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Write plan to promote a nations or place (city) you have chosen. Make sure you include you aims of cultural projection and how you will use them and a statement of the advantages you hold and challenges you face.

This module is Cultural Diplomacy and International Relations, the above links are very important most be used.

The History of Cultural Diplomacy

Over the past decades, individuals fight for rights and freedom occurred in many countries. Various networks helped solve these conflicts that made peaceful revolutions to happen. Discrimination is no longer considered, a new aspect began with the distribution of communication and information technologies. Hence, a new way of management has to come. Regarding the beliefs and cultures of every individual, democracy has to show its significance. Cultural diplomacy can help enhance new thoughts, based on individuals knowledge, to choose individuals from different generations, cultures, work backgrounds and civilization, to meet, not only in the social media but as real individuals with their own values and thoughts. Moreover, cultural diplomacy can help us to be ready for changes and upcoming conflicts so as to be prepare for the appropriate solutions (Stoica & Pantea 2014). Cultural diplomacy is an instrument for a new strategy of political action that enhances communication between continents, nations and generations. Culture can make a difference, by informing us which proposal should be put in place in order to reconcile individuals with themselves, to enhance peace when the economy has failed, shortage of funding and when political systems are not appropriate.  Furthermore, cultural diplomacy can help enhance relations between individuals. This paper is a discussion of the role of cultural diplomacy in promoting international relations.

In 1934, the British Council for Relations with other nations was developed, by the Foreign Ministry of the United Kingdom. Its objective was to provide a new and alternative aspect to the traditional conduct of foreign affairs (Bound 2007). During that time, it was referred to as “Cultural Propaganda” and mostly explained as the dissemination of the British ideas and beliefs in particular instead of specifically political strategy. Many individuals believed that the cultural propaganda would not only help enhance British influence and culture abroad, but also promote international peace and understanding. At the beginning, the British council concentrated on English education abroad and promoting British culture through funding musical troupes, lecture tours and art events. This led to the creation of Ministry of Information as many workplaces in abroad gathered data about opportunities, local conditions and openness to British individuals in 1939 (Dittmer & McConnell, 2015). The British council stipulates that its objectives is to create mutual beneficial relations between individuals in the country and other nations. Also, to encourage people to appreciate the nation’s creative ideas and achievements. Cultural diplomacy has benefited the United Kingdom by enhancing trade, diplomatic, political and economic interests, improving bilateral relations across the globe. In addition, not only has the cultural diplomacy advanced the interests of other nations, but also the nation enhancing the diplomacy.           

Additionally, cultural diplomacy plays a significant role in enhancing relations among different states contemporary international relations. Moreover, it is an effective tool in promoting national foreign policy objectives especially during political difficulties.  According to Clarke, it can be explained as the exchange of art, information, ideas, and other approaches of culture among countries and their citizens in order to enhance mutual understanding. In general, cultural diplomacy is viewed as a category of public diplomacy (Clarke 2016). In addition, it assists the operation of nation’s culture through supporting its foreign policy objectives, to regulate stereotyping, enhance mutual understanding and improve national reputation and relations across the region.

Benefits of Cultural Diplomacy in International Relations

Sehic argues that during hard times, cultural diplomacy keeps doors open. Cultural diplomacy can help establish and support relations between nations, it is very different from military capabilities, laws and agreements, bilateral agreements and multilateral structures (Sehic 2013). It is important to note that cultural diplomacy promotes a secure and appropriate aspects for relationships-building or providing solutions to strenuous relations. For example, London’s Royal Academy of Arts partnered with the Palace Museum in Beijing to open an event on China: The three Emperors, which created more attention of the British people on Chinese culture. It also gave a proper environment for the visit of the president of China Hu Jintao to open an event alongside the Queen. Nevertheless, during times of tension, where there are difficulties with formal diplomatic negotiations, culture can help control the tension until the relationship improves. For instance, when there was a problem with the UK-Iran bilateral agreement in 2005 after the election of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, the cultural organisations in Britain were able to continue working in Iran, the British Council to be more settled on the region of Iran as compared to BBC, and therefore maintaining a good relationship between the two countries (Udovi? & Podgornik, 2016. Many nations aim to move and advance their cultural institutions in western countries as part of their diplomatic methods. For instance, India is building its council for Cultural Relations in Paris and Washington alongside the existing workstations as a major project of the nation’s growing power in the world. In relation to this, France has nearly 436 cultural organization in the world, of which 283 are the Alliances Francaises which focus on promoting culture and French language on a global level, with many of the cultural diplomacy events financed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Furthermore, cultural diplomacy is a significant approach of foreign policy, which enhances effectively to the diverse integration and building relations among countries and their cultures (Anholt 2010).   

Cultural diplomacy is important as it promotes cultural exchanges between individuals to enhance a national cultures. Moreover, it has inspired individuals globally despite political impacts and national borders as soft power will be created through cultural diplomacy. In addition, it has enhanced agreement in people’s diplomacy regarding mutual understandings of interests in culture (Woolcock, 2013). However, the emerging information technologies are having an effect on the way policy makers would relate with the public. It also impacts national identity since a new culture has been created in cyberspace and both the regional and personal identities are affected. All in all, cultural identity of a country has been embraced because of the rapid involving information technologies. The objective of diplomacy is guide and protect the interests of individuals, states and to enhance global values and norms featuring the increasing sense of society of states and international integration. Modern diplomacy is a law-managing activity that involves representation, negotiation and communication between countries and international institutions. Additionally, these laws help prevent or resolve conflicts (Stoica & Pantea 2014).   

Challenges of Implementing Cultural Diplomacy

To conclude, cultural diplomacy plays an important role in international relations. It can also help establish and support relations between nations, it is very different from military capabilities, laws and agreements, bilateral agreements and multilateral structures. This is as result of connective, wide human ethics that culture has. Also, it is an effective tool in promoting national foreign policy objectives especially during issues involving politics. Culture is the major way by which we communicate and understand each other and an approach of life with benefits that we enjoy and look for. It is significant to create awareness of intercultural differences, this will allow the diplomats to promote each culture equally and to be familiar with individuals’ cultural background. Culture is an expression of one’s identity therefore should be treated with respect.  Cultural exchange enables us to respect the points of origin and where there are issues, to understand the objectives and humanity that constitute them (Özkan 2014). The purpose of diplomacy is guide and secure the interests of persons, countries and to enhance global values and ethics characterizing the increasing sense of community of states and international integration. Due to the increasing political pressure on domestic and international exchanges, these aspects make culture a crucial tool for negotiations and a method of exchange in finding common solutions. In addition, cultural contract gives an approach for building unofficial political relationships by keeping open bargaining methods between nations where there are problems in political linkages, and helps to recreate relations for diverse times with developing powers such as China and India. Therefore, future alliances will be built along lies of cultural understanding because they are on geographic and economic ones. However, the emerging information technologies are having an effect on the way policy makers would relate with the public    

References

Dinnie, Keith, ed. (2011) City Branding: Theory and Cases, Palgrave Macmillan

Sehic, Tatiana, Soft Power of Cultural Diplomacy (2013), Vindobona Verlag

Bound, Kirsten, Rachel Briggs, John Holden, and Samuel Jones (2007) Cultural Diplomacy: Culture is a Central Component of International Relations, Demos

Clarke, D., 2016. Theorising the role of cultural products in cultural diplomacy from a cultural studies perspective. International journal of cultural policy, 22(2), pp.147-163.

Anholt, Simon (2010) Places: Identity, Image and Reputation, Palgrave Macmillan

Stoica, A. and Pantea, D., 2014. The role of cultural diplomacy in contemporary crises and conflict reconciliation. Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai-Studia Europaea, (1), pp.219-230.

Udovi?, B. and Podgornik, A., 2016. Cultural Diplomacy of Slavic European Union Member States: A Cross-country Analysis. Baltic Journal of European Studies, 6(2), pp.117-136.

Özkan, A., 2014. Role of public diplomacy in establishing nation branding and public diplomacy possibilities of Turkey. International Association of Social Science Research.

Dittmer, J. and McConnell, F. eds., 2015. Diplomatic cultures and international politics: translations, spaces and alternatives. Routledge.

Woolcock, S., 2013. European Union economic diplomacy: the role of the EU in external economic relations. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd..

Ma, R.I., 2015. Cultural Diplomacy in ASEAN: Collaborative Efforts. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 5(4), p.394.

Ryan, E., 2016. The Connectivity of Culture: Innovating in Cultural Diplomacy. Harvard International Review, 37(2), p.28.

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