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Planning and Control

Management approaches plays an important role in a business for achieving their organizational goal. In addition to that, management approaches are referred as techniques, which is used for directing as well as controlling as an element of their business style. It has been studied that organizational or management approach can help to implement the business to a huge extent. Generally, there are four major management approaches such as quantitative approach, system approach, contingency or situational approach and IT approach.

The objective of this paper is to discuss different management approach or theory and its application in business. In addition to that, planning and control can help to minimise the challenges and improve overall organizational performance thereby gaining a competitive edge in the long run. This is followed by employee motivation, where the manager will focus on understanding employee requirements that can enhance their performance.

In the study published by Gagné, Deci and Ryan (2018), the author explained that organizational planning and control plays a vital role within a business. Organizational planning refers to deciding in advance about what to do and when to do along with who to do and how to do. On the other hand, controlling measures deviation of actual organizational performance from standard performance thereby taking or implementing corrective actions (Tasselli, Kilduff and Landis 2018). Objective of organization planning is to set goals and implementing appropriate approaches for achieving those goals. Similarly, the main objective of control is to ensure that their target should be achieved with accordance to the plans.

Organizational planning includes setting objectives and to identify alternate course of action whereas implementation includes fixation of the standards and measurement of its actual performance. Factors associated with organization planning are both internal as external for achieving the targets. Planning and controlling are observed to be inter-related to each other (Tasselli, Kilduff and Landis 2018). This is because, planning set goals in behalf of the organization whereas controlling ensures their accomplishment. Furthermore, planning decides overall control process due to which, the employees are guided with organizational goals that can help them to improve performance. This is observed in case of Facebook, where the firm aimed to utilize organizational control to maximise employee satisfaction (Tasselli, Kilduff and Landis 2018).

Organizational planning and control are comprised of four major stages such as strategic planning, tactical planning, contingency planning as well as operational planning (Urinov 2020). In phase of strategic planning, the setting of broad and long-range goals by top managers. In case of strategic planning, the mangers will be able to identify goals and objectives for the business (van der Kolk, van Veen-Dirks and ter Bogt 2019).

Motivation

Tactical planning, on the other hand, refers to the process of breaking down strategic plan to distinctive and short-term plans (van der Kolk, van Veen-Dirks and ter Bogt 2019). Contingency planning refers to the course of action, which is designed to help a firm for responding effectively for gaining advantage in future event, which might or might not take place. Lastly, operational planning is an approach of turning strategic plan to a detailed map, which outlines exactly the type of action that might happen (van der Kolk, van Veen-Dirks and ter Bogt 2019).

Employee motivation is crucial for achieving higher organizational performance both in short term as well as in the long term. In addition to that, employee motivation is considered as the key for achieving success within an organization (Pan et al. 2018). Higher employee motivation requires higher level of commitment, energy as well as drive. However, lack of employee motivation can reduce organizational productivity and also lower the levels of output, where this company might not be able to reach their goals. Employee motivation helps to maintain as well as improving motivation within the workplace for range of firms (Malmi et al. 2020). Hence, it is essential for the firm to find approaches or strategies to increase employee engagement. This approach is used in case of Amazon, where the leader implemented employee survey and provided financial and non-financial incentives to gain a competitive edge (Nyberg, Cragun and Schepker 2021).

Employee motivation helps to understand their role within the organization thereby enhancing higher productivity levels. Implementation of employee motivation techniques will assist people to attain higher results in gaining better revenue (Hanaysha and Majid 2018). Productive way of working can also influence positive work experience thereby achieving higher job satisfaction. Employees those acknowledge importance of employee motivation will also accept that their leaders are supportive. Thus, it is assumed that the manager will emphasize on increasing employee motivation with the help of financial and non-financial incentives (Tasselli, Kilduff and Landis 2018).

Human relations theory is considered as one of the most effective management theories that emphasized on understanding and improving the relations with stakeholders (Paais and Pattiruhu 2020). In addition to that, human relations theory can be described under organizational psychology that suggests employee productivity as well as motivation. This can be improved from positive social bonds within the workplace or by acknowledgement of worker with respect to their individuality (Ugoani 2020). As it is observed in case of Amazon, co-ordination theory suggests identification of depending between tasks between different group of people for coordinating with the work by implementing alternative mechanisms (Kusmaningtyas and Erfiana 2021).

Co-ordination

In workplace, co-ordination management theory refers to unification, synchronization as well as integration of the efforts of group members in order to provide unity of action for pursuing common goals (De Sousa Sabbagha, Ledimo and Martins 2018). Internal coordination for establishing relationship between employees and departments can help to improve business performance. Sales manager are required to coordinate about their work with sales supervisors (De Sousa Sabbagha, Ledimo and Martins 2018). This, helps them to ensure that their work will be synchronized with respective sales manager.

However, coordinated management are often criticized because it holds a reputation of mixing ideas, which are difficult to pin down as it is expressed through convoluted language. Large organizations tend to implement vertical and internal co-ordination for improving business performance (van der Kolk, van Veen-Dirks and ter Bogt 2019). Alternatively, small or medium organizations implement external and internal co-ordination (Ishii and Kawahata 2020). Implementation of effective human relations theory also requires to focus on internal co-ordination and external co-ordination of the business.

In the broad sense, delegation theory suggests an approach where an authority shift some of their responsibilities in other entity by gaining view about best organizational performance (van der Kolk, van Veen-Dirks and ter Bogt 2019). Under delegation management, a manager might be able to minimise the work load in order to work on important areas (Aguinis, Jensen and Kraus 2021). This includes planning, business analysis among others. Furthermore, delegation of authority is based on the ground where superior-subordinate relationship is formed.

Generally, there are four types of delegation of authority such as general or specific delegation, where is based on the job assigned. In addition to that, formal or informal delegation is based on the process of giving authority (van der Kolk, van Veen-Dirks and ter Bogt 2019). The third type of delegation is top to bottom based on hierarchy. Lastly, lateral delegation requires a group or team for working in parallel. However, in order to overcome delegation, managers should focus on time management under organizational planning as well as collaborating with others within the organization (Kusmaningtyas and Erfiana 2021). In addition to that, the managers will also be able to monitor employee performance thereby making sure to provide them adequate feedback as well as opportunities for development.

In human relations management theory, it is observed that a manager should focus on minimising delegations within the workplace (Rühr et al. 2019). This will help them to improve employee performance and help to achieve higher profit margin. The theory also highlights importance of employee feedback for overall organizational development. Reduction of excessive burden on supervisors through delegation management policy can help to gain provision for organizational growth as well as self-development to the junior executives (Tasselli, Kilduff and Landis 2018).

Delegation

Conclusion 

Lastly, the paper can be concluded by saying that objective of organization planning is to set goals and implementing appropriate approaches for achieving those goals. Similarly, the main objective of control is to ensure that their target should be achieved with accordance to the plans. Furthermore, planning decides overall control process due to which, the employees are guided with organizational goals that can help them to improve performance. Employee motivation is considered as the key for achieving success within an organization. Higher employee motivation requires higher level of commitment, energy as well as drive. However, lack of employee motivation can reduce organizational productivity and also lower the levels of output, where this company might not be able to reach their goals. Under delegation management, a manager might be able to minimise the work load in order to work on important areas. This includes planning, business analysis among others. Furthermore, delegation of authority is based on the ground where superior-subordinate relationship is formed.

 References

Aguinis, H., Jensen, S.H. and Kraus, S., 2021. Policy implications of organizational behavior and human resource management research. Academy of Management Perspectives, (ja).

De Sousa Sabbagha, M., Ledimo, O. and Martins, N., 2018. Predicting staff retention from employee motivation and job satisfaction. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 28(2), pp.136-140.

Gagné, M., Deci, E.L. and Ryan, R.M., 2018. Self-determination theory applied to work motivation and organizational behavior.

Hanaysha, J.R. and Majid, M., 2018. Employee motivation and its role in improving the productivity and organizational commitment at higher education institutions. Journal of Entrepreneurship and Business, 6(1), pp.17-28.

Ishii, A. and Kawahata, Y., 2020, June. Theory of opinion distribution in human relations where trust and distrust mixed. In International Conference on Intelligent Decision Technologies (pp. 471-478). Springer, Singapore.

Kusmaningtyas, A. and Erfiana, P., 2021. The Effect of Workload and Emotional Intelligence on Nurse Performance: In the Perspective of Human Relations Theory.

Malmi, T., Bedford, D.S., Brühl, R., Dergård, J., Hoozée, S., Janschek, O., Willert, J., Ax, C., Bednarek, P., Gosselin, M. and Hanzlick, M., 2020. Culture and management control interdependence: An analysis of control choices that complement the delegation of authority in Western cultural regions. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 86, p.101116.

Nyberg, A.J., Cragun, O.R. and Schepker, D.J., 2021. Chief executive officer succession and board decision making: review and suggestions for advancing industrial and organizational psychology, human resources management, and organizational behavior research. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 8, pp.173-198.

Paais, M. and Pattiruhu, J.R., 2020. Effect of motivation, leadership, and organizational culture on satisfaction and employee performance. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business, 7(8), pp.577-588.

Pan, X., Chen, M., Hao, Z. and Bi, W., 2018. The effects of organizational justice on positive organizational behavior: Evidence from a large-sample survey and a situational experiment. Frontiers in psychology, 8, p.2315.

Rühr, A., Streich, D., Berger, B. and Hess, T., 2019, January. A Classification of Decision Automation and Delegation in Digital Investment Management Systems. In Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.

Tasselli, S., Kilduff, M. and Landis, B., 2018. Personality change: Implications for organizational behavior. Academy of Management Annals, 12(2), pp.467-493.

Ugoani, J., 2020. Effective Delegation and its impact on employee Performance. International Journal of Economics and Business Administration, 6(3), pp.78-87.

Urinov, B.N., 2020. Theoretical aspects of organizational behavior and corporate culture. Economics and innovative technologies, 2020(2), p.15.

van der Kolk, B., van Veen-Dirks, P.M. and ter Bogt, H.J., 2019. The impact of management control on employee motivation and performance in the public sector. European Accounting Review, 28(5), pp.901-928.

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