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Introduction: Promoting the Nursing Profession

The emergence of theories in the nursing workforce has been facilitated greatly by the various progression in the nursing education. These progressions due to the introduction of different disciplines in the academic and professions. The theories promote an autonomy especially when applies as a guideline in making decisions and thinking critically. The main objective of this piece of work is to analyze critically the theory of caring presented by Watson. The article will also try to illustrate the theory of Watson. For a decade of years, many people have chosen to nurse as profession and career. A research done has shown different rationales and the basis to contemplate on nursing profession (Watson 2012).  Though compassion and the cognitive behaviour is very vital in the nursing workforce. The compassion is more important because of the responses and impetus justification that patient's care is the most fundamental goal and must be given first priority.

 The article will look into the fundamental necessities of every patient which include food, shelter, clothes and healthcare. Hence every nurse is obliged to take all these basic needs into consideration while carrying his or her duties. Watson's theory has therefore scrutinized greatly the roles of nurses in the healthcare. The theory has taken care of how nursing practices can be advanced in order to elevate the well-being of the patients and clients. Watson theory can, therefore, become effective if the seven assumptions are adhered to. The article has also revealed that the primary needs of the patients are connected to the four basic concepts of the Watson theory. Nursing health care, individual patients and the environment have also constituted the universal nursing procedures. The emanation of the Watson's theory has tried to analyze the gain and the way people view nursing profession globally. The theory views the art differently from other proposed theory (Dossey et 2012) 

The theory has emphasized on the understanding oneself deeply and human to the human relationship which results to the harmony of the soul, mind and body health. The caring science theory by Watson and the science of philosophy are felicitous philosophy in developing the nursing workforce. The Watson theory article has vividly proven to nurse to be science and an art. The fact to this is through the application of the theory in nursing procedures, various methodologies, education and researches (Swanson 2012).

 The nursing procedures guided by the Watson theory incorporated similar scientific research steps, analysis, intervention and plans. The Watson theory tries to endorse the analysis of identification, reviewing of the problems and observations and also formulating the research questions. Their nursing practitioners have to come up with the plan that aid in determining the variables that would be used for investigation and the kind of data to be collected. Then the data is examined and the results are used in formulating research questions.

Background: The Emergence of Theories in Nursing Practice

 The nursing profession is viewed differently traditionally. For many years the nursing profession people regarded it as the ladylike job in its innate characteristics. It's due to it tradition concepts developed of taking care of the sick for decades. Hence nursing profession has remained as a stereotyped to be dominated by many females. Other than the feminized view of nursing traditionally, Lachman (2012) views nursing as a form of ritual. For instance, washing hands for disease-causing micro-organism control and other self-preparation before getting the ward. 

Watson theory depicted the Caritas procedures as the one to cultivate equanimity, kindness and love. A nurse is not allowed to get into Caritas procedures for healthcare with no personal preparation. Developing trust and good preparation is among the many Caritas procedures described by Watson. Personal preparedness is vital for any nursing practitioner since there need to understand the best practices in order to offer appropriate safety, quality and competency to their clients. According to Ray (2012), there are significant roles of the nursing theories. These include the nursing researchers, patient examinations, interventions and diagnosis. The theories have contributed much to improve the nursing quality and the value. The theories have paved way for the communication procedures and incorporated other disciplines that involve the healthcare. Watson nursing theory has supported the nursing profession autonomous, reliability, responsibilities and the advancement of the healthcare practices (Reed, 2017). 


The goals and objectives of the project have a lot to do with the differences between the self-experienced and the self-perceived. An individual will get ill only when there is a disunity within

the soul, body and mind (Alligood 2017). In this case, the illness does not necessarily mean a

sickness or a disease. It may be some kind of uncertainty of the unconscious and conscious of a

person.  It helps nurses to gain the autonomy and the freedom in the context of their professional

requirements and responsibilities. The concept of the Watson's theory validity is fully elaborated

on the bases of strengths and weakness. The two antagonistic factors are used to give Watson's

theory the determination of its application in terms of utilitarianism in the field of nursing (Watson

et al 2012). 

The theory is quite appealing due to the emphasis it put on the philosophy of caring instead of a specific situational theory. This gives some room for it to be used in almost all areas of the nursing field. Wanton's theory has been widely used recently by the medical practitioners due to their desire and needs to come up with a holistic  ethod towards the health care. The current popularity of the ‘science of caring' has influenced some scholars like Tomey and Marriner to notethat there is some increase in the number of articles offering nursing care that reference to Watson.They include the importance of care as an essential sphere of nursing. Watson's theory has been embraced and applied in many different settings like the care for the elderly, pediatric care and intensive care unit (Sharf,2016). When using the theory, the nurse spends some good time with the patient making the theory the most appropriate to undergo an accurate evaluation. If well utilized, it offers the best chance for both the client and the nurse to develop a strong relationship nd trust between them. This relationship is then used to improve the understanding and the self-knowledge of both parties. The client's anxiety is reduced to enable him/her to open up freely 

Analyzing Watson's Theory of Caring

to the nurse with an assurance of being understood, cared for and respected (Özkan et al 2013)

 Watson theory has another health benefit for different clients. The client gains some knowledge on control of different events as well as self-care they are rather than dealing with the internal negative feelings about their conditions.  The clients are enabled to mutually participate in a respectful and trust founded relationships with an increase in their sense of self-worth and independence (Wiklund et al 2013). Most of the elderly clients are constantly affected by hopelessness.an the fear of death. Watson believed that it is the duty of everybody involved in nursing care (nurses and clients) to understand their feelings and positively influence the relationship between them. The caring of the old people is really effective to their spiritual, psychological emotional and physical health (Wu & Volker 2012).

The science of caring theory has been greatly adopted and applied in different domains of nursing though it has some weaknesses. The main component of the theory is to improve and enhance the relationship between the patient and nurse.it focuses on creating a good and suitable environment for interaction. It lays more emphases on personal relationships rather than communal (Butts & Rich,2013).

One of the major weaknesses of Watson's theory is that the patient's biophysical needs are given less attention. The main focus is directed to the psychosocial needs of the client. This is a key limitation to health since the biophysical requirements of the client are not given the needed importance (Alligood 2013).

Watson's theory is also weak because it demands the level of care that is practically impossible due to the short period spent in the hospital and the acuity of the sickness. In the bureaucratic health care system and the business-oriented era, the theory is extremely difficult to be implemented by the nurses. The nurses find today's hospital practices and policies complicated and they limit their ability to implement it. The health system has different beliefs and values that hinder its implementation. Watson's theory changes the attention from the idea of treatment to focus on caring and healing.it calls for the restructuring the entire health system to focus on healing which is not practically possible (Vandenhouten et al 2012).  

References

Dossey, B. M., Certificate, C. D. I. N. C., Keegan, L., & Co-Director International Nurse Coach Association. (2012). Holistic nursing. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Lachman, V. D. (2012). Applying the ethics of care to your nursing practice. Medsurg Nursing, 21(2), 112.

Ray, M. A. (2012). The theory of bureaucratic caring for nursing practice in the organizational culture. Caring in Nursing Classics: An Essential Resource, 309.

Swanson, K. M. (2012). Empirical development of a middle range theory of caring. Caring in Nursing Classics: An Essential Resource, 211.

Watson, N. (2012). Theorising the lives of disabled children: How can disability theory help?. Children & Society, 26(3), 192-202.

Watson, R., van der Ark, L. A., Lin, L. C., Fieo, R., Deary, I. J., & Meijer, R. R. (2012). Item response theory: how Mokken scaling can be used in clinical practice. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 21(19pt20), 2736-2746.

Wu, H. L., & Volker, D. L. (2012). Humanistic Nursing Theory: application to hospice and palliative care. Journal of advanced nursing, 68(2), 471-479.

Vandenhouten, C., Kubsch, S., Peterson, M., Murdock, J., & Lehrer, L. (2012). Watson's theory of transpersonal caring: Factors impacting nurses professional caring. Holistic nursing practice, 26(6), 326-334.

Alligood, M. R. (2013). Nursing Theory-E-Book: Utilization & Application. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Butts, J. B., & Rich, K. L. (2013). Philosophies and theories for advanced nursing practice. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Özkan, ?. A., Okumu?, H., Bulduko?lu, K., & Watson, J. (2013). A case study based on Watson’s theory of human caring: being an infertile woman in Turkey. Nursing science quarterly, 26(4), 352-359.

Wiklund Gustin, L., & Wagner, L. (2013). The butterfly effect of caring–clinical nursing teachers’ understanding of self?compassion as a source to compassionate care. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 27(1), 175-183.

Dobrina, R., Tenze, M., & Palese, A. (2014). An overview of hospice and palliative care nursing models and theories. International journal of palliative nursing, 20(2), 75-81.

Sharf, R. S. (2016). Applying career development theory to counseling. Nelson Education.

Alligood, M. R. (2017). Nursing Theorists and Their Work-E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Reed, P. G. (2017). Self-transcendence theory. Nursing Theorists and Their Work-E-Book, 463.

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