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Question:
Discuss about the Quantum Cryptography and Crpytanalysis.
 
 
Answer:
Introduction:

Quantum cryptography is the methodology which is used for performing cryptographic procedures used for changing the mechanical properties of the quantum. The quantum key distribution procedures are used for providing security to the problems associated with the scenario of key exchange. The most popular approaches used quantum cryptography for securing information are public key encryption techniques and the use of digital signature methodology. The cryptographic procedures can be easily completed with the use quantum cryptography (Clavis, 2009). The quantum cryptographic procedures are used for establishing quantum communication between the participating units with the use of shared keys. The quantum key distribution is the common approach which is used for managing quantum key cryptographic procedure for handling communication between the sender and the receiver. These cryptographic procedures are used for resolving the issues like eavesdropping, man in the middle attack, denial of service attack, and others (Dhammeratchi, 2013). This cryptographic method makes use of physics and mathematics fundamentals for the development of secured cryptosystem for the distribution of information.

Description of quantum cryptography:

The two principles are followed for the construction of quantum cryptography procedures which are categorised as principle of uncertainty and polarization of the photon. The principle of uncertainty is used for identifying the quantum state of the data used for encryptions. The polarisation of the photon is used for identifying the accumulation of the unknown q-bits which are used for creating the unknown quantum states (Wijisikera, 2007). The following diagram is used identifying the mechanics used for deploying the quantum cryptography.

The 0 and 1 bits are used for developing the encryption for the digital signal which is composed of photons. The quantum cryptography procedures are used for overcoming the flaws of traditional security system. Bennet brassard protocol is the commonly used protocol for deploying the quantum key distribution.

  • The photon series is send by the sender to initiate the communication with the participating units. The selection of the base state is arbitrarily done for the associated photon. The polarization of the base state is performed at an angle of 45 in any of the direction i.e. up or down and left or right (Rubya, 2010). The arbitrarily selection of the actual polarization can be performed in any direction. The incoming photons are used for detecting the occurrence of polarization at the receiver end. The base state is used for analysing the state of the photon right or wrong.
  • The direction of the polarisation does not matter in carrying out public communication by preserving the base state of the sender and the receiver. The rejection of photons helps in managing bit sequence for identifying the transmission of flow of photons with the use of information channel.
  • The following diagram shows the sequence of quantum channel between sender and receiver.
Attributes of Quantum key distribution:

The quantum key distribution is used for managing the bit sequence for the flow of photons between the participating units. The secret key is used for managing the encoding and decoding procedures at the terminal end. The strength of QKD can be measured in terms of flow of photons.

The confidentiality and accuracy of the public key and secret key should be managed. The use of key agreements is used for deploying the security architecture with the use of quantum cryptographic procedures. The principle of uncertainty is used for revealing the information related to the hindrance in the communication from the past experience. The security can be provided to the complete infrastructure with the use of distributive key management system.

The authentication provided by the quantum key distribution is based on strategically approach. The hashing policies are used for managing secret keys implied on the public key infrastructure (Makarov, 2007). The cost associated with the implementation of quantum key distribution protocol is the major challenge. The keys are automatically distributed in the complete system for providing security architecture to the resources and the infrastructure.

 
Delivery of the rapid key:

The encryption policies are used for distributing the keys for securing the complete system. The K-bits are allocated for encryption and decryption at the sender and the receiver end (Chen, 2015). The traffic can be controlled for managing the acceptability the distribution of the quantum key. The advanced encryption procedures are used for developing the secret key and the supreme key for providing security to the complete infrastructure.

The implementation of the secured communication with the use of secret key helps in managing the distribution of the quantum key all over the system (Paterson, 2004). The point to point technology are used for providing encryption techniques to resolve the issues related with the eavesdropping attack. The meshed topology is being implemented for the development of secured infrastructure. The multiple paths are created with the use of mesh topology for managing the peer to peer link between the terminologies.

The quantum key distribution protocol is efficient in analysing the flow of traffic between the participating units. The confidentiality of the data can be maintained by analysing the weak points of the security architecture.

The virtual private network is being employed for the deployment of the quantum cryptography security architecture. The integrity and confidentiality of the system can be maintained with the use of symmetric mechanism for managing the flow of traffic. The following diagram shows the architecture of implementing quantum cryptography:

Issues associated with the Quantum cryptography:

This newer technology of security has some negative aspect also. The cost of implementing the quantum cryptography in the working culture of the organization is very high because the construction is based on fibre optic material (Killor, 2014). The signal strength capability is the limitation exists with the quantum cryptography because it can send data up to 90 miles only. The heavy cost associated with the implementation of the quantum cryptosystem makes it unaffordable for the project owners. The quantum key distribution protocol does not provide the complete solution of security for the existing network. The efficiency of the QKD protocol can be decreased with the accumulation of weak coherent pulses. The security of the enterprise can be controlled by focusing on the coherent pulses.

The issue which is not taken in the consideration is the increase in the length of the channel will result into decrement in the rate of transfer. The decrement in the rate of the key will directly affect the registration of the photon. The rate of data transmission can result into the occurrence of error because the depolarization will takes place in the quantum channel. The use of QKD protocol is not easy for implementation for the practical situation (Rao, 2013). The complexity of the security system can be increased with the deployment of quantum cryptography technique in the working culture of the organization because the employees are well-versed in using the traditional public key infrastructure for the security purpose.

Impact of Quantum cryptography on Real world:

The high level security is provided to the resources of the enterprise with the implementation of the quantum cryptography tactics. It is difficult for the hacker to break the quantum cryptosystem and hack the files of the user. The speed of developing encrypted data is very high. The photons can be transmitted to the longer distance. It is capable of removing uncertainty associated with the system to make the system functional without any complexity. It is easy to implement in the working system of the enterprise for providing security to the infrastructure and the resources associated with it. The maintainability of the resources can be easily handled. The eavesdropping, denial of service attack, and Spoofing attack can be easily detected with the use of this technology. The level of error occurred due to eavesdropper is detected by comparing it with the quantum error level. The laws of quantum mechanics are used for setting standards of error for quantum cryptography. The sifting process is used for analysing the failure occurred in the distribution of K-bits (Kulkarni, 2012). The interception of dependency of data helps in analysing the facts associated with the error occurred in the traditional working system. The supreme key is used for transforming the simple text with the cipher text. The supreme key is developed for providing encryption to the text for increasing the level of security. The quantum key distribution protocol is used for providing security to the resources and the infrastructure of the enterprise. The amplification of the security and privacy procedure can be easily done with the use of quantum cryptography technique.

From the research, we analysed that the quantum cryptography is the efficient technology in providing security to the resources and the infrastructure of the enterprise. The mesh topology and virtual private network are used for the implementation of the quantum cryptosystem.

Conclusion:

The quantum cryptography procedures are used for overcoming the flaws of traditional security system. Bennet brassard protocol is the commonly used protocol for deploying the quantum key distribution. It is capable of removing uncertainty associated with the system to make the system functional without any complexity. he traffic can be controlled for managing the acceptability the distribution of the quantum key.

 
References:

Chen, L. (2015). Quantum safe cryptography and security. Retrieved from https://www.etsi.org/images/files/ETSIWhitePapers/QuantumSafeWhitepaper.pdf

Clavis, J. (2009). Understanding Quantum crpytography. Retrieved from https://www.idquantique.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/clavis2-whitepaper.pdf

Dhammeratchi, D. (2013). Need for quantum cryptography. Retrieved from https://aircconline.com/ijaia/V6N5/6515ijaia07.pdf

Killor, P. (2014). Quantum cryptography: Realizing next generation information security. Retrieved from https://ijaiem.org/volume3issue2/IJAIEM-2014-02-28-090.pdf

Kulkarni, D. (2012). Research direction in quantum cryptography and quntum key distribution. Retrieved from https://www.ijsrp.org/research_paper_jun2012/ijsrp-June-2012-105.pdf

Makarov, V. (2007). Quantum cryptography and quantum crpytanalysis. Retrieved from https://www.vad1.com/publications/phd-thesis-makarov-200703-photos300dpi.pdf

Paterson, K. (2004). A quantum cryptography: A practical information security perspective. Retrieved from https://eprint.iacr.org/2004/156.pdf

Rao, S. (2013). Quantum cryptography. Retrieved from https://cs.stanford.edu/people/adityaj/QuantumCryptography.pdf

Rubya, T. (2010). A survey on recent security trends using quantum cryptography. Retrieved from https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.301.7040&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Wijisikera, S. (2007). Quantum cryptography for secure communication. Retrieved from https://ws680.nist.gov/publication/get_pdf.cfm?pub_id=906716

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