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1. Strategic Management emphasizes long-term performance but only a few can sustain it over a longer period of time. To be successfully in the long-term, companies must only be able to executive current activities to satisfy an existing market but they must also adapt those activities to satisfy new and changing markets. Explain these new and challenging markets facing the Asian business today.

2. Today business sustainability or sustainable business practice addresses triple bottom line: traditional profit/loss , social and environmental responsibility. Why this “triple bottom line” important to Asian business today.

The new and challenging markets facing the Asian business today

1. A value chain is an activity which includes production, distribution, and marketing. It is a process of organising these activities in order to analyse them. The main aim of this process is to establish communication between the leaders of each stage to ensure the process of organising the activities is effectively and efficiently. Value chain analysis helps the organisation to understand the key capabilities easily and it also analyses the challenges which require the improvement. It also helps to understand the competitors create value and to decide to extend the particular activities. Michael E. Porters introduced the concept of a value chain to analyse the situation and process of organisation. Porter also developed the five forces model which helps the organisation in measuring the position of the company as compared to the competitors in the current marketplace. Competitive advantage cannot be gain by the one activity. The discrete activities of the organisation contribute to the gain of competitive advantage such as producing, delivering, marketing, designing, and supporting. Porters split business activities into two categories such as primary and support. Primary activities of the company include the main activities which are used by the organisation such as inbound logistics, operations, marketing sales, and many others. The support activities of the company help the primary functions and compromise the activities such as human resource management, procurements, technology and development, and many others. Primary and support activities are used by the company to ensure the activities that operate effectively and efficiently (Mudambi, & Puck, 2016).

It is related to the process of receiving, storing and distributing of raw material which is used in the production process. Nestle receives, stores and distribute the material at the warehouse. It has been seen that the company receives the stock from outside which is not available for the production in Malaysia and its main headquartered is also located in Mutiara Damansara. That is why the company has to stores the production material in warehousing and later on distribute the product in the market. The manufacturing facilities of Nestle are available at the Shah Alam, Kuching, Chembong, and Petaling Jaya. The company has a National distribution centre which is located at Bukit Raja, Klang from which the company distributes the products in the operational areas. It has factories in Malaysia from where the company manufacture the product and then it distributes the product in the different region (Christopher, 2016).

The importance of triple bottom line for sustainable business practice in Asia

It is the stage in which the company turns their raw material into the final product for the consumers. Nestle manufactures the various types of food which include junior foods, culinary products, ice cream, chocolates, coffee, and many others. The company manufacture the product and convert the raw material into the finished product for the consumers. For each product the company requires the different ingredients and raw material for the production such as manufacturing the chocolate; the company requires the Cocoa, milk and many others as an ingredient. It has been seen that the process of manufacturing the chocolate will be done by using the machine for whipping the ingredients then froze them for ready the chocolate in the chiller. Then the output will be ready and then it packed in their size and brand (Bee, Diby, Mbacké, & Wettstein, 2015).

It is a stage in which the products are distributed to the consumers. Nestle distribute their product by using the land transportation rather than the rail transportation because the risk of damage the product is less. The other groceries products distributed by the Tesco and many other grocery shops (D'heur, 2015).

This stage involves advertising, distribution channels, pricing, promotions, sales-force organisation, and many others. The most important thing of Nestle is that the food should be approved by the higher authorities so that the consumers can officially consume the product peacefully (Doz, 2017). The product of the company is labelled with the important information related to the product for the consumers. The company is brilliant in attracting the customers. The company uses the many types of Advertisement that are made by Nestle such as television commercials and flyers are passed around at the shopping mall.

It refers to the activities which are required for the company to maintain the product quality with the process which includes the installation and training maintenance, repair and after-sale services. Nestle provides the official website to the consumers to review its product and the services. It has been seen that it is beneficial for all the functions and purposes of the product because it provides the satisfaction to the consumers. The company produces a product which makes the consumers feel happier and prevent them from getting diseases. The company tries to produce low sugar content so that every consumer can inhale the product (Jenkins, & Williamson, 2015).

It is the process that the how the raw material for the product is obtained. Buying process of raw material helps the company in carrying out the primary activities. Nestle finds the suppliers to buy the raw material. Nestle has various suppliers around the world who is always available for them (Jacobs, Chase, & Lummus, 2014).

The concept of value chain analysis and its importance for organizations

This function of the company includes the hiring and retaining process. It also provides the training, paying salary and employees benefits. It has been seen that the company is not only famous for its quality of products but it also attracts people to join their company. Nestle offers the opportunity to the public for the job and also open the door for internal employees for different positions which is beneficial for the society as well as for the company. The company provides useful information on the websites for the interested candidates who want to work with them. Nestle comes under one of the companies which take care of their employees’ rights and duties. The activities of hiring and recruiting the employees are good at Nestle (Sroufe, & Joseph, 2017).

It can be used in the process of research and development to manufacturing the new products and designed the process of automation. It has been seen that this activity is used to improve the quality of product and services. Nestle has a Research and Development department which helps the company to make sure that the company fulfil the requirement of the public or not. This activity of the company consumes the high cost but it is beneficial for the company because it pays back the company with a double profit (Sminia, 2017). The company is also using the solar panels in the warehouse as energy consumption. Consumption of high cost on solar energy is beneficial for the company because consumption of energy is consuming the high cost as expenditure.

It is a company support system which helps to maintain the daily routine activities. Accounting, legal, administrative, and general management are the factor which is necessary for the effective infrastructure. This function is used by the companies to their advantages. In the case of Nestle, the company has a very effective and stable infrastructure. The company designed and planned properly by expertise and highly educated people who have experience in the nutrition field. It has been seen that the accountant, administrative, lawyer and the other official officers of the company perform their responsibilities perfectly which is assigned as per their quality. The board of directors of the company also support the system which helps the company in achieving the objective by performing their job well (Wheelen, Hunger, Hoffman, & Bamford, 2017).

In this strategy, a firm sets their cost less in the industry to attract the consumer. The company gets the cost advantage which is based on the structure of the industry. The company gets the cost advantage by lowering their prices. In this strategy, the cost of the company is below as compared to the other companies in the industry which attracts the consumers towards the company. The company gets the competitive advantage by lowering the prices that is why the company is excellent performers in its industry.The company gets the competitive advantage by attracting the more consumers. Low cost attracts the consumers towards the services of the company as compared to the other companies; more sale of the company means the company gets a competitive advantage (Kinyuira, 2014).

Nestle's value chain analysis in Chocolate and Confectionery Industry

    In the case of Nestle, the company has low prices of their product as compared to other companies such as Chocolate and confectionery. The company is the lowest cost producer of Chocolate without compromising with the quality in the industry. The company is mainly focused on the cultural environment, behaviour and communication issues to maintain the quality of chocolate. It is important for the company to focus on these factors to maintain the quality and the cost of the product. Nestle invested in the chocolate and confectionery industry which became the world leader in the chocolate and sugar confectionery industry.  The cost leadership strategy of the company in Chocolate and confectionary industry attracts the more suppliers of high-quality raw material which helps the company to maintain the quality of the product. The company gets the competitive advantage by maintaining the quality of the product with the low cost. The techniques and tools help the company to reduce the cost of the product (Moon, Hur, Yin, & Helm, 2014).

    It has been seen that every strategy has risk which is face by the company as same the company faces the risk from cost leadership strategy. Although the company gets a competitive advantage by lowering prices of the product it is observed that the other companies also follow this strategy. As technology improves, the companies have the advantage to reduce the cost of the product. There are many companies which can easily adopt the technology and reduce the cost of the product. The companies target the various narrow markets to achieve an even lower cost within their segments as a group gains the market share. The companies get the market share by lowering the cost of the product in the narrow market. It becomes a risk for the Nestle because the other chocolate and confectionary industry also follows the strategy. The company has to set the prices by keeping in mind the factors such as the company has to set the cost which is low as compare to the other companies and also the company has to take care about the production cost. The companies face the difficulty at the time of setting the cost of selling the product. Lower cost becomes a risk for the companies if it cannot cover the production cost of the product (Saluja, & Mahajan, 2017).

    It is a strategy in which the company produces the product which is different from the other companies. The consumers always seek unique product for themselves; different and unique products attract more consumers.  A different product is beneficial for the consumers when it also satisfies the consumer’s need. Consumer satisfaction attracts the more consumers towards the goods and services of the company.  The companies are rewarded for the uniqueness in the product with the premium price. Product differentiation strategy helps the company to gain control of the market (Verbeke, Kano, & Yuan, 2016).

The use of cost leadership strategy for Nestle in Chocolate and Confectionery Industry

    Nestle use this strategy to attract a large number of consumers and boosting the sale of the product and services of the company. It has been seen that the company target different media to advertise the product in the market such as newspaper, television, magazines and many others. The market positioning of Nestlé’ includes image differentiation, people differentiation, and service differentiation. Nestlé’ has a different logo from the other companies or from its competitors that are greatly accepted by its customers (González-Benito, Martos-Partal, & Fustinoni-Venturini, 2015). The company has a large number of employees those are highly educated and trained. It is beneficial for the company to have highly educated employees. Experienced help in maintaining the quality of product and the highly educated employees help in producing the product different with some new ideas. The company has 24 hours hotline services which make the services different from the other companies in the industry. It has better services for consumers as compared to the other companies in the industry (Miah, et al., 2015). The company gets the competitive advantage by producing the product different from the other companies. The positioning strategy of the company makes the product different from the others.

    Although, the company gains the advantage from the differentiated strategy but this strategy also has a risk. The company faces the risk by following this strategy such as a change in customer taste. The company comes under the food and beverage industry in which product can easily be differentiated from the other by adding some new flavours. There are various firms that main aim is to achieve the greater differentiation in their market. Those companies add some new flavours and attract more consumers towards the product. The consumers attract towards the new flavours which are difficult for the company to produce a different product in a few months. The company has a major risk of following the product differentiation is the consumer taste. Sometimes consumer behaviour towards the product does not like by the consumers then the company faces heavy loss (Hansen, Nybakk, & Panwar, 2015).

    This strategy contains two strategies such as cost strategy and differentiation strategy. The company follows this strategy to analyse the competitor's cost of the product. The company has to differentiate the product by setting the different price as compare to the other competitors (Tansey, Spillane, & Meng, 2014). Cost and differentiation strategy of Focus strategy used by the companies to attracts a large number of customer. The companies who achieve success in the following focus strategy get the high development in the market.

    In the case of Nestle, the company follows the focus strategy to attain the market share in the market. Nestle identify the challenges which are raised by their competitors. After identifying the challenges the company placed nutrients labelling on the wrappers to inform the customers about the ingredients which are used in the production of the product and it also mentioned the nutrients ingredients (Misani, 2017). Nestle distinctive segment value chain is different from the other companies which are hard to copy by the competitors. The company set the prices by analysing the competitor’s prices and challenges.

    It has been seen that the company face the risk due to following the focus strategy. The company faces the risk such as a change in the target segment, setting cost and others. The company expands their business which is beneficial for the company but by expanding the business the company target segment also changes. The company has a risk of losing the customer with the same strategy in the different target market. The other risk of the company is the cost leaders. The companies face the risk of over cost product it means the company has to set the price as per the market price. Nestle face the risk of cost; sometimes the company is not able to do set the right prices at the right place that is why the company faces the heavy loss at a time (Brenes, Montoya, & Ciravegna, 2014).

References

Bee, J., Diby, P., Mbacké, B., & Wettstein, B. (2015). Nestlé: Sustainable Value Chain Management from the Farm to the Fork. In Sustainable Value Chain Management (pp. 313-325). Springer, Cham.

Brenes, E. R., Montoya, D., & Ciravegna, L. (2014). Differentiation strategies in emerging markets: The case of Latin American agribusinesses. Journal of Business Research, 67(5), 847-855.

Christopher, M. (2016). Logistics & supply chain management. Pearson UK.

D'heur, M. (2015). Sustainable Value Chain Management. Springer International Publishing: Imprint: Springer,.

Doz, Y. L. (2017). Strategic management in multinational companies. In International Business (pp. 229-248). Routledge.

González-Benito, Ó., Martos-Partal, M., & Fustinoni-Venturini, M. (2015). Brand equity and store brand tiers: An analysis based on an experimental design. International Journal of Market Research, 57(1), 73-94.

Hansen, E., Nybakk, E., & Panwar, R. (2015). Pure versus hybrid competitive strategies in the forest sector: Performance implications. Forest Policy and Economics, 54, 51-57.

Jacobs, F. R., Chase, R. B., & Lummus, R. R. (2014). Operations and supply chain management (pp. 533-535). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Jenkins, W., & Williamson, D. (2015). Strategic management and business analysis. Routledge.

Kinyuira, D. (2014). Effects of Porter’s Generic competitive strategies on the performance of Savings and Credit Cooperatives (Saccos) in Murang’a County, Kenya. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 16(6).

Miah, J. H., Griffiths, A., McNeill, R., Poonaji, I., Martin, R., Morse, S., & Sadhukhan, J. (2015). Creating an environmentally sustainable food factory: A case study of the Lighthouse project at Nestlé. Procedia Cirp, 26, 229-234.

Misani, N. (2017). Convergent and divergent corporate social responsibility. In Innovative CSR (pp. 62-83). Routledge.

Moon, H. C., Hur, Y. K., Yin, W., & Helm, C. (2014). Extending Porter’s generic strategies: from three to eight. European Journal of International Management, 8(2), 205-225.

Mudambi, R., & Puck, J. (2016). A global value chain analysis of the ‘regional strategy’perspective. Journal of Management Studies, 53(6), 1076-1093.

Saluja, N., & Mahajan, V. (2017). Profitability, Efficiency and Risk Analysis of Nestle India Limited. Choice, 6(1).

Sroufe, R., & Joseph, S. (2017). Strategic sustainability: the state of the art in corporate environmental management systems. Routledge.

Sminia, H. (2017). The industrial organization approach. In The Strategic Manager (pp. 51-70). Routledge.

Tansey, P., Spillane, J. P., & Meng, X. (2014). Linking response strategies adopted by construction firms during the 2007 economic recession to Porter’s generic strategies. Construction management and economics, 32(7-8), 705-724.

Verbeke, A., Kano, L., & Yuan, W. (2016). Inside the regional multinationals: A new value chain perspective on subsidiary capabilities. International Business Review, 25(3), 785-793.

Wheelen, T. L., Hunger, J. D., Hoffman, A. N., & Bamford, C. E. (2017). Strategic management and business policy. pearson.

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