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Emotional development during infancy

Discuss about the Infant Interaction Quality and Infants.

Adversity is related to the several life concerns that create the impact on future development under professional, personal as well as psychological context. In this context, the experience of problematic anxiety could create the negative effect on child developing from various constraints. These constraints are specific to depression and psychological difficulties. Very often Children suffer from the severe issue from the set of a complicated relationship, which includes parental care, educational policy setting as well as peer culture. In this environment, babies are learning about the social task, and that create significant changes in their growth as well as mental development. In order to address this concern with more clarity, report will present the impact of emotion, attachment and temperament based on the case scenario of Alex.

As per the case scenario, He is a Metis child and his mother was adopted, while her heritage was unclear. At that time her family believes that, she may be indigenous in that environment. On the other sight, Alex’s parents have the medical history of mental illness. It has been reported that his they have been separated from relation several times before Alex’s birth. However, he was apprehended by the Quebec’s Child protection care due to health issues of her biological mother. Yet, Alex has experienced different emotional problems due to constant support from parental responsibility and other supportive caregivers. This report will identify significant issues, which Alex has faced from his primary care setting during several years. Moreover, the discussion will reflect a recommendation way for resolving childcare issues in response to emotional dependence and parental attachment.

Child development could be changed in different ways during the time of pre-school year. In this time, child develops emotionally, socially and cognitively. According to Bale (2015), children respond to different kind of feelings, which could be occurred from their daily life experience. It creates significant impact on their behaviour and further understandings for coping up well in future life. In this context, emotional development is required to manage their way of understanding. It has been visualised that developmental growth of every child is affected from different kind of situation. It is caused due to their complicated emotional life.

As per the case scenario, Alex’s parents have a medical history of mental disorder. It has been also reported that his parents have separated different times from their relationship before their son’s birth. Therefore, there is a chance of trans-generational effect on offspring, which may affect Alex’s mental condition. According to Van der Kolk (2017), such mental conditions could be transmitted to the offspring by means of hereditary disorder. Therefore, it could hamper his both childhood, toddlerhood and adulthood life.

Child's emotional development as a toddler

Quebec Childcare has apprehended Alex, while her mother has begun to experience postpartum psychosis. As a result, the boy gradually separated from her mother’s attachment and had been taken to the care-custody. During the custody of his father, his mother continued the periodic visit to Alex, but this visit was terminated while she was hospitalised due to her health issues. Therefore, it was the first beginning, where the Child has faced abandonment and loss of primary parental care. Concerning this background, emotional development could be a complicated task that starts in the infancy and sustaining until the rest of life. Britto et al., (2017) argued that various things influence children’s emotion employing behaviour and words.

In the later period, it has been reported that Alex's father was arrested on the charge of assaulting his son at a local hockey arena. His father kicked him, and he falls from the stairs. After that, Alex has withdrawn again from his parental care. As a result, he becomes mentally weak, and psychologists reported that the boy is anxious and emotionally undeveloped. In addition, the sign of depression also became evident. Therefore, the prenatal situation has created the negative impact on Alex from the context of emotional effect, which makes him aggressive. Due to lack of parental capacity, the child could not express their views about what they feel within complex situation (Cirelli, Einarson & Trainor, 2014). Parents could tune into child’s emotions, and they can set the limit on inappropriate expression or emotions. However, Alex could not get proper support regarding this factor into early life situation.

Children could get a sense of safety, encouragement and comfort within the environment of loving relationships.  Parents or caregivers could teach the toddlers about the way of communication, emotional control and friend making. Through their support, toddlers can recognise how to cope up with different kind of challenges. In this context, Cook et al., (2017) commented that strong bonding between parents and children could develop trust, compassion, empathy and the sense or right decision. However, in the case study scenario, Alex has lost his attachment from her mother into prenatal period.

In the late period when he was seven years old, he started living in the new province of his father. It has been reported that there was a regular verbal dispute between Alex's father and stepmother. As per the report, her stepmother gradually unable to cope up with the family due to various kind of issues. At that time, his father's mental health was declining progressively while the prescribed medication is stopped. Therefore, several disputes are hampering the parental relationship. Several report has been also displayed about Alex's aggressive behaviour in the school. However, his parents have not provided the proper response in response to these incidents. Therefore, parental care setting is not sufficient to maintain the responsibility for the toddler.

Parents are not properly attentive to observe their child’s behaviour. In this context, parents have to empathise with the child’s frustration. Grant et al., (2015) commented that consequence is needed to be identified in response to child behaviour. In this context, the theory of mind needs to be criticised for recognising his ability under different mental status. According to Licata et al., (2014), this theory is related to intention, personal desire and emotion. For every social interaction, it is crucial to judge other's behaviour. Very often caregivers could not pay attention to the child behaviour properly. Due to this concern, the child can also suffer hyperactivity disorder and this the cause of Alex's aggressiveness during toddler period. In the later period, such experience could create the negative impact because Alex could not express his personal feeling and secondary needs from the care caregiver. This scenario is visualised due to unstable care environment and complex life condition.

In the report, it has been documented that, Alex has told in school that his stepmother bits him. Therefore, He is facing negative consequences within his parental care and that affects his mental development. He cannot acknowledge his feeling and dependencies and other requirements. On the other hand, his emotional development is hampered while he was separated from his biological mother.  This scenario could be criticised as per the argument of Grossmann (2015). Between two to five years old, child is facing emotional changes from the struggle from impulse, feeling and action. However, Alex's father has shown disruptive behaviour to his son, and that hamper the positive relation. As a result, responsibilities for a toddler is not maintained properly.

Attachment in infancy and toddlerhood

Attachment is most circumscribed aspect within the relationship between caregiver and child; it is required to make the child safe, protected and secure. In the opinion of Hestenes et al., (2015), the attachment is not related to entertaining the child. Through proper attachment, the caregiver could set the limit for the child. In this context, the parent also plays the role of a playmate. Within this environment, a child could explore about their necessity on comfort and safety (ATP report 2013).

Infant-parent attachment is divided into several types under organised and disorganised context. In the case scenario, the importance of attachment could be analysed with more clarity. From the childhood, Alex has faced different kind of obligations that have withdrawn him from primary parental care setting. In this context, the importance of attachment is discussed to determine the caregiver’s response to the infant. During the first six months, children shape their behaviour in accordance with their caregiver. In this prospect, it has been visualised that Alex's parents have a mental problem and their relationship is not sustainable due to verbal disputes. These factors also repeated while Alex has started to live with his stepmom. Therefore, Alex does not have any suitable attachment for daily interaction with the caregivers. Very often caregiver emotion adversely affects child mind as found in this case scenario.

Alex father has complained that her wife emotionally abused him. It has also complained that his stepmother abused with his son. In response to this complaint, Alex’s stepmother confirmed that she was often frustrated and physically aggressive to them. Social workers reported that Alex becomes in traumatic condition due to certain change of his environment. In this context, Jessen & Grossmann (2015) commented that infants cry within the first six months. This affects the attachment relationship between the caregiver and the infants. Very often, caregivers become frustrated rather than shaking a baby. Therefore, a child cannot express their feeling free, and that creates a negative impact on mental development. Thus, there is possible chance of disorganised attachment due to the occurrence of behavioural as well as an emotional problem as visualised in the given scenario.

Human need is often counted and classified based on the pyramidal hierarchy. In this context, children probably prefer comfort along with food. Children often lack a safe place to live, where they can get adequate care utilising attachment and support. Lyons-Ruth (2015) commented that children often face difficulties with the society due to famine as well as insecure conditions. In order to survive, infants have to develop themselves through the support of caregivers, who can give them all security, safety and physiological needs. For instance, if other leaves his or her child hunger and does not cuddle, then the child can observe that environment is entirely different, where he or she is neglected. As per the case study, Alex’s primary care setting was not comfortable because in the early life he has been undertaken in a different in a care setting due to the absence of parental care. Therefore, he has not got any opportunity to get his different kind of needs. As a result, he has not been satisfied with his childhood environment, and it creates an impact on his mental development by means of behavioural perspective.

Children start discovering themselves as independent beings the age of three to four. In this time, they have distinct likes and dislikes based on their growing personality. They cannot control their feelings accurately but can understand themselves. In this time, Child has to adjust themselves with not only academic achievements but also social-emotional development. If children feel right, then they can successfully interact with other. As per the case scenario, Alex is quite delayed in response to the academic purpose, and he is quite aggressive to other children during his preschool. Besides, Alex has displayed inappropriate sexualised behaviour with others children. Therefore, Alex's mental condition is hampered due to negative childhood environment, where he cannot get the proper assistance of a caregiver.

Dependency needs as an infant

According to Licata et al., (2014), children are naturally social and have proper interest to interact with others. In this context, Children may be anxious, shy and aggressive due to their current social situation. In this variation differences in temperament is addressed for building their confidence. In the school environment, they can resolve their skill gap through recognising the level of need. In the given scenario, Alex has faced a challenging situation that destructs his personal belongings, aggression and angry outbursts. For that reason, separate learning care was provided to him to motivate his development on right track. Most pre-schoolers can express their basic emotions and need, but Alex could not do that due to lack of proper attachment from caregivers.

Temperament is considered as the difference between the individual based on the context of reaction with social surroundings. For instance, difficult temperament is visualised while infant faces the risk of behavioural as well as the emotional issue. These issues are occurred while the surrounding environment us uncooperative and sometimes irritable. As commented by Missana, Atkinson & Grossmann (2015), various infant factors like the socio-economic status of the family could create an adverse impact on child life. These risks cannot be detected during three to 4 year age-period. However, in the later period, this status is gradually recognized. As per the Psychologist’s report sign of depression is reported along with the associated condition of undeveloped emotion as well as anxiety. He is also academically weak due to delayed mental ability.

In this context, anxiety could be related to distress, fearfulness and unhappiness. According to Romano et al., (2017), anxiety problems could increase over time. Therefore, Alex is under severe mental issue during the early life stage. In the case study, social workers reported that Alex had faced repeated traumatisation due to unstable care setting environment. Due to that, he is referred under the counselling from CYMH (Child and Youth Mental Health Services). Therefore, it has been visualised that the boy has a higher level of behavioural and emotional difficulties during the period of infancy. Alex is prone to negative emotional expression, which is the underlying cause of his high reactivity, anger and low-adaptability. In the later period, these conditions are persisting. It has been reported that Alex has complained to social workers, friends and families about his experience in different care placement. He has complained about the severe maltreatment, where he cannot cope up with the different care environment. He cannot get proper need from the caregivers. Therefore, his early life condition has shown a negative impact on later life, where he cannot adjust to the society due to the frustrated mental state. Temperament condition is a first perspective here to recognise child’ compatibility with the current environment.

In the viewpoint of Stein et al., (2014), this compatibility is related to the "goodness of fit'', which are of two types. One is related to the interaction way with the individual through traits, and another is the impact of trait on the individual. In this case-scenario, afterbirth, the boy has faced separation from his parental care and cannot get the proper attachment with the caregivers. As a result, he cannot get proper guidance to know the way of right decisional track, interaction and learning. In addition, surrounding environment was not supportive of him and that is the cause of his temperament as mentioned earlier. These factors are the primary cause, which marked the situation as not comfortable for Alex. These factors could adversely affect his adult life as well.

Trans-generational effects are related to the role of maternal behaviour. Infant mental separation and early life stress are the primary cause of the impaired emotional behaviour. Very often, this issue persists and become a deficit in executive cognitive function in the adult stage. Genetic background has a direct impact on this. As per the case scenario, Alex's parents have extensive medical illness history, and there is a chance of transmission of these genetic factors to the offspring. Treatment is available for preventing the emergence of cognitive deficits in mother; this prevention is sufficient to prevent the occurrence of such deficiency in their offspring. In this study, Alex has faced stress in his early life environment from the parental care environment. Tournaire et al., (2016) commented that early life stress could trigger significant changes in the behaviour and gene expression that can persist into adulthood. Infant maternal separation is the most dominated reason for such severe constraints. Alex’s mental condition is unstable due to inadequate maternal responsibility during postnatal care. As a result, he has suffered increased anxiety as well as depression in the toddler stage. Therefore, there is the possible reason of Trans-generation effect that perhaps occurred in Alex's case.

This section sheds light on the entire overview on Alex’s emotional condition for understanding possible recommendation to shape his cognitive development. As per the case scenario, Alex has been brought up by Quebec Child protection service, while his mother began to experience postpartum psychosis. His mother could not visit her son due to long-term health issues. Therefore, Alex has experienced infant maternal separation during early life stage. Such abandonment and loss have hampered his entire development under emotional perspectives. After that he has been taken in his father custody, his father was arrested while he kicked his son in the back at a local hockey arena. In the school time, he was aggressive to other child, and he is under depression. Therefore, he is mentally weak and frustrated due to unstable acre setting environment. In the later period, he also faced such situation, while his father and stepmother are involved in verbal disputes. In addition, stepmother sometimes becomes violent to Alex due to her frustrating situation. In this condition, Alex cannot get proper emotional support from his parents to adjust to the society. As a result, the possibility of impaired emotional development has occurred.

The developmental domain of child is considered under different categorical terms based on different policy. For instance, self-regulation and learning have both emotional and cognitive dimension.  According to Van den Berg & Pinger (2016), mental health is related to the child's socio-emotional competencies.  As illustrated in the case scenario, Alex has experienced lack of proper attachment from the caregivers; as a result, his desire is not fulfilled adequately. He became frustrated with the constant environmental factors. In this context, caregivers have to understand the requirement of cognitive development from the background of educational and emotional insight (Child Care Act, 1972).

Infants are responsive to the words and actions of other people. Therefore, proper attachment and joint attention are capable of creating the positive environment through culturally transmitted knowledge. Caregivers have to understand the theory of mind, which is significant to shape child mind. In this context, the cognitive control process is essential to plan goal-direct activities. Through this process, children could adjust to the environment and can get socio-emotional development. It will help them to get success in all fielded like an academic field. In this study, Alex has not proper care attachment and he observed that his parents are always fighting. This environment adverse effect his emotional development. Therefore, caregivers have to understand the child desire in an attentive manner. However, the care process has not been applied as per requirement.

Therefore, attentiveness, sincerity is required to shape children mind. In addition, caregivers have to maintain a sustainable environment for enhancing the children develop from the context of cognitive self-regulation and socio-emotional term


It can be deduced that child development is adversely affected by social as well as emotional constraints. In this case, early life stress could create the negative impact and persist to adulthood. As per the case scenario, Alex has faced a different kind of issue from his childhood due to the separation of maternal care and other conditions. Due to these factors, he becomes frustrated and faced depression as per the report of Psychologists. Therefore, caregivers have to understand the emotional need of Alex with proper sincerity. If the environment is not suitable, the child could be, lower adaptive and depressed. In this case, the negative impact of temperament needs to be criticised. Caregivers have to be attentive more during the age period from birth to toddler. In this time, proper care is required to make this child capable of coping up with all situational environment in future life.

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