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• Software Engineering for Data Warehouse systems
• Risk Analysis in Software Engineering
• Project Management methodologies
• Advances in Prototyping for software engineering
• Cleanroom methodology
• Test Driven methodologies
• Advanced human Interfaces
• Artificial Neural Networks
• Cloud Computing
• Agent Oriented Software Engineering

Software Engineering for Data Warehouse systems

Project management plays a vital role in accomplishing the goals as well as following with the help of plans as well as expectations. Getting a specific team organized for a project is usually tough to carry out. Implementing a specific project management methodology can help a team to organize the project in a streamlined and structured process. This makes team collaboration efficient and hence the projects become more organized [1]. A different project management methodology has different uses and is not used in every project. Which project management methodology would be used in a project depends on the type, necessities and expected outcomes of the project. This report discusses regarding the agile methodology. It describes the waterfall development and the Scrum. This further provides the differences between the waterfall model and agile method.

The most common way to plan a certain project is by sequencing the tasks which lead to the final deliverable and then work accordingly. Waterfall methodology can be describes as a traditional approach which can be used for managing projects, this methodology is the simplest to understand as well as execute [2]. This methodology works on various simple principles. These principles include the ways in which a particular task should be executed and completed before a new task is implemented or executed. These tasks are present in a sequence that is connected to each other and add up to form an overall deliverable. This method is most ideal for various projects that ends up in various physical objects like building computers and project similar to these. In waterfall methodology, the project plans can be utilized later in other projects.

Diagram 1: waterfall model

(Source: [3], p. 165)

In case of waterfall methodology the project manager does not realize the importance of the project before it is over, before it gets executed and the project comes to an end. The waterfall methodology provides numerous advantages but along with these it also provides numerous disadvantages, these disadvantages are as follows

  • After application of waterfall methodology, if the application reaches up to the stage of testing, it is very hard for the project to get back and change if anything is wrongly done. In this methodology is impossible to go back and change the requirements or anything else that was not well thought out in the stage of concept [4]. Each and every stage has to be carried out with utmost care and no changes can be made if the project has started.
  • There is no working software to be produces till late during the life cycle.
  • This methodology contains huge amount of uncertainty and risks.
  • This is not a better model for utilizing in object oriented projects and complex projects.
  • This method proves to be very poor in case of long as well as ongoing projects.

Agile manifesto of Software Development had out forward a mindset that is groundbreaking in nature on delivering collaboration and value with the customers. Agile methodology has four values, these values are as follows

  • Interactions and individuals are placed over tools and processes.
  • Working software is placed over comprehensive documentation.
  • Customer collaboration is placed over contract negotiation.
  • Responding to change is placed over following a certain plan.

On the basis of the results of the evaluations, final deliverables might be modifies for fulfilling the needs of customers in a better way [5]. The main key within the project team members as well as project stakeholders is continuous collaboration. Agile development framework has various parts, these parts are as follows

  • Scrum:Scrum is defined as a popular agile development framework, this is because it is simple to implement, and it also solves a huge number of problems regarding which software developers had struggled in the past like inflexible project plans, convoluted development cycles and delayed production.
  • Kanban:this is another framework which can be used for implementing agile methodology; it is based on the capacity of the team [6]. Nowadays this approach for managing a project is properly suited for working and it needs steady output. Teams create representations of their tasks using various sticky notes as well as whiteboards.
  • Extreme programming (XP):extreme programming is another form of agile methodology and this is designed for improving the quality of the software and ability of the development team to adapt numerous needs of customers [7]. XP is characterized by various short work sprints, constant collaboration and frequent iterations with various stakeholders.
  • Adaptive project framework:this project methodology begins with Requirements Breakdown Structure (RBS) for defining various strategic project goals on the basis of the project management methods, because of the changing and uncertain requirements, sub-functions, functions and features [8]. The project proceeds through iterative stages.

Risk Analysis in Software Engineering

The product or project can be described as a group of features; these features are described in the terms of user stories. Scrum team is able to estimate the work that is associated with every story [9]. The features in backlog are ranked according to their importance. Result is a weighted as well as ranked list of product features and a roadmap. Daily scrum meeting can be organized in order to discuss what has been done and what has to be done. Scrum is a light weight process tool that falls under agile methodologies. In order to implement Scrum, an organizayion needs to follow various steps, these are as follows

  • Splitting the organization into cross functional, small and self organizing team. If the organization is split into various parts, it would make it easier for them to perform effectively and attain good outcomes.
  • Split the work: the work that needs to be carried out using this method must be split into concrete and small deliverables. The activities that have been split into various parts must also be sorted out [10]. The sorting can be carried out on the basis of their priorities and the relative effort of the activities is estimated. The sorted out activities are carried out one by one by the team members and they can proceed with the next activity after the previous task is completed.
  • Split time: the time consumed by every activity must be divided. The division must be in short and fixed length iterations or sprints, generally from two to four weeks [11]. The potential shippable code is demonstrated after any iteration takes place. Division of time between the activities helps the organization in performing activities without any interruption of other activities.
  • Optimize the release plan: the released plan must be optimized and priorities must be updated in the collaboration with various customers on the basis of the insights that have been gained with the help of inspecting release after any iteration.
  • Optimization of process: processes must be optimized by having retrospective after a specific interaction is over.



In this model the development of software tends to flow sequentially from the starting point to the end point

The agile method proposes interactive and incremental approach to the software.

In waterfall model, the design process is not broken in individual models.

In this process, the entire method is broken into various individual models n which designers work.

The customers are able to see the product when the project ends

The customers are allowed to see the product as well as take decision and changes into the project.

All the types of projects can be estimated as well as completed using waterfall model.

Using agile methodology small projects can be implemented. For bigger projects agile methodology is very difficult to estimate the time of development.

Only during the end of the project, it is made to pass through the testing phase. In case of nay requirement error or any sort of changes in the requirements of the project, it would have to start from the very beginning.

Errors can be fixed when the project is ongoing. In case of any mistake in between the process, the entire project does not have to be started from the beginning.

Table 1: difference between agile model and waterfall model

(Source: [12], p. 65)


From the above report it can be concluded that project management methodologies are an important part that needs to be carried out in order to carry pit a specific task in an effective manner, these methodologies not only help the team to perform the task with a certain planning but also obtain most effective results. Choosing the most suitable project management methodology might prove to be a tricky work. When it is time to select an appropriate methodology which would be effective as well, there are numerous factors that can be considered. Every project management methodology carries its strengths as well as weaknesses. No methodology is good or bad, what methodology is followed depends on the type of the project. The requirements of the project must also be considered while selecting a methodology. In this assignment, the agile methodology has been discussed in details along with its principles. The difference between agile methodology and waterfall methodology has also been described.


[1] D Batra, "Large-Scale Agile Methodology Acceptance." 2018.

[2] D Soni and P. J. Kohli. "Cost estimation model for web applications using agile software development methodology." Pertanika Journal Of Science & Technology 25, no. 3 2017: 931-938.

[3] G Singh, A Mishra, H Singh, and P Upadhyay. "Empirical study of agile software development methodologies: A comparative analysis." ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes 40, no. 1 2015: 1-6.

[4] J Gil, L Miguel, U L Maite, L Begona and F C Isabel "Field vs. laboratory usability evaluations: A study on a context dependent mobile application developed with an agile methodology." IEEE Latin America Transactions 14, no. 1 2016: 339-348.

[5] L Seung-Han, and J Park. "A Case Study of Software Development Quality Improvement by Agile Methodology and MDA/MDD Technology." Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society 16, no. 4 2015: 2744-2748.

[6] M Aguilar and Z Claudia. "Integrating UCD and an Agile Methodology in the Development of a Mobile Catalog of Plants." In Advances in Ergonomics Modeling, Usability & Special Populations, pp. 75-87. Springer, Cham, 2017.

[7] M Sagheer,T Zafar, and M Sirshar. "A Framework For Software Quality Assurance Using Agile Methodology." International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research 4, no. 02 2015: 44-50.

[8] M Yishay, J Cook, P Santos, T Treasure-Jones, R Elferink, D Holley, and J Griffin. "Patterns of practice and design: Towards an agile methodology for educational design research." In Design for Teaching and Learning in a Networked World, pp. 605-608. Springer, Cham, 2015.

[9] S. Dhir, and S. Sarraf, Crime and criminal tracking networks & systems using agile methodology. BVICA M's International Journal of Information Technology, 8(1), 2016, p.930.

[10] T, Zeinab, T J Gandomani, and M Ahmadi. "Knowledge Management in Agile Software Development: A Case Study of XP Agile Methodology." International Journal of Software Engineering and Technology2, no. 1 2016.

[11] W Bartosz. "Agile Methodology as a tool for reducing information asymmetry in the implementation of it projects completed on the basis of the outsourcing strategy." Information Systems in Management 5, 2016.

[12] Y Harb, , N Cherie, and S Surendra. "Evaluating Project Characteristics for Selecting the Best-fit Agile Software Development Methodology: A Teaching Case." Journal of the Midwest Association for Information Systems 1 2015: 33.

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