You identify, compare, and contrast the policing function at the local, state, and federal organizational levels. Analyze how the organizational, management, administration, and operational functions at these three organizational levels are similar or different and why. Be sure to identify the leadership characteristics and responsibilities pertaining to each organizational level.
Local Police Agencies
With the enforcement of law in US, there are large and small areas of the different agencies which work on the local, state and the federal agencies. They are able to handle and work with better security service providers and the industry that is able to hire more than 1 million people. It is seen that 90,000 of the people are under police personnel, with 13% of them federal, 13% under special or the state agencies where the 74% of the work is in the local enforcement. The roles and the responsibilities are to protect the society which includes the crime, along with the maintenance of law and order. (Carter, 2004). The agencies have been segmented under the different federal, state and local agencies which tend to control, deter and fight for the crime, in certain situations. It is also notes that the different levels of law enforcement is governed with the particular set of rules and responsibilities as well.
To work on the local police, the sheriff’s department and the campus police, municipal and the park police is taken into consideration. They are mainly charged for the duty to properly protect as per the societal needs like the work on patrolling, traffic duties and the response that would require the service with better provision to help the public. The enforcement is charged with the laws for the particular cities and towns that are served through the ordinances. (Cordner et al., 2010). The accordance is with the jurisdiction areas where the officers are set in the field for patrolling and to act in an independent manner without any much major consultation or the supervision. The duty also looks for the lower visibility decisions where the decisions do not need to make any requests or reports to the supervisors.
The specialised police work at the state level where the state officers focus mainly to respond to the calls for better investigation operations. They are able to handle all the administrative and the training duties that are related to the court and their responsibilities. The small towns work with the fact that there are no local police departments where the state officers also offer security and law enforcement. (Peak, 2010). After the attack of terrorists of 9/11, there are significant challenges for the state police agencies which are highlights with the homeland security charged with the roles like the advising to the legislature and the governor. This is related to the security matters with assessment to the state and the protection to the infrastructure, receipt and the DHS funds distribution. One need to provide with a proper assistance with better local services to train and handle jurisdictions set among the others. Hence, for this, at the state level, one need to find the units that would undertake a special police function, example, the fish and the game wardens who are mainly responsible for the enrolment of the laws of fishing, hunting and boating. The different states are also able to invest in the policing agencies like the Department of Motor Vehicles, and the Department of Criminal Investigations. (Carter, 2004). There are standards which are for the enforcement of law and to conduct all the important investigation which are set in accordance to the power that has been assigned by the state. The roles are to conduct the work together with the agencies. The other police divisions are HAZMAT, SWAT and K-9 units.
State Police Agencies
There are regularised forms of the government which have been charged for the role that includes handling of the enforcement and the other security issues. The state boundaries directly affect the country regions or America. This also includes the FBI, Drug Enforcement Administration, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Explosives etc. They deal mainly with the sales of drugs and the weapons held in the arms regulation. The jurisdiction is set above of the state and local law. (Whisenand, 2009).
The levels of law enforcement are set in the way that are charged for the responsibilities to protect the rights and make sure of the safety of the citizens. This is set with the operations and enforcement of laws that would make arrests, include protection and serve the citizens with the best areas for which they have been assigned.
The major difference in the agencies of police is the manner that they are hired. For the small cities and towns, there are local police officers who have been appointed for the city governments, respectively. This includes the recruitment methods which are directed towards the different cities based on rules and regulations. (Cordner et al., 2010). The specialised state levels, top management is made to focus on political appointees although there is a team for the handpicking that comes with the professionals who are completely experienced. The middle level managers are set with the force with the process conducted through the civil services or is mainly based on the merit. The holding of the managerial positions tends to make use of the paramilitary titles and the ranks like the inspector. The appointments are through the federal law agencies with senior management that has been conducted by President.
The similarities and differences are for the organisation, management, administration and the operational functions that works on different laws and regulations important for operating. The federal agencies generally abide to the different federal laws where the state police agencies work with the laws that have been set for the operational statutes. (Peak, 2010). Here, the local agencies are governed with the municipality rules or the cities. The state and the local policies is governed with the federal laws where the local agencies are set through the laws for the state government.
Here, the failure of the immigration reform at the federal level saw the state and municipality that takes all the important concerns and try to handle the ordinances which would lead to facilitation of the officers. The duties are set in a way to carry out by Immigration and Neutralisation (NIS) that impacts the additional work for the officers as well as the departments. This tend to create a better age for training, with enforcement of a better workforce that would lead into the reduction at the time of fighting for all the criminal activities. (Whisenand, 2009).
In 2012, it is seen Washington and Colorado legalised under the use of marijuana where more than 18 states have been advocated with the medical marijuana. The laws generally change with time and it is important for adhering to the different duties and responsibilities for the state and local agencies. In this way, the agencies are not asked or expected to make any requested for any arrests to the people who are in the smaller amount of marijuana. (Carter, 2004). The time is set when the federal government amends the use of illegal, federal agents working with DEA that require to undertake all the enforcement of drug laws.
Some of the important characteristics are:
- The police leader should hold some technical skills with the knowledge and analytical ability for appropriately using the tools for particular duties.
- The duties need to work on applications with budgeting, use of computers and the basic knowledge. This would be for the specific tools like the breathalyser.
- The human skills are important for the leaders for policing where the ability is based on effectively handling the team members and working on the cooperation enhancement. (Peak, 2010).
The leaders here, need to work with the junior colleagues and the general public for a better service. Through this, there is a possibility to tolerate the ambiguity that would focus mainly on the diversified forms of the views. The people with the different conceptual skills look for ideal coordination and integration of activities which is set with minimal conflict. Hence, the police activities are found to be diversified and does not tend to coordinate only at the time of making response calls. With this, the leadership should include CEO, middle managers and supervisors who look for the operational and efficacy handling, formulation and clear communication vision. The expectation is to make sure of the obstacles with a chain of command to enhance for an easy communication. (Cordener et al., 2010). The middle managers are the captains and lieutenants with top management and junior police officers. They are able to maintain and make use of the power to make sure of the empowering confrontation and then resolving issues in a creative manner.
The responsibilities for the line supervisors are the management of the time, resource and staff along with properly understanding the problems. Here, the teamwork should be assisted with mobilising the stakeholders and then tracking the management to solve the officer skills and making sure that is a consistent timely feedback.
Carter, D. L. (2004). School of Criminal Justice Michigan State University.
Cordner, G., & Scarborough, K. (2010). Information sharing: Exploring the intersection of policing with national and military intelligence. Homeland Security Affairs, 6(1).
Peak, K.J. (2010). Justice Administration: Police, courts, and corrections management. Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc.
Whisenand, P.M. (2009) Managing Police Organizations. Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc.
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