rural areas will experience lack of basic amenities whereas families living in urban areas will always have easy access to basic as well as luxurious amenities such as playgrounds,resorts,museums,zoos and many more so children living in urban areas may not feel deprived of basic as well as luxurious needs (Bowes & Grace,2009).

Self-regulation skills and their importance


Socialization of a child begins by communicating and interacting with his parents, peers, and community in which he lives. His behavior and attitude is influenced by the surroundings and environment in which his upbringing took place. A capable, proficient, and stable parent can influence a child’s behavior positively as compare to others who are less competent from them. A gender difference that prevails in the society affects the girl and a boy child differently. In addition, this difference has been defined rigidly by different societies. To foster the effective development and growth of a child it is essential to make ensure to teach a child positively about the concept of self-regulation and self-esteem. Initial phase of socialization begins at home so it is important that parents should set a good role model before their children. After this when a child starts socializing outside his home with his peers, neighbors, and companions he is not under the direct control of his family members so his company decides that whether he is self-regulating himself positively or negatively. This never-ending process of socialization influence one’s behavior, attitude, belief, and keeps on giving social experiences throughout life.


Anderson, E.L., & Thomas, S. (2013). Socialization: Theories, Processes, and Impact (Illustrated) New York: Nova Science Publisher’s.

Angelus, G. (2012). Primary socialization. Liverpool: Duct Publishing.

Berns, R.M. (2015). Child, Family, School, Community: Socialization and Support (10th ed.)  Belmont, CA:  Cengage Learning.

Bowes, J., & Grace, R. (2009). Children, families, and communities: Contexts and consequences. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Carter, M.J. (2014). Gender socialization and identity theory. Social Sciences. 3, 242-263.

Churchill, R. et al. (2011).Teaching: Making a difference (2nd ed.) Queensland, Australia: Wiley and Sons Ltd.

Corsaro, W.A. (2010). The Sociology of childhood. USA:  SAGE Publications.

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Explorable. (2018). Self-concept. Retrieved from:

Handel, G. (2011). Childhood Socialization (2nd ed.) London, UK: Transaction Publishers.

Hurrelnann, K., & Bauer, U (2018). Socialization during the life course. New York: Routledge

James, A., & James, A. (2008). Key concepts in childhood studies. London: SAGE Publications.

Kearns, K. (2010). Framework for learning and development. Frenchs Forest: Pearson.

Kehily, M.J. (2010). Childhood in crisis? Tracing the contours of ‘crisis’and its impact upon contemporary parenting practices. Media, culture & society, 32(2), 171-185.

KidsHealth.  (2018). Self-esteem. Retrieved from:

Qvortrup, J., Corsaro.W., & Honig, M. (2016). The Palgrave handbook of childhood studies. London: Palgrave MacMillan.

SimplyPsychology. (2008). Self-concept. Retrieved from:

Sociologydiscussion. (2018). Agencies of Socialization. Retrieved from:

Verywellmind. (2018). How to practice self-regulation. Retrieved from:

Watne, T., Lobo, A., & Brenann, L. (2011). Children as agents of secondary socialization for their parents. Young consumers, 12(4), 285-294.

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