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The Applied Science Model

Discuss about the Role Of Teacher Professional Development.

Name three models of Second Language Teacher Education discussed by Penny Ur, and fill in the table below


Main features


Draw backs

Applied science

-Model heavily based on transmission of languages of knowledge

-Teaching perceived as training

-uses pedagogical content knowledge

-The model is applied in to practice as prescribed exercises hence enabling learners to practice what they learn.

-The model ignores the key component of knowledge base which pays attention to context.

-model found in Inset courses rather than Preset courses

Craft model

-concept of learning by demonstration

-Practical aspects of teaching

-context-bound knowledge

-linked with art-craft conception

-observation enables learners to learn effectively from teachers who are very experienced.

-the model can transfer obsolete methods with no relation with a set of goals

-no room for generalization

-model found in INSET rather than PRESET

Reflective model

-Problems in praxis are framed for reflection and understanding of action

-schemes for practice

-Students are introduced into the action plan


-Dependent on personal experience

-Trainees may find difficulties in drawing connection between theory and reflection

What do you think is the most suitable model for Teacher Development in the 21st Century? Is one model better than the others or do they contribute to each other? Why do you think so?

I think reflective model is suitable model for teacher development in 21st century. The model creates awareness to teachers about decision-making process assisting them in determining the effects of their decision in the context to which they are implemented. The models is also broad in scope as it creates a room for investigations, clarifications of  classroom process and individuality theories of learning rather than relying on a specific teaching method. Furthermore, the model creates and provides opportunities for teachers to have a solution which is self-defined for a certain classroom problem. According to Ryan & Ryan (2013), reflective model treats teachers as a co-participant but not passive participants therefore boost career development of a teacher and student quickly.

According to Tsui, what are the 3 main phases of teacher professional development in the course of their career? Complete the table below:



Main Characteristics/adjectives


a)Good phase full of anxiety as one  enters into teaching career

Entry into teaching career

Mastering of basic knowledge and skills

b) Bad phase for the teachers who are not prepared to face challenges in curriculum activities.

Initial survival


a)good phase as one is prepared for increased responsibility

Exploration and Diversification  phase

Continuing development of the professionalism

b) Bad phase for those who have insufficient skills to handle great challenge in the career.

High motivations with New ideas


c)good face shortly after one is mandated increased responsibility


Outcome disappointments

d) If one is not fully committed into the career the face is full of disappointed.

According to Amy, what are the main contributory factors and sources that shape teacher professional development process? What are the consequences of these factors or what impact do they have on the process of teacher professional development?

The main contributing factors and sources that shape teachers development process include social environment, personal experiences and organizational influences. Each factor has different consequences to the teacher professional development. Personal experience have positive impacts of catalyzing career development as teachers are exposed to promotions and solving problems skills which occurs in school during the phase. Further researches by Morgan & Hansen (2008) have shown that teachers with highest experience in teaching have high ability of solving problems and are likely to occupy top position in the education sectors than the beginners. However, the personal experience can still result to internal conflict with other teachers due to competition for leadership position in the school. Furthermore when one when one has limited experience in teaching field it becomes hard for him to fully deliver the responsibilities as required.

The social environment and organizational influences impacts learning teaching environment and the ability of teachers to participate in the classes. For example, the frequent meetings or games may lower the rate of teachers to participate in classes and lack to accomplish their responsibilities and goals for learning. School which is involved in too much co-curriculum activities is likely to have poor performance as teachers are likely to have low participation in classes (Cobern, 2012).

The Craft Model

The functioning and roles of schools are changing in many countries around the world, hence teachers are also expected to change. With the current increasing migration and immigration rates, teachers are teaching classrooms that are diverse and multicultural. In addition, they are doing more to involve and engage parents in school, engaging more in planning accountability and evaluative frameworks, making communication and information technologies used in the classrooms more effective, and putting more emphasis on integrating students with needs for special learning in the classrooms (Comber, 2016).

According to Fullan (2012), pre-service training of teachers is effective but it cannot be depended upon for the full preparation of teachers for all kinds of challenges they will encounter in their careers. Therefore, systems of education go to great lengths in trying to provide teachers the opportunity for professional development while still in service in order to maintain a high teaching standard and for the retaining of a workforce of highly qualified teachers. Development programs that are successful are based on the involvement of teachers in learning sessions which simulate a real-life encounter with students and encourages the development of learning communities for teachers (Van & Berry, 2012).Therefore, the essay seeks to establish the role of teacher professional development and the importance of teachers as learners and life-long agents for change.

The intensity of participation may be different among teachers since the rates of participation are generally high and may differ even across countries. The participation intensity is measured in terms of the professional development days in which educators have reported to have taken during the period of the survey (Butler& Schnellert, 2012).Teachers learn better through professional development activities that address their needs to become lifelong adult learners and share their knowledge with the student and community. According to Badri, Alnuaimi, Mohaidat, Yang & Rashedi (2016), the professional development participation and needs influence many students in different ways as they tend to focus on improving children with special needs. Furthermore, participation enacts change in school administration side by suggesting and managing budgets, managing the classrooms and search where there is a need for allocating resources. Teachers can also guide the beginner teachers by improving their professionalism through citing necessary activities for them such as class planning, working with district rules and managing different behaviors of the students. According to Kopcha (2012), teacher’s empowerment develops expertise in subject matter technologies and all necessary elements which may lead to quality teaching and improvement of student learning activity and their environment.

The Reflective Model

In our modern society, teachers are recognized as agents of change despite some critics from an individual’s point of view. According to Kalantzis & Cope (2012), change is a spirit of learning on doing things differently, and involving amendments to several elements of practice in the classroom and everyone is a change agent in education quality.

Teachers’ role as change agents is important in the implementation of knowledge to students so as to become active and responsible citizens in the society. The teachers need to become “knowledge workers” for effective operation within their organizational environment so as to implement change. As Reinhardt, Schmidt, Sloep & Drachsler (2011) states it, a “knowledge worker” is a trained person to use systematically organized knowledge and can make knowledge productive in a systematic way. The “knowledge workers” possess different types of skills which are of great importance to a change agent and the knowledge teaches community on problem-solving skills to plan change. Furthermore, it’s only through a thorough preparation of knowledge that teachers can be a role of change agent with successful implementation of change.

Teachers committed to their role as agents of change by fostering a “health promoting school” with curriculum design and school policies can provide a nurturing cultural-enrichment environment where children can fully develop emotional and behavioral maturity, moral awareness, physical well-being, language richness and social confidence (Priestley, Edwards, Priestley & Miller, 2012).

Teachers play a role of transformation as they act as a receiver and implementer of practices and strategies formulated by others (Tomlinson, Brimijoin & Narvaez, 2008). For example, principle changes initiatives or national policy efforts which formulate change in the community. According to Margolis & Huggins (2012), teachers are the leaders of initiating official’s reforms and their roles have more value on the school's context rather than the potential of teachers to enhance change independently. However, it is hard for teachers to implement changes and provide an improvement to schools without the assistance of traditional leaders. Furthermore, teachers should enforce new roles which are more consistent with the twenty-first century’s learning framework and can provide improved services to schools where teachers are dynamic than recipients and dedicated to school.

Professional development provides teachers with opportunities which are ongoing so that they can improve their skills and knowledge in order to assist the students to achieve since the students learn when teachers learn more (Bergh, Ros & Beijaard,2015) .The government has a responsibility of ensuring that teachers take part in exercises of effective professional development. Parents and citizens, in general, should support and demand high quality and intensive teachers’ professional development so as to ensure better teaching, a higher performance by students, and improved student leadership. According to Frost (2012), the boards which manage schools should ensure that the professional development’s purpose is to improve the way in which students and their teachers learn, and should hold teachers accountable for the results of their students.

Phases of Teacher Professional Development

Administrators of school systems should support and encourage each school in taking the responsibility of teachers’ professional development while still providing teacher facilitation and time so as to ensure that the teachers are better placed to handle the learning problems of students. Teachers who facilitate and organize professional development should understand the learning needs of students which the teachers are having difficulties explaining to students. Moreover, throughout their careers, administrators, and teachers should conscientiously undertake professional learning so as to improve the knowledge and skills to improve the students ‘performance (Vries, Jansen & Grift, 2013).

Teachers are required to exercise autonomy and agency decisions for creating, initiating and critiquing curriculum awareness and practices that enhance them to make informed choices and solve the social-cultural problems that affect learning in the community. According to Troyna & Carrington (2011), many education institutions accommodate different students abroad with diverse religious and cultures and the majority of them fall victims of racism and harassments. Teachers must have firm decisions towards protecting the minor students from all source of discrimination or harassment and support students regardless of their race hence influencing other students to change their perceptions and attitude towards students from other races.

Furthermore, when teachers take and exercise autonomy and agencies decision they promote the ability of a learner to be involved in self-assessment as they provide opportunities to students to individualize their experiences in learning as well as the development of skills for them to become autonomous learners. According to Croker & Ashurova (2011), the development of self –assessment is an important component as it allows learners to become responsible and self-reliant for their learning.

According to Hargreaves & Fullan (2012), organizers of professional development for teachers tend to perform their duties in an approach which alienates rather than assist and energize teachers. Teachers’ professional development organizers may be unclear about specific improvements in student and teacher performance that should be expected, or may not determine carefully the steps that will lead to the required levels of performance. Additionally, teachers often complain of their set requirement of participating in professional development that does not directly address the real challenges they face in their career. In that regard, teachers usually complain of a professional development system which is based on ‘one-size-fits-all’ phenomena, which does not take into account the diversity of schools and students (Johnson, 2012). Additionally, professional development of teachers does not consider teachers’ different motivation levels, skills, knowledge, and interest. Therefore, ineffectively implemented and poorly conceived professional development leads to complaints. Nevertheless, school systems information is adequate, with schools which effectively organize teachers’ professional development achieving impressive results. Well organized professional development is valued by teachers, rather than complaining about the program (Bayar, 2014).

Factors and Sources that Shape Teacher Professional Development


Currently, there is a conception of ‘good’ teacher professional development which comprises of collections of specific feature designs with a belief that is based on an increased nuanced understanding of the role of teachers, how they learn and grow, and what motivates them. In addition, teachers have conceptualized as people who possess their own interests and motivations (Stigler & Hiebert, 2009).The importance of professional development of teachers, as discussed, has reflected the need of the intellectual engagement of teachers with the content of professional development, rather than presenting prescriptions that are simple or presenting knowledge bodies. Moreover, program effectiveness differences as compared to the training of teachers in regard to school and students diversity should also be addressed. Professional development should motivate and intellectually engage teachers, and be administered in a way that is meaningful. The approach is important especially in the 21st century where teachers usually receive a lot of messages regarding their conduct and whereby the messages compete for the attention of teachers (Watson, 2014). Professional development should be tailored in a way that it does not add noise to the working environment of teachers but rather promotes real learning.


Badri, M., Alnuaimi, A., Mohaidat, J., Yang, G., & Al Rashedi, A. (2016). Perception of teachers’ professional development needs, impacts, and barriers: The abudhabi case. SAGE Open, 6(3), 2158244016662901.

Bayar, A. (2014). The Components of Effective Professional Development Activities in Terms of Teachers' Perspective. Online Submission, 6(2), 319-327.

Bergh, L., Ros, A., &Beijaard, D. (2015). Teacher learning in the context of a continuing professional development programme: A case study. Teaching and teacher education, 47, 142-150.

Butler, D. L., & Schnellert, L. (2012). Collaborative inquiry in teacher professional development. Teaching and teacher education, 28(8), 1206-1220.

Cobern, W. W. (2012). Contextual constructivism: The impact of culture on the learning and teaching of science. In The practice of constructivism in science education (pp. 67-86). Routledge.

Comber, B. (2016). Poverty, place and pedagogy in education: research stories from front-line workers. The Australian Educational Researcher, 43(4), 393-417.

Croker, R., & Ashurova, U. (2011). Scaffolding students’ initial self-access language centre experiences. Reading.

Frost, D. (2012). From professional development to system change: teacher leadership and innovation. Professional development in education, 38(2), 205-227.

Fullan, M. (2012). Change forces: Probing the depths of educational reform. Routledge.

Hargreaves, A., &Fullan, M. (2012). Professional capital: Transforming teaching in every school. Teachers College Press.

Johnson, S. M. (2012). Having it both ways: Building the capacity of individual teachers and their schools. Harvard Educational Review, 82(1), 107-122.

Kalantzis, M., & Cope, B. (2012). New learning: Elements of a science of education. Cambridge University Press.

Kopcha, T. J. (2012). Teachers' perceptions of the barriers to technology integration and practices with technology under situated professional development. Computers & Education, 59(4), 1109-1121.

Margolis, J., & Huggins, K. S. (2012). Distributed but Undefined: New Teacher Leader Roles to Change Schools. Journal of School Leadership, 22(5).

Morgan, P. J., & Hansen, V. (2008). Classroom teachers' perceptions of the impact of barriers to teaching physical education on the quality of physical education programs. Research quarterly for exercise and sport, 79(4), 506-516.

Priestley, M., Edwards, R., Priestley, A., & Miller, K. (2012). Teacher agency in curriculum making: Agents of change and spaces for manoeuvre. Curriculum Inquiry, 42(2), 191-214.

Ryan, M., & Ryan, M. (2013). Theorising a model for teaching and assessing reflective learning in higher education. Higher Education Research & Development, 32(2), 244-257.

Reinhardt, W., Schmidt, B., Sloep, P., &Drachsler, H. (2011). Knowledge worker roles and actions—results of two empirical studies. Knowledge and Process Management, 18(3), 150-174.

Stigler, J. W., & Hiebert, J. (2009). The teaching gap: Best ideas from the world's teachers for improving education in the classroom. Simon and Schuster.

Tomlinson, C. A., Brimijoin, K., & Narvaez, L. (2008). The differentiated school: Making revolutionary changes in teaching and learning. ASCD.

Troyna, B., & Carrington, B. (2011). Education, racism and reform (Vol. 123). Routledge.

Van Driel, J. H., & Berry, A. (2012). Teacher professional development focusing on pedagogical content knowledge. Educational researcher Management , 41(1), 26-28.

Vries, S., Jansen, E. P., & van de Grift, W. J. (2013). Profiling teachers' continuing professional development and the relation with their beliefs about learning and teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 33, 78-89.

Watson, C. (2014). Effective professional learning communities? The possibilities for teachers as agents of change in schools. British Educational Research Journal, 40(1), 18-29.

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