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Factors Considered in Land Use Planning and Landscape Architecture

Question:

Discuss about the Landscape Architecture for Topographic.

This paper summary paper discusses the following subtopics practical applications, urban conservation, messy ecosystem, design in science, landscape and urban planning, planning and design of ecological networks in urban areas, and reflection of landscape architecture in the 21st century.

A myriad complex and seemingly decisions that are of related occurs in the planning of land use and professions of the landscape architecture.  The variety of the factors are considered simultaneously during the analysis of the project phase are social, legal, topographic, demography, microclimate and other specific site information. In this section, the schematic or the hypothetical applications and actual case, in brief, are presented. Also, there explains how landscape architects and planners of the land use can incorporate the landscape ecological principles in their work. Also, the types of the projects and scale ranges are illustrated (Andre Viljoen, 2014).

A prototypical type of the landscape with the mix of suburban, forested area and agriculture is used in this section. Elements of landscape ecology like stream corridors, roads, corridors for wildlife movement, habitat patches, boundaries, natural edges, power line and the edge is illustrated. This type of the landscape that is heterogeneous and representation methods is widespread in many parts of US, South American, Europe, and Russia. Development and the changes that are induced by human are planned and occur frequently worldwide. This principle applied r to agricultural suburban and forested area are as valid as in desert, coastal, and mountainous areas. Land planners and designers have incorporated changes in nature which is generalizable and what matters are the consequences of the design or the change (Annemarie van Paassen, 2013).

Six schematic applications that illustrate ecological principles are:

  • Regional or micro scale: a regional park of wildlife conservation and a new project of suburban development
  • Landscape or mesoscale: an urban park and a new road
  • A site of micro scale: a corridor of wildlife movement and cluster of the backyard garden

Other disciplines are absorbing the landscape ecology principles and this is an opportunity to landscape architecture and land planners to capture the principles and grab the future. Some view land as the source of wealth, an investment, a living system of dynamic, a habitat containing animals and plants and a site of culture, history aesthetics and inspirations (Architects, 2016).

Our ways of the metropolitan can hold back or advance national and regional goals for a sustainable world. It is appropriate that landscape ecologists are turning their attention to issues of management and design of suburban and urban areas. All neighborhood and communities were infused with regulations made by banking standard and municipal law that incorporate fashions and ideas that are accepted worldly to create the escalating regulatory climate. Professional that are concerned with building cities have started to consider how to improve the environment through the methods of alternative building (Bank, 2011). To conserve the urban and enhance the green economy the following areas must be put into consideration:

Illustration of Ecological Principles in a Suburban, Forested and Agricultural Landscape

Density: when considering the possibility of property building, the developers and landscape ecologists made the decision on density. municipal regulations for the developer is to determine the cast in terms of dwelling unit per acre, for packing areas, water supply, street width and management of wastes that all depends on the density. Hence concentration on the population create possibilities of long-term in the city for forests, meadow, lake preservers and wetlands that are important for resource management, environmental restoration and preservation of species (Bojie Fu, 2014).

The automobile: the automobile dominates the metropolis environment like the highway, the network of street, roads, if the developer fits the auto network effectively, all utilities like gas, telephone, electricity, water, sewages van be tailored to fit. it the attention that through scattering jobs, houses, and locations of retail will reduce the congestion and traffic jams in the urban also ecologists wishes to create space for the green storm, retention of water, wildlife corridor and purification of runoff.  These regulations and street fashions gave effect on the socioeconomic pattern on metropolis (Daniel Czechowski, 2016).

Community: this is how people relate to their surroundings. The developer should build a multifamily housing provide the opportunities for the community. Other factors that should be considered are shared opportunities and public attitudes, landscape ecology and new urbanism, problems of politics and opportunities for convergence between the landscape ecology and development (Engineers, 2010)

Ecological quality looks messy and possesses problems for those who imagined and established new landscapes to enhance the quality of the landscape. Designers may be submissive that nature will speak for itself. Some might see culture as the barrier that is not necessary between the science and public attitude that are increasingly green. When talking about the landscape, and changes that take place in it and how to improve them, fear, rejection and anger are encountered. Wetland and swamps can be maintained to acts as the basis for settling pollution. People may care about improving quality of ecology but not at the expense of the good appearance of their landscape (James L. Jr Wescoat, 2015).

 Proper appearance, neatness and ecological functions: Aldo Leopold powerfully expressed that social identification of the owner of the land with the look of the land.

The firm's landscape portrait the owner: the landscape of the homes, city dwellers etc. are the public portrait of themselves. The culture of North America that is dominant reads that orderly and neat landscape that enhance the functions of the landscape ecology is a sigh of hard work and pride.

Six Schematic Applications that Illustrate Ecological Principles

Care and neatness: nature is the concept that is mistaken often as the indication of the quality of the ecology. indigenous ecosystems depends on the on the human management and protection such as water and canopy trees.in the urban and countryside, people perceive the landscape that exhibits biodiversity ad weedy, messy or unkept the problem in introduction of biodiversity in to landscape of urban is that the characteristics tend to be mistaken for lack of care (K, 2010).

Cues to care: show that intention of human can be used to frame more novel ecosystem like, flowing tree and plants, wildlife houses and feeders, bold plateaus, shrubs that are trimmed, fences, painting ornaments, and foundation planting.

Landscape ecology has identified human as intrinsic to the understanding of concepts of ecosystem and landscape dynamics. Environmental benefits have been in intent part design in the architecture of landscape and planning since the 19th century. It is urged that link between the landscape design and landscape science is needed to achieve societal needs like biogeochemical and ecological processes. The gap between practice and knowledge is poignant for the ecology of the landscape since the landscape patterns perception can affect volition of the human. Landscape ecology can be described as an ecosystem of the heterogeneous mosaic that is adapted by human constantly to increases its perceived value (Martine, 2013).

Landscape ecology is placed to contribute sustainability science from its definition where the human is integral. Shedding light technology and science can be employed to protect the support system of the earth within the societal complex system. It was concluded that in societal decision making the effectiveness of scientific information is related to three properties of science, credibility, saliency and legitimacy. To examine the relationship between the landscape science and design, innovation of knowledge is used.

The conceptual basis for the design in landscape ecology paradigm: paradigm needs the parts: pattern, design and process. If the landscape design is included as the creation of scientific knowledge, the common link will be present between the practice and science of landscape. The problems that can interfere with the design link as a science and practice are knowledge tool, the process of communication, scientific discipline and feedback to science from practice (Nassauer, 2012). 

Landscape urbanism: the main premise of the landscape urbanism says that landscape should be the fundamental block of the building for the design in the city. In traditions urbanism, road, building or wall led the development and cultural and natural processes help the designer to organize the urban. Urban ecology evolved from the theory of design within the landscape architecture. It melds high design of the styles and ecology. More ecological design of traditions are known as Messier and for the third reason few appealing to the design of international design. Hence landscape urbanism is theoretical and more visible in actual projects (Nassauer, 2012).

Importance of Conserving Urban Areas and Enhancing Green Economy

Urban ecology: ecology id the discipline with the focus on urban region and landscape. They describe the landscape as the unit of ecology with functions and structures are composed of patches in the matrix. The major integrative landscape characteristics are the line, strip and stream corridors. The Baltimore aim in understanding the regions of the metropolitan as systems of ecology, their research explores the interaction of natural and built environment with social, economic, ecological and hydrological processes.  Urban ecology is a field that emphasizes on the approach of interdisciplinary to understand patterns, processes, drivers and outcome of urbanization landscape (Press, 2014).

Landscape and ecological urbanization: new design in the city planning and design are because of the urbanization that affects the environment.  As the people increases, the percentage in the city increases, and this increases the use of energy and production of greenhouse gasses, waste and pollution become higher and crime and poverty increases. Urban ecology indicates how people should interact with themselves, other species, built and natural environment. By doing this the ecosystem services that are benefits received from nature are increased. Regulatory services are carbon sequestration, purification of water regulation of climate, support services are nutrient cycling and cultural services are the recreational and spiritual inspiration (S.T.A. Pickett, 2012).

Planning and design of ecological networks in urban areas
Ecological networks in the urban are border concept in the ecological network. Network relates to the cascading the loss of biodiversity within the trophic structures and food web. Landscape ecology has contributed to the corridor notion and generic connectivity. From the viewpoint of the landscape, ecology ecological network is important because they provide connectivity and corridor for wildlife movement and also linkages between patches or stepping stones. Ecological network in the urban, from the angle of urban design and planning, establish visual, physical, and ecological connectivity between built area and green spaces and natural areas (Daniel Czechowski, 2016).

Green areas have been important components in town planning over last century and have justified on the social and ecological services like improved hygiene, climate, aesthetics, and opportunities for recreations, protection of environment and biodiversity. They also meet the physiological and social needs of the population in urban and timber and food supply (K, 2010). The evolution of the urban ecological network are:

Historical aspect; in the beginning there were clusters of dwelling and the urban settlement was constrained by natural features than today's. With the rise in technologies and population, the industrial revolution was swept aside. Urban built, commercial and industrial became the matrix as green space was reduced to threads that are connected. In the early urban, they were known as improvements. In 16th to 18th-century function was greenway was known for beautification and improvement of the public sanitation and urban spaces.

Considerations for Density, Automobile and Community When Planning the Urban

In most parks, trees were planted and became the nodes of ecology or spatial. The science of urban planning was solving the problems related to water, disposal and sewage supply to accommodate the circulation of the pedestrian. Greenway is known as the development of ecological networks in urban and together with green spaces and green belt enhance green infrastructure (Bank, 2011).

MCHARG’S thought: the design with nature of Mchargs gives the metaphysical purpose and methods that are practical where the reasons of human can reach the rapprochement between natural and modernity system. The cultural climate of the postmodernity that dominated school design in the last 20ty century frowned upon the methods of planning. Postmodern saw it as diminishing the art of liberty and also the perpetuation of the dangers and myths of the aim knowledge and its application instrumentally that had characterized modernity from the revolution of science since the 16th century.

PARAGODY AT PENN: by mid of the 1880s, at schools and Upenn around the world, the Mchargian planning and application had become mechanistic and increasingly nor able to yield something other than prescriptive and large-scale land use maps that are static. Ann Whiston Spirn noted that there was need to connect scales of planning and design and along with them, different spheres of science and arts tear the holistic theory of landscape architecture apart (Architects, 2016).

Design and planning: the cost of tension between design and planning was a discipline split. On the designer argue that aesthetic of environmentalism are very important. Richard formats seminal contribution to the understanding of landscape ecology extends the Mchargs visions of the measuring the consequences of the ecology of different urban growth forms systematically. His work of latest on urban ecology links the scales of the ecology of the landscape to the design of urban and gives the comprehensive set of the methods and principles that improve the urban environment and ecological health. Global; the population is expected to increase. The population will be stable because of the urbanization (Engineers, 2010).

Conclusion

This paper summary paper discusses the following subtopics practical applications, urban conservation, messy ecosystem, design in science, landscape and urban planning, planning and design of ecological networks in urban areas, and reflection of landscape architecture in the 21st century.

Reference

Andre Viljoen, J. H. (2014). Continuous Productive Urban Landscapes. Colorado: Routledge.

Annemarie van Paassen, J. v. (2013). Knowledge in Action: The search for collaborative research for sustainable landscape development. Colorado: Springer Science & Business Media.

Architects, A. S. (2016). Landscape Architecture, Volume 88, Issues 5-8. New York: Lay, Hubbard & Wheelwright,

Bank, T. W. (2011). Agricultural Innovation Systems: An Investment Sourcebook. California: World Bank Publications.

Bojie Fu, B. J. (2014). Landscape Ecology for Sustainable Environment and Culture. Paris: Springer Science & Business Media.

Daniel Czechowski, T. H. (2016). Revising Green Infrastructure: Concepts Between Nature and Design. Moscow: CRC Press.

Engineers, A. S. (2010). Journal of Urban Planning and Development, Volumes 130-131. Michigan: American Society of Civil Engineers, Urban Planning and Development Division.

James L. Jr Wescoat, D. M. (2015). Political Economies of Landscape Change: Places of Integrative Power. Paris: Springer Science & Business Media.

K, B. J. (2010). Landscape Ecology. Moscow: Springer Science & Business Media.

Martine, G. (2013). The New Global Frontier: Urbanization, Poverty and Environment in the 21st Century. London: Earthscan.

Nassauer, J. (2012). Placing Nature: Culture And Landscape Ecology. Toledo: Island Press.

Press, A. (2014). The Architects' Journal, Volume 217, Issues 13-25. Melbourne: The University of Virginia.

S.T.A. Pickett, M. C. (2012). Resilience in Ecology and Urban Design: Linking Theory and Practice for Sustainable Cities. London: Springer Science & Business Media.

Smith, N. (2013). The New Urban Frontier: Gentrification and the Revanchist City. Chicago: Routledge.

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