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Environmental impact of tourism on the coastal and marine regions

Question:

Discuss about the Tourism Planning Environment and Issue.

Around 5% of the global economy is contributed by the tourism industry with an estimated annual growth of 6.2%. As mentioned by Gladstone, Curley and Shokri (2012), analyzing the impact of tourism on the environment is hardly studied despite the adverse consequences. According to this journal, it can be seen that the coastal regions attract the high number of tourists, as this allows the tourists to enjoy both the scenic beauty of sea and land. The tourism related issue discussed in this journal is to evaluate the impact of tourism on the environment. According to the journals, it can be said that tourism imposes a severe threat to the environment. Moreover, this journal specifically highlights the environmental impacts on the gulf coastal region. Increase in the number of tourists in the gulf coastal area has increased to 22.9 million. Due to the increase in the number of tourists, gulf countries had build suitable, comfortable and adequate number of infrastructures. An excessive number of infrastructure within a limited time in the gulf region has resulted in the loss of coral reefs, wetlands, sandy embayment and mangrove forests. As a result, the loss of habitat in the coastal region is prevalent. The activity undertaken and performed by the tourists such as SCUBA diving poses potential threats to the marine species due to the boats. Environmental damage also includes coral breakage and damage along with littering the marine and the coastal environment. 

However, as argued by Lee and Brahmasrene (2013), tourism poses an adverse environmental hazard by facilitating a higher rate of carbon dioxide emission. The journal demonstrates a close relationship between economic growth and emission of carbon dioxide. As tourism contributes largely to the overall economic growth of a country, the environmental impact also increases. Due to the economic growth of the country, the rate of development within the country reaches its peak. The government emphasizes on using the money gathered from tourism for developing their nations without considering the environmental impact. Moreover, the tourists also impose a subsequent threat to the environment of the host country. For example, excess use of transport facilities by the tourists for exploring the cultures and heritage of the host country contributes to the carbon emission. This one aspect is difficult if control, as the tourists visit host countries for relaxing and fun and avails comfortable, relaxing and luxuries measures for exploring the host country. Therefore, use of more transport facilities results in increased carbon emission for the host country. On the other hand, new business establishments such as factories and industries are facilitated due to increased GDP of the host country due to tourism. Though the new business ventures contribute to the economy and employment of the country, the environmental aspect lacks sufficient consideration. The gases released by the industries and factories are highly toxic and consists of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide that is extremely harmful to the environment. Therefore, it can be said tourism contributes largely to the carbon dioxide emission thereby, posing a severe threat to the environment. 

Adverse consequences of tourism growth on the environment

As mentioned by Gladstone, Curley and Shokri (2012), tourism poses a severe threat to the coastal and marine environment of the host country. However, as argued by Lee and Brahmasrene (2013), tourism results in the economic growth of the country that has a detrimental effect on the environment. Tourism contributes greatly towards increasing the GDP of the country. The government of the countries uses various promotional strategies to attract people from around the world. This is a business strategy undertaken by the countries and their government to increase the economy. More the number of tourists more will the economy of the countries. Therefore, the economy collected by the government from the tourism sector is used by the government for developing and shaping their own country by developing employment, providing educational needs and building business for the country. The GDP gathered from the tourism industry is used by the country to facilitate the growth of buildings, factories, and industries. The growth of industries and factories contributes largely to the carbon emission of the country. The researcher to accumulate data from 22 countries used secondary data from 1988 to 2009. Use of secondary data collection technique allowed the researcher to compare and contrast of the rate of carbon dioxide emission over the years. As a result of the comparison, the researcher was able to conclude that the rate of carbon dioxide emission has increased due to the economic growth of the country due to the tourism sector. However, the researcher could have also used primary data collection technique to understand the present view of the tourists and the governmental officials on the impact of tourism sector on increased carbon emission.

On the other hand, Gladstone, Curley and Shokri (2012), discusses that tourism adversely affects the marine and coastal environment more compared to any other environmental aspect. The tourists perform a variety of fun loving and relaxing activities in the water without considering the marine ecosystem. Additionally, even the host country does not consider the potential threats that the marine ecosystem encounters due to the leisure activities offered by them to the tourists. The leisure tourist activities pose severe threats for on the marine life that includes both marine flora and fauna. Due to activities such as scuba diving, boating, and river rafting, the bottom of the water bodies is hampered and damaged. The increased amount of excitement and surface tension due to the water activities also disturbs the life of the marine fauna. For example, breakage and damage of the coral reefs are highly noticed. In order to accommodate and provide comfortable facilities for the increased number of tourists, the government permits the organizations for construction in the areas thereby, hampering the coastal environment. The researcher compared the records of the total number of tourists that visit the Gulf or coastal areas with the water activities preferred by the tourists. The comparison thereby, helped the researcher to determine the water sport that causes the major hazards in the coastal regions.

Carbon dioxide emission and other ecological hazards due to tourism

After critically evaluating both the journals, I have learned that tourism has potential threats on the environment. According to me, the government and the organizations of the countries emphasize more on increasing their tourism, as tourism increment will eventually result in economic growth. Moreover, the organizations and government of the country also emphasizes on providing luxurious facilities and comforts to the tourists. This is because the country wants to create an overwhelming image of their tourism thereby, attracting more visitors. As a result, the tourists’ spots have seen an increased number of hotels and restaurants with time. However, the government and the organizations fail to consider the impact of tourism activities and development on the environment. According to me, the government of the country needs to promote sustainable tourism for the visitors. Sustainability will help in maintaining tourism by facilitating economic growth but avoiding adverse environmental impact. Both the journals emphasize on the adverse impact of tourism on the environment both in terms of marine and air. The journals also compare and contrast the previous and recent data in order to evaluate whether adverse impact of tourism on the environment has increased or decreased. Furthermore, the journals also discuss the major cause and effect of environmental hazard due to tourism. However, on the contrary, the journals fail to shed light on the possible recommendations that can be used by the organizations to conduct tourism without hampering the environment. The journals fail to mention the sustainable strategies that could be possibly used by the government and the organizations for conducting tourism.

Both the journals helped me in gaining knowledge about the present scenario of the impact of tourism on the environment. According to me, sustainable strategies need to be developed and implemented by the government and the country for conducting the tourism. As discussed in one of the journals tourism transport leads to excessive amount carbon dioxide emission. Therefore, as a sustainable strategy, the country can allow the tourists the use of battery cars or bicycles for exploring the country. This will provide an opportunity for the country to provide healthy and environmentally friendly tourism experience. From the journals, I have learned that tourism is an important aspect of the economy of the country, as it helps in increasing the overall GDP. Therefore, more tourism states more economic growth for the countries. The journals have helped in providing me with adequate knowledge about the adverse impact of tourism on the environment. From the journals, I have also learned that the adverse impact of tourism on the environment has increased from the past years. This is because of the ignorance among the tourists about the impact of tourism on the environment. Therefore, according to me, the government of the host and the home country need to emphasize of spreading awareness about the adverse impact of tourism of the environment along with promoting tourism of the country. Spreading awareness among the tourists will help in prohibiting and mitigating the major activities related to tourism thereby, reducing the adverse environmental impact. 

References

Gladstone, W., Curley, B. and Shokri, M.R., 2012. Environmental impacts of tourism in the Gulf and the Red Sea.

Lee, J.W. and Brahmasrene, T., 2013. Investigating the influence of tourism on economic growth and carbon emissions: Evidence from panel analysis of the European Union. Tourism Management, 38, pp.69-76.

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My Assignment Help (2018) Critical Review: Tourism's Impact On Environment - An Essay. [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/tourism-planning-environment-and-issue
[Accessed 02 March 2024].

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My Assignment Help. Critical Review: Tourism's Impact On Environment - An Essay. [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2018 [cited 02 March 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/tourism-planning-environment-and-issue.

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