Part A: Develop Evaluation Criteria
Your evaluation criteria need to be objective, in that they stipulate the rules you would use in establishing whether a Chart, Table or Graph utilised in your selected Report, is appropriate for the data being presented. You need to make sure that each of your criterion is written in such a manner that a reasonable person can readily understand, or appreciate, the message being conveyed.
Part B: Report Evaluation
Diverse Charts, Tables or Graphs from your chosen Report (but not including any “Infographics”) and evaluate these visualisations using your criterion developed in Part A. It would not be unusual for an individual visualisation from your report to refer to multiple criteria. Further, any given visualisation you select may conform to some of your criterion but be in contravention of others, and this would need to be reported.
The current assignment is based on the analysing the elements of graphical depiction of the quantitative data that assist in offering sustain to the skills of the researcher. The graphical representation is not only concerned with helping the illustration of concise and clear vision it is also engaged in evaluating the notions of multifaceted data in report. The depiction can be of different types namely, bar charts, pie charts, column charts, line charts graphical depiction with tabular and picture based representation of data (Weissgerber et al. 2015). Furthermore, it is vital in determining the effectiveness of the visual reflections which ultimately helps in communicating with the audience whereas enhancing the understanding as well. The report is also concerned with the assessment of what needs to be done and what does not needs to be done in the visual depiction of the annual report of Telstra in order to demonstrate the practical implications.
The criteria for evaluation can be established unless the visual representation provides information and provides sufficient implication to the statistics highlighted with no attraction concerning stakeholders in monetary reports. Consequently, a series of criteria is developed to express the foundations upon which analysis of visual representation can be applied;
- Information on relationships:Line charts forms the best in associating information however, line charts is helpful in correlating two types of data under the identical charts. Both the correlation determines whether depicting frequency with the help of charts after the cumulative frequency with the help of line charts.
- Impacts of visualization:Illustrating the effects can be additionally improved if the colures perfectly match with the data undertaken such as different period having different colours.
- Labelling:Labelling can be defined as an element which assist in expressing the accumulation of two in depth information whether using legends for the charts or graphs or highlighting the patters of variations (Robinson, Webber and Eifrem 2015).
- Using data charts for numerous set of data:Datasets having arithmetical datasets can be provided for data that contains identical data in the form of total sales and total cost that can be plotted on the similar chart for the years ranging from 2009-16. However, plotting the same data charts on the excel can be done with the help of clustered charts.
- Using discrete bars:A resounding information can be demonstrated based on the heights of bar. This eventually helps in depicting the quantity of information (Healy and Moody 2014). One of the best ways of expressing the values amid the class and categories of data are the bar graphs and column charts.
- Presentations of table:Tabular depiction of tables assists in collecting a large number of data with exact figures and numbers illustrating the information (Zeng et al. 2013). The table assist in representing the text that helps in depicting significant points.
- Keys:The use of keys is to portray the particular information having colours, shades and lines that is used in the bar graphs or charts. It is usually found at the top or at the right side of the charts or graphs.
- Using functional variables for representation:The functional variables used in variables not only form the essence of information but also illustrates the appropriateness of the information.
- Layout:For fabrication of facts and information under sequential order the layout of the information must be necessarily aligned with relevant information (Klein 2014). The sequential information helps in engaging with the audience but it is also legible for the spectators.
- Reference of Graphs:The graphical plots and charts should be appropriately referenced with the help of titles upon both the axis namely (x and y-axis) and network lines on the grid (Ferres et al. 2013). This can help in comparing the categories of information that are helpful with the text.
- Scaling:Scaling helps in determining the qualitative and quantitative aspects of data so that different responses can be facilitated on the same data.
- Proportional heights in stacked charts: Stacked charts are based on percentage where they portray the results of ratio in 100% or frequency driven (Ryan 2015).
- Data integration:Data integration should be interactive with charts used in reports to explain readers.
- Customization:Graphical illustration used must be affiliated with reports by fulfilling the knowledge of reader through discussion.
- Geometric Determinants:Figures with geometrical data will help in adding segments with the visual properties of the shapes that is subdivided under smaller mechanisms (Shukla and Dhir 2016).
- Conditional formatting:Conditional formatting is performed on the graphs and charts with the help of black and white, which helps in adding both the negative and positive notion on the visual representation.
- Positioning:The graphs and charts should be positioned in such a manner the figures are depicted with the help of supporting discussion for specified graphs with different pages.
- Positive and negative bar charts:Variables with time scale assist in determining the positive and negative bars irrespective of the data (Weissgerber et al. 2015).
- Fonts and styles of presentations:The fonts and styles of presentations must be easy to understand by highlighting the fundamental characteristics of the report.
- Pie and doughnut charts:Doughnut and pie charts forms the representative of sub components with the help of transparency in colour hues.
Positive and negative bars:
The below stated figure reflects the amount of revenue earned by the BHP Billiton from its operations. All the bars are reflects both the quantitative and qualitative data. Under the given case both the positive and negative values is illustrated in efficient manner. The position of the charts is reflected effectively (Stone et al. 2016). It can be depicted that the variables and figures are not coinciding with each other. The below stated bar is the correct example of negative and positive bar chart.
Bar and column Chart:
The below stated figure represents the earnings before interest and tax derived by the BHP Billiton. The graphical representation of bars is in discrete nature for the amount earned during a financial year by BHP Billiton (Song et al. 2015). The criteria in the charts are represented separately and they are presented in different colour reflecting an effective visualisation.
The below stated graph portrays the relationship of two variables with the amount of social investment in the last five financial year. In the below stated figure, it can be understood that both the lines of chart and bar graph has been efficiently used (Thorvaldsdóttir, Robinson and Mesirov 2013). Here, the total amount of social investment is represented in the X axis and growth has been depicted in the Y axis and other variable is represented in the secondary Y axis.
Part B: Evaluation of the Report
This fulfils the criteria 2, which state the relationship of more than two variables;
Multiple sets of Data and Labelling:
The below stated figure helps in making the multiple use of data sets and there are two types of variables that contributes to the BHP Billiton supported by charities and cash expenditure. This can be regarded as the multiple set of data and it can be stated that the graphs have been labelled appropriately with all the variables being represented with the help of different set of colour.
Use of keys:
The below stated annual report of BHP Billiton helps in reflecting an appropriate use of keys as the table represents the amount of income tax and royalties that is related to the income amount of taxation paid (Yau 2013). The graph further reflects the usage of particular information with the help of tabular representation of information. Under the given scenario, the use of keys reflects the total amount of tax benefit derived by the company.
Presentation of tables and layouts:
BHP Billiton has properly presented the tables in their annual report to enable the users of financial statement to play an important part in it. The company has given due recognition to all the different tables from the below stated figure by segmenting the relevant information under different rows (Klein 2014). The presentations of tables are used with the help of different colours with comparison for the past two years have been made.
Functional variable graphs:
The below stated graphs helps in reflecting the fluctuations of Iron ore, Metallurgical coal, energy and crude oil over the stated period of time. The green line in the graph reflects fluctuation in the price of crude oil. Therefore, it should be noted that the charts in the annual report has been effectively used by the organisation.
Customization and determination of Geometry:
The below stated graph helps in illustrating the average number of employees and contractors employed during the year. From the below stated graph it is understood that the graphs is customised with appropriate level of geometry has been used (Ryan 2015). The graph reflects that the three meters with two variables have represented different colours. The graph represented are user friendly for readers to understand the determinants of geometry.
The below stated graph reflects the number of injury as reported by the BHP Billiton. The colours used in the graph are discrete in nature and represents the different colour that is effective in visualisation (Rollinson 2014). The graph is easily understandable by the readers and fulfils the criteria of relationship between two variables.
The below stated doughnut chart helps in reflecting the total amount employees contracted along with the contractors. The organisation has made the use blue and light blue colour along with the tables and other forms of graphs (Shukla and Dhir 2016). It can be understood that the size of the charts is also balanced in regard to teh total numbers of employees contracted during the year. The representation of employees is reflected in the right hand side and the contractors on the left hand side.
To conclude with, BHP Billiton has successfully met the twenty criteria in their particular annual report for the financial year of 2016. Along with this, the presence of adequate number of graphs and charts has been stated in the report based on the essence of the presentation of the financial report. The study has helped in understanding the relevance and significance of the entire data process concerning visualisation. However, it is recommended that the organisation can still improve the different studies which is based on the above stated criteria.
BHP Billiton. 2017. BHP Billiton | Annual Reporting 2016. [online] Available at: https://www.bhpbilliton.com/investor-centre/annual-reporting-2016 [Accessed 12 Apr. 2017].
Ferres, L., Lindgaard, G., Sumegi, L. and Tsuji, B., 2013. Evaluating a tool for improving accessibility to charts and graphs. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI), 20(5), p.28.
Healy, K. and Moody, J., 2014. Data visualization in sociology. Annual review of sociology, 40, pp.105-128.
Klein, T.L., 2014. Communicating quantitative information: tables vs graphs.
Robinson, I., Webber, J. and Eifrem, E., 2015. Graph databases: new opportunities for connected data. " O'Reilly Media, Inc.".
Rollinson, H.R., 2014. Using geochemical data: evaluation, presentation, interpretation. Routledge.
Ryan, J., 2015, September. Communicating research via data visualization. In National Data Integrity Conference-2015. Colorado State University. Libraries.
Shukla, A. and Dhir, S., 2016. Tools for Data Visualization in Business Intelligence: Case Study Using the Tool Qlikview. In Information Systems Design and Intelligent Applications (pp. 319-326). Springer India.
Song, W., Wu, D., Wong, R., Fong, S. and Cho, K., 2015, October. A real-time interactive data mining and visualization system using parallel computing. In Digital Information Management (ICDIM), 2015 Tenth International Conference on (pp. 10-13). IEEE.
Stone, E.R., Bruin, W., Wilkins, A.M., Boker, E.M. and MacDonald Gibson, J., 2016. Designing graphs to communicate risks: understanding how the choice of graphical format influences decision making. Risk analysis.
Thorvaldsdóttir, H., Robinson, J.T. and Mesirov, J.P., 2013. Integrative Genomics Viewer (IGV): high-performance genomics data visualization and exploration. Briefings in bioinformatics, 14(2), pp.178-192.
Weissgerber, T.L., Milic, N.M., Winham, S.J. and Garovic, V.D., 2015. Beyond bar and line graphs: time for a new data presentation paradigm. PLoS biology, 13(4), p.e1002128.
Yau, N., 2013. Data points: Visualization that means something. John Wiley & Sons.
Zeng, K., Yang, J., Wang, H., Shao, B. and Wang, Z., 2013, February. A distributed graph engine for web scale RDF data. In Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment (Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 265-276). VLDB Endowment.
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