There has been a tremendous load on fossil fuels for energy production past many years. Since they are non-renewable source of energy, their degrading levels has enhanced the urgency of switching to other modes of energy production. This ever-increasing need of substitution of energy source has lead to the formulation of modern energy storage with the help of renewable resources prevailing on the earth by legislative bodies. Oil and gas industries are spending tremendously on the effective energy storage systems for effective business. Energy Storage is the assemblage of energy at one period for the later consumption (Choi and Samsung 2015).
The aim of this report is to determine the importance of the energy storage systems on the commercial level for different industries such as oil and gas. Furthermore, it describes interrelation of these storage systems with solar energy and wind energy.
This report is divided into different sections determining the advantages and disadvantages of these storage systems and different commercially available storage systems. In addition to this, analysis on the impact of these storage systems on environment has been undertaken. In the last section, recommendations on cost effective storage systems for solar- photovoltaic and wind- turbine renewable sources of energy has been discussed.
Technology always comes in hand with advantages and disadvantages. This is the responsibility of legislation to provide efficacious utilization of recurring naturally available renewable resources such as solar and wind energy with the help of energy storage system. This allows reducing the over usage of the fossil fuel and increment in the usage of renewable resources of energy. Further provides optimal amalgamation of energy storage into energy systems. These systems undertake the storage of energy produced during the low demand and supply during the high demand, reducing the supplying stress during the peak demand. Optimal energy storage augments the fidelity of the grids of the system and enhances the potential and capability of the production.
Besides making efficient use of renewable sources of energy, this technology has many other benefits as well. Updated technology has instilled with better hardware and efficacious grid system that is more resistant to unfavorable disruptions than previous ones. These storage systems have lesser ecological footprints as they emancipate reduced carbon dioxide outflow into the air. Due to decreased degrading implications, solar power and wind power storage systems have increased economical merit in the competitive race of achieving clean energy on global level. This is the need of the hour for developing countries especially to opt for such cost efficient measures to be in this race of sustainable development achievement. Energy systems construction have lead to increment in new jobs for different individuals in the field of construction, finance, manufacture, transportation and engineering leading to enhanced sociopolitical persona of a country (Mahila et al. 2014).
Such system requires huge financial investment for establishment of the energy setup and requires to be cost affordable in terms of installation, maintenance and components. This is a big issue for developing nations to arrange such large-scale monetary inputs. Legitimate implementation and documentation is another barrier for appropriate determination of the performance and safety control measures.
Besides this, these systems need to be environmental friendly with less degrading impacts on land air and water. Furthermore, lack of industrial integration with these storage systems lags due to limited exposure and experience besides the large-scale monetary investment. Furthermore, they are extremely complex in terms of construction plant and procedure of procurement, require supplementary infrastructure, and extended space (Ellabban, Abu and Blaabjerg 2014).
Commercially available energy storage systems besides batteries:
For the sustainable development of large-scale oil and gas industries, switching to alternative storage systems besides batteries is important keeping the cost efficiency, less degrading impacts on environment and better output in consideration. Basic principle of all systems is the production and conservation of energy during the off demand and optimal supply during peak demand.
Pumped-Hydroelectric storage systems are large-scale storage system that undertakes the usage of water reservoirs for the energy production. This system requires construction of two reservoirs one at high level and another at low level. Furthermore, turbines are required to be constructed adjacent to the low-level reservoir. The fall of water leads to the production of the energy. Another storage system is Underground Pumped-Hydroelectric system that follows the same principal as that of pumped-hydroelectric system except the location of the reservoirs. For this case, one is made on the ground while another is constructed below the ground (Rehman, Al-Hadhrami and Alam 2015).
Compressed Air energy system is another storage system that undertakes the usage of air to compress it into a dynamic reserve of energy. This system requires a motor that runs turbines, compressor and generator. This motor provides optimal energy for the compressor to compress the air, turning it into the reservoir of the energy (Bagdanavicius and Jenkins 2014).
Flywheel undertakes the usage of rotational energy for the production of electricity. Flywheel system retains kinetic energy by rotating the flywheel at a high speed and disperses energy by altering the charging procedure (Genta 2014).
Thermal system undertakes the usage of warm and cold temperatures for the production of the energy. Such system undertakes production and storage of energy in the thermal reservoir. This method is one of the most favorable sources of energy production and conservation for most of the renewable sources of the energy (Soares et al. 2013).
Super conducting magnetic systems undertakes the storage of energy produced with the help of the production of the magnetic field through direct current in the coil that is superconducting in nature. Magnetic field is produced by cooling of the coil below its critical temperature (Tc) (Kangarlu and Pahlavani 2014).
The impacts on the environment of these storage systems require in-depth assessment in order to minimize the extent of any hazard to environment. Such analysis requires legitimate governance and appropriate policies and protocols with social, economical and legislative outlook in consideration.
The pumped storage hydroelectric system requires reservoir construction on two different locations not too distant from one another. Undertaking of construction project disturbs the natural habitat of many rare species categorizing them into endangered or extinct zones. Besides this, construction of these reservoirs also disrupts the human communities living in or nearby the construction area. Dam or plant construction leads to the disorganization of fishes. Irregularity in the lifespan, reproduction and body structure are some factors affected by pumped hydroelectric power plant construction. Siltation and sedimentation, sewage discharge and runoff are other factors affecting the quality of water after the completion of the lifecycle of the project. They lead to increased levels of nutrients in water further causing massive destruction of aquatic life (Oliveira et al. 2015).
Compressed air energy system is another important source of energy production and storage at a large scale. The main environmental impacts arise from energy production through air, storage of thermal energy and combustion of natural gas. Compressed air energy systems leads to increase in acidic group (H+) and decrement in hydroxyl group (OH-), increasing the acidity and further acidification of the environment. Besides this, such construction project also increases the levels of suspended particulate matter in air as these particles contributes to the global warming of the earth.
Furthermore, compressed air energy system waste products are the photochemical oxidative products, also determined as ozone (O3), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and peroxyacetyle nitrate (PAN). All three products are extremely toxic to environment as they contribute to increment in temperature ultimately causing global warming and further affecting the climate on large scale. Besides negative impacts, this project has some good affects on environment as well. This undertakes decrement in eutrophication process by reducing the toxicity and replenishing the natural resources from getting extinct (Sternberg and Bardow 2015).
Flywheel system can be implemented in such places where renewable sources of energy are deficit. The biggest disadvantage with this system is its expandable and continual storage capacity for energy. Because of this continual process of energy storage, this system becomes extremely tough to handle. Furthermore, energy preservation is an important factor that gets lost due to friction and minimization of the gyro effect due to movement of the system. The total carbon footprint for flywheel is quite high in comparison to other commercially available systems but production is also high in comparison to others (Guney and Tepe 2016).
The thermal energy system generates energy from renewable sources or leftover heat leading to the large-scale production of the energy. This carries capacity of replacing the process of energy production through the conventional method of using fossil fuels. This system reduces the ecological footprint by reducing the contents of carbon dioxide prevailing on the earth. Furthermore, it undertakes large-scale production in comparison to the fossil fuels and are lesser expensive than fossil fuels. Still cost affordability is an important barrier to the large-scale implementation of this project for energy conservation. This system also faces an issue of stability on expanded extent (Jeon et al. 2013).
Superconducting magnetic energy system is another system that can be implemented for the large-scale storage of energy. Degrading environmental impacts arises with mostly large-scale systems as instability occurs due to optimal reservation and delivery of the energy. Such instability often leads to the development and implementation of transmission lines further causing environmental degradation as these lines covers a large area for establishment. These lines play an important role in case of solar and wind power plants where they are established far away from a city especially in non-industrialized area. At the end of the lifecycle, electronic waste generated from this system leads to pollution of land (Abraham and Thomas 2016).
Cost effective measures for solar-pv and wind- turbine systems:
Countries are facing energy crisis and requires harmony between the legislation for the sustainable energy supply and consumers of it. Emerging countries are progressing in the race of sustainable development. For better resultants, these systems need to technologically updated, easy installation and straightforward. Proper undertaking of sustainable development of oil and gas industries with the help of these energy storage systems is done by effective awareness and partnership between government and consumers. Appropriate investment strategic inputs are essential for harmony and capacity building by both government and consumers.
According to the research conducted by Lai and McCulloch (2015) renewable sources of energy such as solar and wind must be supported with other energy storage systems because of their irregular presence. Solar energy with the help of photovoltaic cells contributes 60% of the total production and wind energy through turbines contributes to 15-30% of the total production. In order to increase the production percentage cost effectiveness is to be considered for both the energy sources (Lai and McCulloch 2017). Requirement from these energy sources is to increase the capacity without increasing the diminution load risk. This procedure is called as Effective Load Carrying Capability (ELCC) and it is extremely important to maintain it for increment in the effective production of the electricity. ELCC for both solar and wind energy depends upon location, photovoltaic cells, turbines, heat intensity, wind speed and time. Cost effective storage system for solar- photovoltaic cells is energy production and conservation with the help of large-scale grid power system. This system undertakes the usage of grids for the large-scale production of the energy. Such system is connected with batteries for the production and conservation of energy, storing it in low times and supplying the demand during peak times (Sioshansi, Madaeni and Denholm 2014).
Recommendation for cost efficacious energy storage system for solar-pv is a solar thermal plant integrated with photovoltaic cells is the best possible cost efficient method for energy production and conservation. Photovoltaic portion will supply the demand during the daytime and thermal plant portion will generate and store energy during the nighttime. Such hybrid will minimize the undertaking of fossil fuels further decreasing the additional costs (Calsie, d’Accadia and Piacentino 2014).
For wind-turbine, wind power plants integrated with compressed air energy system is another best possible cost efficient recommendation for energy production and conservation. This is cost efficient as energy storage price per kilowatt comes around 1 to 10 Euros. This is the only system among all that provides maximal results at minimal prices (Sun, Luo and Wang 2015).
Energy storage systems play an important role in production of large-scale energy for different industries such as oil and gas. The basic aim of these systems is the continual production of energy during day and night, further storing it during lean demand and supplying it during peak demands. Such energy systems are extremely efficacious but contain certain disadvantages on cost affordability, legitimate implementation, execution and safety, impartial impact on environment and acceptance of these systems at the industrial level.
Furthermore, different kinds of energy storage system that are available besides batteries are pumped-hydroelectric energy systems, compressed air energy system, flywheel energy system, thermal system and superconducting magnetic systems. Such systems are highly efficient in providing and storing large-scale energy production for industries such as oil and gas.
Any man made construction will have environmental impacts but determining and limiting the extent of the detrimental effects must be under control. Degradation of environment occurs by polluting the biotic components of the earth that is land, air and water.
Furthermore, cost effective measures for solar-photovoltaic is its integration with thermal energy storage systems. For wind-turbine, cost effective measure is its integration with compressed air energy storage system.
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