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1.0 Self-awareness


• 1.1 Personality
? What insights have you obtained about your personality, for example from the MyersBriggs Type Indicator and/or the Big Five personality model? 

•1.2 Values and Motivators
? What are your most important attitudes, values and motivators? 

•1.3 Emotional intelligence
? What are your emotional intelligence abilities? 

• 1.4 Leadership
? What is your leadership aspiration and potential (or demonstrated ability)?

• 1.5 Power and Politics
? What are your approaches to power, politics and influence?

2.0 Decision making and planning
Refer to the literature on Problem Solving and Decision Making (Topic 7) and critically evaluate how an understanding of these theories can be of assistance to the decision-making and problem-solving processes you will be using when seeking your internship/graduate employment. You must compare and contrast at least two approaches/theories.

Your discussion should identify and elaborate upon factors that will be important in your internship/graduate position decision such as the geographic location, paid/unpaid nature, opportunity for training and development, opportunity for ongoing employment, and so forth.

3.0 Conclusion 

1.0 Self-awareness

The aim of this report is to analyses the factors of self-awareness like personality, values and motivators, emotional intelligence, leadership, power and politics to understand the method of self-development. The individuals when get introduce in a workplace context need to build some strategies to overcome some negative situations. This is the reason why they need to have proper knowledge about themselves, their personality, through process and understanding the attitudes and expectations of the others around them (McCleskey 2014). With proper knowledge about themselves, the individuals can make decisions and overcome threats. It is the proper way to transform the weaknesses to strengths. This report will be discussing the models and theories of personality, decision making and other factors of self-awareness which makes the more authentic and argumentative. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator personality test has helped to open up various personality factors. This report will conclude with the decision making and planning theories and their effect on the personal career options.

Self-awareness is the process of having a clear idea about oneself especially the personality that includes strengths, weaknesses, beliefs, thoughts, emotion and motivation. This also helps one to understand the perception and attitude of other to one’s responses at that moment.

Personality is a combination of the characteristics as well as qualities which form the character of the distinctive person. This varies from person to person and detail the differences among the individuals’ behaviors and attitudes. The personality factors are consisted of the thinking process of the individuals, combination of emotions and understanding of any situation which is reflected in their behavior to the others around them. In this regard, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Big Five Personality Model can be referred. Both these two indicators can effectively attempt to identify the various facts of the personality patterns of the individuals.

For understanding various facts of my own personality, I have taken help of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator test in which there are four dimensions to understand the personalities. In the first dimension mainly, Extrovert vs. Introvert dimension I have scored 68% in the extraverted side. This means, I am capable to mix with others and know who to gather information from the people around me. I prefer to interact with others and expressive of my emotions through my behavior. In the Sensing vs. Intuitive dimension I have scored 63% in the sensing or observant factor. This reveals that I seem to pay full attention to my understanding and make practical and realistic decision. I prefer reality to fantasy and make specific goals to act. In the Thinking vs. Feeling facet, I have score 60% in the thinking factor which means to prefer logic in analyzing any type of problem which makes me a good analyzer of a situation. However, I tend to overrule the emotions iof the others to carry on my duty which can make me a tough one to bend down. In addition to this, in the Judging vs. Perceiving dimension, I have score high in judging factors which is 61%. This means I prefer to make plans and effectively follow them so that I can manage to finish everything on time and not rushing in the last moments. I am very organized as I want to get settled with all the matters and make my environment quite structured by clearing limits. The assertive factor in me is also high which makes my personality type of a consul and apply the strategy of people mastery.

1.1 Personality

Unlike personality, the values are also different things which varied to different people. This builds the personality of the individuals and lead them to success in limited period of time. There are many traits based on values in a person among which the mental stability, integrity, optimism, vision and risk-taking capabilities. Values are the mode of conduct towards the opposite mode of conduct or set of thoughts. Proper understanding of values helps the managers to understand the cultural attitudes and behaviors through which the managers can effectively motivate their subordinates. This is effective to manipulate the perception of the people which is the chief motivating factors. In every organization, there are some set values according to which the stakeholders operate. This is the signature of the organization which differentiate one company from the other. This create patterns of performance through which the expectations grow so also the organization.

In order to achieve the organizational objectives or to solve any employee related issues like employee turnover or cultural conflicts, the mangers follow the method of motivating them. Motivational communication and actions manipulate the employees to remain active and connected with the organization. This is one of the most important factors which motivated me to follow the path of becoming a manager.

Emotional intelligence is not the feelings of emotions but the ability to realize their own emotions and also of the others associated with them. In this concept the individuals can differentiate the variety of feelings in them and utilize them properly to gain advantage of their own personality (McCleskey 2014). It is the emotional intelligence which help the individuals to think and behave properly according to the expectation of the others before them and manage or control emotional expressions in respect to the situations. The emotionally intelligent people use their positive emotions to adapt with the external situation and effectively achieve the personal as well as professional goals. To Salovey and Mayer model, the emotional intelligence is consisted of four capabilities including perception of the emotion, emotional facilitation, unsettling of emotions and managing the emotions (Caruso, Fleming and Spector 2014). To these theorists, the emotional intelligence gets increased with time and maturity of the people. There are negative emotions also like fear, anger, sadness, disgust and anxiety. These emotions create issues in the professional and personal lives for which reason, the managers are expected to manage or control their negative emotions and promote the positive ones. I while choosing the best career path, I utilized the strategic emotions which had expanded my thinking process and helped me to generate new ideas. For a manager operating in the tourism industry it is important to use the positive emotions present in me so that the employees under me remain motivated and a positive work culture can be built.

The organizations in this global business settings entirely depends upon the traits and decisions of the leaders. Different types of jobs as well as different situations create the need of different types of leadership traits. The abilities and performance of the employees as well as organizations complete depend upon the capabilities and style of the leaders. They understand the abilities of the employees and utilize their skills to enhance production of the firms. In this regard two of the most important leadership styles can be named upon which the global businesses are largely depending. These are transformational leadership and transactional leadership which captures the traits of the ideal leaders and respond to the situation to make effective decisions.  the transactional leaders motivate the employees through rewards and punishment but the transformational leaders motivate the subordinates through their charismatics style and communication. The vision of these leaders helps the companies to overcome any situation and flourish effectively. These leaders are authentic and ethical as they make decision only after analyzing ever aspect of the organizations. As the managerial intern of an organization, I also need to use intellectual simulation and idealized influence so that I can create a strong connection with my subordinates and built a positive workforce.

1.2 Values and Motivators

Application of power upon the subordinates is a mandatory factor of the operation of a company. The power gap is mainly based on the gap in knowledge, experience and resources. The management of an organization posses more power than their employees which create scope for inspiring them to follow the rules of the company and participate in the performance of the organization (Goldenberg, Jung and Grantcharov 2017). Through proper execution of power, the managers can effectively change the course of actions, prevent the employee retention and incur the support of the stakeholders. In addition to this, the organizational politics is also inevitable in the current business settings. In many cases the politics in the organizations relates to the discrimination of the employees where the employees with power do not want to share knowledge and resource or show biased behavior (Helmer et al. 2016). On the other hand, the positive organizational politics help the workforce to flourish in terms of resources.

In everyone’s life, the situation comes when different types of problems arise simultaneously which make people confused. These situations overwhelm them and under such pressure people often mistakenly make wrong decisions which affect their professional and personal lives so also the lives of the associated people (Wertalik and Kubina 2017). In such a situation, the managers need to follow different decision-making theories so that they can overcome this situation effectively. Decision theory mainly refers to the method of choosing the best alternatives among all the probable it is the method of determining and measuring the choices so that these can be effectively and immediately solve problems. Among the most important theories of decision making and planning are the rational decision theory and consensus decision making model (Cabrerizo et al. 2015). In the rational decision-making theory, the individuals some essential steps to choose the best a relevant option among a multitude of alternatives. This is the method of maximizing the benefits of any action by minimizing the negative factors. The main decision is made after the decision maker judges all the objectives and decides the means of achieving those goals. This theory relates to the fact that the decision makers only gets the most successful results when they can anticipate the outcome of all alternative paths of actions the only decision which one will incur the most effective result to overcome the situation (McCleskey 2014). Rational decision-making theory not only helps the managers to choose the best of option but also gives them the greatest satisfaction because the best alternative attained through this particular theory may not satisfy the interest of everyone in the groups but the managers make decisions thinking all the alternative outcomes, cam openly show the reason why they have chosen this course of action (Davis 2014). Despite this type of problems, the assumptions of the rational decision-making process can include aforesaid problem clarities, known selections, clarified references, endless preferences, maximum pay off and most importantly cost constraints and less time bound (Mardani, Jusoh and Zavadskas 2015).  However, if the decision maker defines the problems properly and develop all the alternatives, this method can effectively mitigate al the conflicts in the companies.

1.3 Emotional Intelligence

Consensus decision making model has some different method and application groups than those of rational decision-making models (Dierdorff, Fisher and Rubin 2018). This theory is much more dynamic in its structure and efficacy as this method helps the decision makers to reach the agreements among all the member of the groups. Unlike rational decision-making theory, consensus decision making model mainly focusses on the making decision among the groups by managing the ideas of all the group members. According to this theory, the group develop and agree to support one specific decision for the good of all. This theory is much more collaborative, egalitarian md cooperative and the possibility of conflicts never arises as the decision is made in front of all the members of the groups. The management of a company gets the scopes for elaborating their points and know the points of view of the other board members or stakeholders (Wang et al. 2016). The cooperative feature of this particular theory prevents the proposal to be processed in case the interest or concerns of anyone of the members remain unsettled. Hence all the team members work hard to reach the decision so that the final outcome efficiently address all the concerns rather than overruling the minority concerns or ignoring them.  

Before making any decision for either to overcome the situation or to make strategies for new projects, the management needs to have proper knowledge of the background of the issues so that they can effectively plan and thus solve issues. in this regard different type of biases prevent the smooth operation of the managers (Shapiro and Stefkovich 2016). In some cases, the simplified models may extract important factors of the problems but cannot capture all complicated aspects. Hence the management prefer to apply such a method with which they can solve any type of issues within a limited time and more efficiency. In this regard the advantages of rational decision-making model can be more appropriate as this helps the individuals to think different aspects of the problems them find the solution for any issue (Mardani, Jusoh and Zavadskas 2015). As this does not involve in the group discussion process, needs less time than the consensus decision making model and more problems ca be solved quite easily. Through this particular model, the individuals get the scope for gaining more knowledge and equation of the issues.

In the process of deciding which way I must choose in the future as my profession, I followed the rational decision-making model.  Based on this method I could efficiently define the problems and identified decision criteria. In perusing my ambition to become a manager in a reputed tourism company, I had to make decides by overcoming several problems. The main problems that I faced was the unavailability of the organizations in my area so that I can develop skills and talents as a manager by attending an organization. This geographic and underdeveloped regional problem first prevented me to make an individual and important decision of life. In addition to this the cultural problems and biases to communicate and negotiate with the other students and later internes working with me was quite difficult (Caruso, Fleming and Spector 2014). This is the reason why I allocated different weights to different criteria and developed the alternatives. The achievement striving personality in me compelled me to achieve my ambition and goals hence selected the best alternatives by evaluating all of them. I decided to join a university far away my locality and resided there to complete the course so that I can become a manager of a reputed tourism company (Betsch 2014). This decision was ethical as this did neither affected any of my family members’ interests nor of myself.

Conclusion:

Therefore, it can be concluded that the individuals have different traits and attitude through which the people around them judge and understand them. By discussing different personality traits, emotional intelligence and their effects on the leadership and power execution it has been understood that to reach the decision and gain the support o f the employees of the organization, the managers need to understand and address all the concerns in both personal as well as professional life of themselves. Through positive personality traits, and other psychological effectiveness the individuals can solve common and complicated problems when they discuss all concerns within themselves honestly rather than ignoring them.

References:

Betsch, R.D.M.T., 2014. Preference theory: An affect-based approach to recurrent decision making. In The routines of decision making (pp. 69-96). Psychology Press.

Cabrerizo, F.J., Chiclana, F., Al-Hmouz, R., Morfeq, A., Balamash, A.S. and Herrera-Viedma, E., 2015. Fuzzy decision making and consensus: challenges. Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems, 29(3), pp.1109-1118.

Caldwell, C. and Hayes, L.A., 2016. Self-efficacy and self-awareness: moral insights to increased leader effectiveness. Journal of Management Development, 35(9), pp.1163-1173.

Caruso, D.R., Fleming, K. and Spector, E.D., 2014. Emotional intelligence and leadership. In Conceptions of Leadership (pp. 93-110). Palgrave Macmillan, New York.

Davis, J.H., 2014. Group decision making and quantitative judgments: A consensus model. In Understanding group behavior (pp. 43-68). Psychology Press.

Dierdorff, E.C., Fisher, D.M. and Rubin, R.S., 2018. The Power of Percipience: Consequences of Self-Awareness in Teams on Team-Level Functioning and Performance. Journal of Management, p.0149206318774622.

Dodds, R.M., Kuh, D., Sayer, A.A. and Cooper, R., 2018. Can measures of physical performance in mid-life improve the clinical prediction of disability in early old age? Findings from a British birth cohort study. Experimental gerontology, 110, pp.118-124.

Goldenberg, M.G., Jung, J. and Grantcharov, T.P., 2017. Using data to enhance performance and improve quality and safety in surgery. JAMA surgery, 152(10), pp.972-973.

Helmer, S.M., Pischke, C.R., Vriesacker, B., Van Hal, G., DEMPSEY, R., Akvardar, Y., Guillen-Grima, F., Salonna, F., Stock, C. and Zeeb, H., 2016. Personal and perceived peer nonmedical use of prescription medicines to improve academic performance among university students in seven European countries. Drug & Alcohol Dependence., 168(online), pp.128-134.

Mardani, A., Jusoh, A. and Zavadskas, E.K., 2015. Fuzzy multiple criteria decision-making techniques and applications–Two decades review from 1994 to 2014. Expert Systems with Applications, 42(8), pp.4126-4148.

McCleskey, J., 2014. Emotional intelligence and leadership: A review of the progress, controversy, and criticism. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 22(1), pp.76-93.

Shapiro, J.P. and Stefkovich, J.A., 2016. Ethical leadership and decision making in education: Applying theoretical perspectives to complex dilemmas. Routledge.

Wang, X.Y., Hattaf, K., Huo, H.F. and Xiang, H., 2016. Stability analysis of a delayed social epidemics model with general contact rate and its optimal control. Journal of Industrial & Management Optimization, 12(4), pp.1267-1285.

Wertalik, J.L. and Kubina, R.M., 2017. Interventions to Improve Personal Care Skills for Individuals with Autism: A Review of the Literature. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 4(1), pp.50-60.

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