Write a persuasive academic essay on one of three given topics related to management theory. The essay will be written in accordance with the guidelines for writing academic essays at Dwyer, J 2013,Communication for Business and the Professions, Strategies and Skills, 5th ed., Pearson Education, Australia pp. 627-630.You are required to submit the plan of your essay in week 6 in hard copy to your tutor for evaluation and feedback:
The argumentative essay must agree or disagree with one of the statements below:
a) In today’s turbulent environment only organic organisational structures are effective.
b) Job design only benefits employers through increased job performance; it has no benefits for workers
c) Given the pace of change strategic planning is a waste of time.
Job Design and its Importance for Human Resource Management
The job design is an important part of the organizational HRM process that plays an important role in enhancing the performance level and productivity of the employees. The effectiveness of the human resource management largely depends upon the designing of the jobs of the different levels of the employees (such as managers, executives, and labors) as per their skills, expertise, knowledge, and capabilities for improving the overall organizational performance.
On the basis of the job design, the tasks, duties, roles, and responsibilities of different organizational individuals are assigned for the achievement of the organizational goals and objectives (Bolweg, 2012). This essay will critically analyze the benefits of the job design to the employers for enhancing the job performance and productivity outcomes of the employees as it has no benefits to the employees.
The job design is an organizational process carried-out by the employers for their benefits for attaining the good productivity outcomes by enhancing the job performances of the employees without benefiting to the organizational staff members or workforce. The job design is referred to the process of putting various elements together to form a job.
The job design includes a set of tasks to be performed, assigning the roles, duties and responsibilities, and job specification as per employees’ skills level, specialization, capabilities, and experiences to perform for the achievement of the organizational goals, objectives, and set targets. The job design is carried-out to enhance the employees’ job performance by enhancing their interests and motivation level through employing them to perform the specific tasks as per job characteristics and employees’ work profile (Grey, 2010). The job design gives more benefits to the employers than the employees because it reduces the employee absenteeism, disinterest, and job boredom for assisting the employers in attaining better performance feedbacks from the organizational individuals.
Job design increases the motivational level, job satisfaction, enthusiasm and confidence level of the employees that causes for the increased job performances of the workforce for encouraging them to achieve the set targets, goals, and objectives. The management of the people at work is an important part of the management process that could be achieved by designing the job tasks, roles, and responsibilities of the organizational staff members. The job design is a type of work arrangement that is aimed at overcoming or reducing the employee alienation and job dissatisfaction arising from the mechanistic and repetitive tasks.
Through the job design, the organizations try to increase the organizational productivity outcomes by offering them non-monetary rewards, such as greater job satisfaction, appreciation, and increased motivation and enthusiasm that provide them the sense of personal achievement in meeting the increased responsibilities and challenges of one’s work, not monetary benefits to them, such as salary increment, bonuses, or incentives (Brannick, Levine, and Morgeson, 2007). But, in opposite to this, it gives more benefits to the employer, such as increased responsibilities, higher sales volumes, and better production outcomes. Along with this, the expectations and demands for the extra work performance increases because of the increased roles and responsibilities for performing the extra assigned works.
Benefits of Job Design for Employers
Job enlargement, job simplification, job enrichment, and job rotation are common techniques used in the job design by the employers for doing good businesses. The job rotation is a type of job design technique in which the flexibility is ensured at the workplace by transferring the employees either from one department/division to another department/division or working in different departments, business units, functions, and other locations/countries by rotating their jobs in order to reduce the repetitiveness/monotonous and boredom of the same tasks or similar activities.
The job enrichment is another approach to the job design that includes the depth of the job by increasing the amount of discretion, authority, and responsibility of the jobholders to encourage them to involve in the activities, such as participation in the decision-making (Daft, Murphy, and Willmott, 2010). It provides the employers benefits in attaining better production outcomes by adding more responsibilities of the jobholders as a result, the employer will not be required to employ the extra personnel for the extra responsibilities at the vacant positions.
Another technique, the job enlargement is a technique to expand the jobs horizontally by increasing the job scope or job diversity, such as multi tasks, increased responsibilities or new roles. The job enlargement increases the number of tasks or different operations required to perform in a job as well as the frequency of the repetition of the job cycle.
The job enlargement increases the workload, tension, and extra tasks to the workforce, but gives more benefits to the employers by attaining the optimum performance feedbacks and production level without employing new employees for performing different tasks or operations (Jelinek, 2010). For ex- the sales personnel could also be given the added relevant responsibility of the marketing and customer surveys for generating the additional sales and more outputs to the company that gives benefits to the employers, not employees.
According to Job Characteristics Theory by Oldham and Hackman (1976), the job design includes characteristics or dimensions of a job, such as skills variety, task identity task significance, flexibility, and autonomy and feedback. The job characteristics assist the employers in attaining the experience meaning, understanding outcomes of their efforts, and undertaking self-responsibility from the organizational individuals or workforce.
The assignment of the multiple tasks, new roles, and extra responsibilities causes for the high job stress or tension, more workloads, and less concentration to the workforce and sometimes the employee anxiety and grievances due to the high workloads. Due to the multi-tasking or added responsibilities, sometimes the employees lose their concentration or expertise in a specific job task. But, it is beneficial to the employer in motivating the employees for the accomplishment of the common purpose and objectives of the organization (Martin, 2010).
Along with this, a good job design allows the employers for the adjustment of the employees to different job tasks, multiple operations, business units or diverse locations for meeting the business requirements. It also provides the employers an option to vary the tasks or multiplicity of the operations by assigning different tasks to the job holders at the same time for attaining good performance feedbacks with the limited number of employees.
Job Design Techniques
The job design is a continuous and ever changing process that is aimed at making adjustments in the workplace that reduces the employee dissatisfaction and repetitiveness or boredom of the similar tasks as well as enhancing the employee morale, job satisfaction, and employee engagement at the workplace. The job design also provides flexibility to the employer, such as shifting of the working hours and rotation of the job tasks in order to attain good production outcomes without disturbing the work schedules in the absence of any employee.
But, the job design creates new challenges with the increased responsibilities to the employees (Otman, 2009). The job design defines the work processes, shifting hours, job profile, tasks, roles and responsibilities, but sometimes in the absence of an employee, the extra responsibility for executing the tasks of that absence employee is shifted on the working employee that increases the job stress and workload on him/her, but for this the working employees will get only the similar pay, not given extra monetary benefit, such as bonus or added wages.
The job design includes designing or redesigning the duties, and roles of the employees with new responsibilities designed to perform the job tasks effectively. The employers benefit from the job design in the term of great output per workers, and lower operational costs.
It also gives benefits to the employers, such as flexibility and autonomy, high level of control, intellectual simulation and wining confidence of the work, and direct contract with the potential customers. It assists the employers in motivating the employees for giving better outputs, such as higher performance levels, more production outcomes, increased sales outputs, and more customer attending and good relationship with them because the motivated workforce will give extraordinary performance and higher rates of production for the benefits of the employer (Dwivedula and Jayakumar, 2010).
Additionally, the employer communicates the organizational vision, mission, goals, and objectives for allocating the job tasks or projects to different levels of employees accordingly that will enhance their job satisfaction and workplace motivation that in turn will encourage them to give valuable contribution with the best skills, knowledge, and capabilities for the achievement of the set business targets and organizational objectives.
The motivational theories, like Maslow’s hierarchy needs theory could be linked to the job design to motivate the employees for giving the extra job performance for the achievement of the organizational goals and objectives that will assists them in fulfilling the different kind of needs, such as psychological, security, belongingness, self-actualization, and self-esteem needs.
Maslow’s motivational theory is applied by the employers within their organizations to attain the high production outcomes from the employees by increasing their enthusiasm, morale, and motives. The goals-setting theory may also be linked by some employers to the job design for maximizing the performance level and productivity of the workforce through setting of the goals. This theory focuses on communicating the mission, goals, and objectives with the employees by the employers and preparing them for facing new challenges in order to perform their job tasks with the added responsibility for the attainment of goals and objectives (Simons, 2011).
The job design fundamentals assist the employers in addressing and reducing the workplace problems, such as workload, repetitiveness, isolation, less control over work, work delays at vacant positions, employee grievance and dissatisfaction, limited/lack of understanding of the job process, and excessive working hours. The most of the employers are more likely to raise the organizational productivity by offering them the non-monetary benefits, such as positive feedbacks, appreciation, the sense of involvement and personal achievement, and level of engagement.
The job design is based on the level of specialization, content of job, and working environment in the organization that assists the employers and managers to carry-out the job analysis as well as developing the job specifications effectively (Levine, Brannick, and Morgeson, 2007). The job design also benefits to the employers by recruiting and selecting the skilled, talented, and experienced employees, managing the employee training and orientation, and specifying their tasks, duties, and roles in the organization by matching the organizational job requirements with the applicant’s qualification, experiences, and capabilities.
From the above discussions and studies, it can be concluded that different job design techniques including the job enlargement, job enrichment, and job rotation may be beneficial to the employer in attaining good production outcomes as well as maintaining good employee relationship by enhancing their motivation level, enthusiasm, and job satisfaction.
The job design also benefits to the employers in attaining the good performance outcomes by adjusting the employees to different locations, task varieties or shifting of working hours with the limited number of employees that don’t disturb the working schedules of the organization. But, it may not give benefits to the employees because of their extra responsibilities, multiple task operation, workloads, and job stress. Along with this, the employees will get the same payment for the extra works or added tasks as the employee could get only appreciation, not monetary benefits (bonuses, incentives, increment or promotion).
Bolweg, F. J. (2012). Job design and industrial democracy: The case of Norway. Australia: Springer Science& Business Media.
Brannick, T. M., Levine, L. E., and Morgeson, P. F. (2007). Job and Work Analysis: Methods, Research, and Applications for Human Resource Management. London: Sage Publication.
Daft, L. R., Murphy, J., and Willmott, H. (2010). Organization Theory and Design. Australia: Cengage Learning EMEA.
Dwivedula, R. and Jayakumar, V. (2010). "What Employees Want? Job Design in Action". UK: Routledge.
Gary, D. (2010). Fundamentals of Human Resource Management: Content, Competencies and Applications. Sydney: Pearson Education.
Jelinek, S. (2010). The Impact of Management Practices and Organizational Structure. UK: Routledge.
Martin, J. (2010). Key Concepts in Human Resource Management. Canada: Sage Publication.
Otman, M. Z. (2009). Job Design & Work Performance: A Study of Health Care Personnel in Tripoli Medical Center. Malaysia: University Ultra Malaysia: College of Business.
Simons, R. (2011). Human Resource Management: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities. UK: CRC Press.
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