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Literature discussion and gaps

Discuss about the Biracial Couple And Discrimination.

Marriage outside the specific social group, commonly known as exogamy most commonly involve spouses belonging to varied socially distinct racial ethnicities (Hou& Myles, 2013). Previous reports show that these kinds of marriage were outlawed in South Africa and the United States. Centuries of diaspora, migration and assimilation, in addition to cultural diversity have resulted in these kinds of marriage between people with cultural differences (Wang, 2015). Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory act like anoutlinecoveringcultural communication. The index of individualism and collectivism explores the extent to which societal members are integrated in groups. Individualists like the non-Asians have loose ties related to their immediate family only. Conversely. Their counterparts, the Asian collectivists stay in a tightly-integrated society with strong ties and rapport with their extended families as well (Mazanec et al., 2015). Their cultures are underpinned by support and loyalty towards each other.

Research evidences have well established the fact that Asian cultures have the collectivist trait that encompasses social rules focusing on the promotion of selflessness and considering the needs of the community, ahead of the individuals (Hsu, Woodside & Marshall, 2013). Furthermore, the collectivist nature of the Asian societies can be attributed to the presence of ethnically diverse communities in it. Thus, the nature of members of such communities to behave appropriately in a manner that is more conducive to all, is in contrast to the Western societies based on individualism (Venaik& Brewer, 2013). Translation of family values and beliefs into the intergenerational households are often identified as the reason of collectivism. This proposal aims to delve deeper into the discrimination faced by Asian men and women, having interracial parents (Kole?nik, 2013).

Not much studies have been done to study the impact of interracial relationships and marriages on the spouses and their children. Analysis from a study revealed that multicultural couples were typicallyexposed to cultural disputes and discernmentbased on their race, while they interact with affiliates of other culture. The study defined race in the form of some kind of social identification pattern associated with skin, hair colour and other factors. It accurately took into consideration the different aspects of culture namely, beliefs, traditions, and meanings (Seshadri& Knudson?Martin, 2013). A grounded theory analysis of interviews was conducted in this study among 17 couples. It aimed to explore the responses of diverse couples to the changes that are frequent in the social environment. The fact that the study investigated interracial marriage on the basis of a strength based perspective was a major advantage. Furthermore, it recruited participants who were defined as interracial couple and grew up in a society with a range of customs, expectations and traditions. Developing the research on the basis of grounded theory helped in the conceptualization of social structures and patterns of interest (Charmaz, 2014). Additionally, the outcomes were less likely to be affected by researcher bias in such an approach. This resulted in the production of a diverse set of answers that were different from traditional research (Cho & Lee, 2014). However, it did not design the interviews in a manner that could access the marital quality, success, happiness and satisfaction of the couples. Furthermore, the grounded theory also failed to identify the researcher’s embeddedness, thereby obscuring the considerable agency of the researcher in the construction and interpretation of valid data.

Research question

Reports from another trial focused on the discrimination displayed towards interracial romance and the bias that such biracial couple commonly face due to repulsion and disgust. The chief research includes three dissimilar studies,where the first study determined the relationship between disgust a well as reception in mixed-race couples (Skinner &Hudac, 2017). In the second study, the intention of the researcher is to define antipathy among these pairs, in connotation with sexual prohibitions. Besides, the third study suggested that multicultural couples were exposed to implicit practices of dehumanization by the civilization. This research has expanded upon the insufficient texts that concentrated on determining the feelings and attitudes underlying potential prejudice against interracial marriages and relations. Furthermore,thisstate of mindencompassing disgust was found most accountable for brutalisation of the pairs.

The major gaps in such exploration lies in the point that they did not emphasise on the discrimination and prejudice faced by biracial children, specifically those fitting in the Asian communities. Besides, the second study primarily focused on White participants, which in turn might have resulted in bias owing to the fact that interracial romance and relationships are found to differ by race (Skinner &Hudac, 2017). Furthermore, little or no studies have been conducted to investigate the gender differences in these discriminating attitudes towards children.Moreover, there are several limitations in the number of empirical studies that have elaborated on bias and discrimination involving children of interracial couples. Given the scarce psychological literature that focuses on prejudice explained by children who are interracial, there is a need to conduct additional research for understanding the bias.

Are Asian women who belong to interracial couple exposed to higher prejudice as well as discrimination than their male equivalents?

Are Asian women of multiethnic couple subjected to more bias and discernment than their male equivalent?

  • Identify the prejudices faced by Asian children of multiethnic couple
  • Recognize the severity of the discriminating acts
  • Evaluate the differences in such bias towards males and females

The participants for this research will be Asian men and women of interracial couples. Asian interracial couples and their families are located throughout the nation. Thus, participants will be selected from multiple locations across three districts to represent the population. Brochures will be circulated across universities, colleges, clinics, and community centres from where the applicants will learn about the objective of the venture. They should not be less than 18 years of age, and should be able to recognise themselves as Asians and belonging to interracial couples. The sample of participants will be obtained following soliciting of individuals who will meet the criteria of the study. Furthermore, they will also be selected on the basis of their frequency of visiting websites that focus on interracial marriage and culturally diverse couples. Following shortlisting the names of the Asian respondents, telephonic interviews will be held, in addition to sending them sealed envelopes with the informed consent forms. The envelopes will contain documents that would help them gain a comprehensive understanding of the purpose and benefits of the research. They will then be asked to willingly participate in the research process that would encompass a self-reported survey and interview. Help will also be taken from the participants to solicit other Asian men and women who meet the selection critieria. 50 participants will be selected for the research.

Research aim

Inclusion criteria

  • Must have Asian origin
  • Parents must be interracial or multi-raced
  • Must be aged 18 years or more
  • Must have been a resident of the country for at least 5 years
  • Having a sound mental state to provide informed consent

Exclusion criteria

  • Other than Asian origin
  • Parents are not mixed-raced
  • Aged below 18 years
  • Currently relocated to the country

The study will be grounded on a qualitative inquiry design that will emphasise on recording observations, with the purpose of gainingnon-numerical data. This exploratory research will help in attainmentof a sound understanding of the opinions, and sensitivities of the Asian respondents (both males and females). Conducting a qualitative investigationwill support in the course of uncovering tendenciesin the views and thoughts of people having mixed-race parents and will also facilitate diving deeper into the problem (O’reilly& Parker, 2013). The primary aim of the qualitative research would be to seek an in-depth understanding of human behavior and the reasons that are responsible for governing major changes. The research design will focus on systematically using a predefined set of processes for obtaining an answer to the research question and will also produce a wide range of findings that will not be initially determined (Lewis, 2015). Of the three common qualitative data collection methods, this project would focus on focus groups and self-administered questionnaire (Berger, 2015).

These self-administered questionnaires refer to set of questions that will be specifically designed with respect to the respondents recruited for the study, who will be made to provide answers without the intervention of any researcher. The questionnaires will be comprised of questions in a definite format that the respondents would have to answer. Most of the questions will be close ended that will make them pick their responses from the provided options. These response options would be mutually exclusive and exhaustive. The response scales for the questions will be either dichotomous, ordinal-polytomous or continuous (Belisario et al., 2015). The questionnaire will be constructed in a way that maintains the order of screens, warm-up, transition, skip, difficult and classification. Furthermore, the statements will be used in a way that will allow the people to give different answers, and will be based on comprehensible and clear wordings. The electronic surveys will be managed with the assistance of a webpage. This will simplify the conveyance and eradicate any type of interaptions(Kristal et al., 2014). This data collection method will reduce the cost of both the investigator as well as applicants. Additionally, data collection process will not demand extensive labour and the questions will beoutlined in a more comprehensive approach unlike the telephone based or paper based approach.

Another approach would compriseof focus setsthat refer to a demographically miscellaneous group of persons who are engaged with the intention of learning their feedbacks during open debates about a specific examination question. This data gathering method will depend on interviews in communicating group surroundings, where the applicants will exchange dialogues with each other and the essential topics will be noted down. The project will incorporate group focused on a double moderator where one moderator confirm smooth advancement of the session, and the other one will warrantreporting of all vitalthemes during the sessions (Silverman, 2016). Consequently, the moderators will share their accountabilities, and areas of argument,and might also fragment the sets for managing the responsibilities. The focus group will listen to the oral experiences of other participants that would kindle the thoughts and recollections within the participants. Frequently referred to as group outcome, the Asian samples having mixed-race parents will be made to participate in some type of flowing effect, where their negotiations might move out of the earlier expressions and themes (Alexander et al., 2018). A occasion for revelation in the enquiry setting will also be provided by the focus group, where the responses of the participants will be endorsed.

Research objective

Self-administered questionnaires will be planned as well as submitted with the use of computer technology. The online opinion poll will permit all 50 respondents to be responsible for their responses, with the use of insignificant human assistance. The material that will be utilized for this project will involve a web based survey that has been identified as cheaper and simpler modes of surveys. This questionnaire will target the Asian males and females belonging to interracial couples and will have separate sections for each hypothesis or question. The keybenefit of gaininganswers through CSAQ is that the technique is comparatively simple, even for participantswith limited computer literacy. The questions will be exhibited in the form of check-boxes and pull-down menus. This method will be realtively cheaper to administer among the Asian participants due to lack of costs associated with purchase of printing materials or papers. Telephone and postal charges will also get mitigated (Christensen et al., 2013). Several paradigms that will be taken into account while designing the questionnaires include ordering necessary information in the order of their significance, beginning with a short introduction and explaining the purpose of conducting the CSAQ. Smart branching will be followed while preparing the questions (Brace, 2018). Upon selection of the response ‘yes’ by the respondents, the questionnaires would be built in a way that automatically jumps to the relevant question. The questions will comprise of radio buttons where the respondents will be required to click on a circle that corresponds to their desired answers. The online questionnaire will comprise of domains, some of which are given below:

  • Are their parents an interracial couple
  • Whether their parents have been victimized due to their mixed-raceassociation
  • Whether they have been laughed at or criticized due to their cultural diversity
  • Whether they themselves practice prejudice against other children of interracial couple
  • Do they face bias on every instances
  • Impact of discrimination on their educational attainment
  • Impact of discrimination on employment prospects
  • Competenceto sharing hurtful views
  • Conflict with others due to multiethnic background
  • Hard to overcome prejudice
  • Justified discrimination
  • Judged on the basis of skin colour
  • Woundedcultural and religious beliefs
  • Ignorance of others towards their interracial origin
  • First encounter with racial discrimination

Five focus groups, each including of 10 Asian applicants, who met the standards of inclusion will be included. These 10 persons will be located in a room where reaction regarding the discernment that they have been faced by them will be offered, due to the fact that they belong to parents who are multicultural. The sets will consist of equal number of males as well as females, five each, to obtain a deeper understanding of the stereotypic opinions and attitudes that they have been exposed to, due to their cultural variances. A qualified moderator, blinded to the investigation will be enlisted to lead the sittings, which will last for aprojected 45 minutes. A list of 10 questions will be delivered to the moderator and disseminated in the group, with the purpose of provoking thoughtful replies from all participants (Croonen et al., 2016). All the perticipants wll be inspired to share their thoughts. The contributors will be put through three categories of questions:

  • Engagement questions

Methodology: Participants

These will be informal and inquired during the early steps for familiarizing the participants as well as acquainting them with the exploration topic

  • Exploration questions
  • These questions will inquire deeper into the problem by assessing what Asian men and women feel about the discernment and wheather there are any variances between them
  • Exit questions-

These questions will approve that all necessary things have been talked about.

The applicants will be initially made to submit the CSAQ where they will be informed of the tentative dates within which the online questionnaire needs to be completed. A sample of the questionnaire will be distributed to all recruited respondents, prior to its online publication. The period of this self-administered surveywould not exceed 5 minutes and there would be a total of 20 multiple choice questions, 4 of which generally get completed in a minute. Upon completion of this form, participant feedback would also be taken whether they understood the main objective of gathering information on discrimination and racial prejudice faced by them due to their interracial parents. The feedbacks will be taken into account for bringing about necessary changes in the question sets. The questionnaires will be completed over a period of two weeks.

This will be followed by their randomization into the focus groups. The participants will be collected in a region which can be accessed by them effortlessly. They will be given leaflets that will offer them comprehensive facts about the focus group as well as govern their suitability for the same. During the time the moderator familiarizes everyone and begins the discussion, an audio tape recorder will be used for recordingproceedings of the conversation, while they are copied verbatim later. Intricate and ambiguous answers will be abridged and clarified to get a clear understanding of the sentiments. A thematic investigation will be directed to categorise the answers of the survey and the talk in the form of certain data groups and patterns, applicable to the question of the research.

The cultural relativism will be exercised and the values of the contributors will be agreed upon. Accepting the customs of their culture will be perfect to prevent disregard. The central human ideals will be honoured in order to keep accordance with the goal of the research (Wardale, Cameron & Li, 2015). Genaration of the provisions for privacy will be enabled with the usage of study codes that will avertdocumentation of the participants and guard their answers. Topics that are culturally sensitive can also be stabilized by devloping intercultural proficiency and being mindful of the self-idea on partialities and cultural variety (Burnette et al., 2014). Engaging in the exercise of intercultural conversation and developing sensitivity towards the outlooks of the participants as well as other contemplations which are crucial for this study.

Inclusion criteria

References

Alexander, G. L., Lindberg, N., Firemark, A. L., Rukstalis, M. R., & McMullen, C. (2018). Motivations of young adults for improving dietary choices: focus group findings prior to the MENU GenY dietary change trial. Health Education &Behavior, 45(4), 492-500.

Belisario, J. S. M., Jamsek, J., Huckvale, K., O'Donoghue, J., Morrison, C. P., & Car, J. (2015). Comparison of self-administered survey questionnaire responses collected using mobile apps versus other methods. Retrieved from- https://dr.ntu.edu.sg/handle/10220/39767

Berger, R. (2015). Now I see it, now I don’t: Researcher’s position and reflexivity in qualitative research. Qualitative research, 15(2), 219-234.

Brace, I. (2018). Questionnaire design: How to plan, structure and write survey material for effective market research. Kogan Page Publishers.

Burnette, C. E., Sanders, S., Butcher, H. K., & Rand, J. T. (2014). A toolkit for ethical and culturally sensitive research: An application with indigenous communities. Ethics and Social Welfare, 8(4), 364-382.

Carey, M. A., & Asbury, J. E. (2016). Focus group research. Routledge.

Charmaz, K. (2014). Constructing grounded theory. Sage.

Cho, J. Y., & Lee, E. H. (2014). Reducing confusion about grounded theory and qualitative content analysis: Similarities and differences. The qualitative report, 19(32), 1-20.

Christensen, A. I., Ekholm, O., Glümer, C., &Juel, K. (2013). Effect of survey mode on response patterns: comparison of face-to-face and self-administered modes in health surveys. The European Journal of Public Health, 24(2), 327-332.

Croonen, E. A., Harmsen, M., Van der Burgt, I., Draaisma, J. M., Noordam, K., Essink, M., &Nijhuis?van der Sanden, M. W. (2016). Perceived motor problems in daily life: Focus group interviews with people with Noonan syndrome and their relatives. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, 170(9), 2349-2356.

Hou, F., & Myles, J. (2013). Interracial marriage and status-caste exchange in Canada and the United States. Ethnic and racial studies, 36(1), 75-96.

Hsu, S. Y., Woodside, A. G., & Marshall, R. (2013). Critical tests of multiple theories of cultures’ consequences: Comparing the usefulness of models by Hofstede, Inglehart and Baker, Schwartz, Steenkamp, as well as GDP and distance for explaining overseas tourism behavior. Journal of Travel Research, 52(6), 679-704.

Kole?nik, K. (2013). The role of culture in accounting in the light of Hofstede's, Gray's and Schwartz's cultural dimensions theories: a literature review. e-Finanse: Financial Internet Quarterly, 9(3), 33-41.

Kristal, A. R., Kolar, A. S., Fisher, J. L., Plascak, J. J., Stumbo, P. J., Weiss, R., &Paskett, E. D. (2014). Evaluation of web-based, self-administered, graphical food frequency questionnaire. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 114(4), 613-621.

Lewis, S. (2015). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Health promotion practice, 16(4), 473-475.

Mazanec, J. A., Crotts, J. C., Gursoy, D., & Lu, L. (2015). Homogeneity versus heterogeneity of cultural values: An item-response theoretical approach applying Hofstede's cultural dimensions in a single nation. Tourism Management, 48, 299-304.

O’reilly, M., & Parker, N. (2013). ‘Unsatisfactory Saturation’: a critical exploration of the notion of saturated sample sizes in qualitative research. Qualitative research, 13(2), 190-197.

Seshadri, G., & Knudson?Martin, C. (2013). How couples manage interracial and intercultural differences: Implications for clinical practice. Journal of marital and family therapy, 39(1), 43-58.

Silverman, D. (Ed.). (2016). Qualitative research. Sage.

Skinner, A. L., &Hudac, C. M. (2017). “Yuck, you disgust me!” Affective bias against interracial couples. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 68, 68-77.

Tijdink, J. K., Schipper, K., Bouter, L. M., Pont, P. M., De Jonge, J., &Smulders, Y. M. (2016). How do scientists perceive the current publication culture? A qualitative focus group interview study among Dutch biomedical researchers. BMJ open, 6(2), e008681.

Venaik, S., & Brewer, P. (2013). Critical issues in the Hofstede and GLOBE national culture models. International Marketing Review, 30(5), 469-482.

Wang, W. (2015). Interracial marriage: Who is “marrying out”. Pew Research Center, 12.

Wardale, D., Cameron, R., & Li, J. (2015). Considerations for multidisciplinary, culturally sensitive, mixed methods research. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 13(1).

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