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Write an academic essay on one of the following:
1. How can social media such as LinkedIn, Facebook, and Twitter be used to improve knowledge sharing, build social capital, support innovation, and aid problem solving in one of the following organisational contexts.Multinational corporations (MNCs) Small business networks in Australia or your home country Networks of community-based Not-for-Profit organisations in Australia or your home country Please also discuss the associated risks for this context.
2. How can HR management systems and practices in Australia (or your home country) be re-designed using KM and OL principles to increase innovation and competitive advantage over the next five years.

Discuss this in relation to one or several aspects of HRM – Recruitment and Selection,Training and Development, Performance Management and Rewards, Succession Planning, and Strategic HRM.

3. You can choose any topic with significant KM content and relevance.If you wish to pursue this option you must prepare a two page proposal providing an essay title and a clear outline of the question or topic you have chosen to explore. Your proposal should also outline the main themes you wish to explore in the essay, how they relate to each other, and to the content and learning objectives of BUS348. You must also specify at least three references you will use, and briefly describe how key points in the argument presented in these references relate to the main themes of your proposed essay. Proposals for this option should be submitted to your lecturer by the end of session 3/4.

Importance of Knowledge workers in organizations

The overall assignment mainly evaluates the significance of implementing knowledge workers in operation of an organisation. In addition, the current HR management system used in Singapore is effectively evaluated. In the current era knowledge workers is an essential resource for companies to effectively accommodate and evaluate information at hand. Knowledge workers in an organisation use the available information to make adequate decisions to improve its productivity. Lastly, adequate recommendations are provided, which could mainly help in supporting the HR practice of the organisation.

Singapore like any other developed counties has an effective HRM process, which enables companies to improve their work force efficiency. HRM system in multinational companies mainly use close relation with trade using for influencing workers behaviour. The human resource management system effectively uses appraisal, recruitment, and selection process to accumulate efficient workforce. Capovilla et al. (2014) mentioned that use of adequate HRM system mainly helps organisations to accumulate high-end work force, which could improve its productivity. Companies in Singapore effectively use the HRM system to improve work life, flexible work arrangements, and diversity to retain talented employees in the organisation.

Organisational learning is an effective way from which employees are provided with relevant information about work and business environment. In addition, companies for transferring the required information to their employees could use the use of double and single loop method. Moreover, the new information could be distributed in three ways, which are firstly the organisations can distribute or shares the overall information with its employees. Secondly, the company could integrate new knowledge in work and system process. Thirdly, the external parties share relative information to the employees. Brown (2014) mentioned that organisational learning mainly allows companies to increase knowledge of their employee while productivity is been maintained.

The above-depicted figure mainly portrays the double and single loop-learning model, which are used by organisation to improve procedures and assumptions. Moreover, the use of the above model could mainly help in improving knowledge of employees, which help in enhancing competitiveness of the organisation. Sujan & Furniss (2015) stated that implementation of adequate learning model in organisation mainly helps in improving leaning capacity of employees, which in turn help organisation to improve their overall productivity.

Knowledge management mainly uses the collection of procedures, which helps in creating, developing, applying, and sharing of knowledge with each individual. In addition, this mainly helps in improving the competitive edge of organisations. Moreover, this mainly indicates that companies could employee skilled and knowledgeable personnel, which could help in improving a competitive edge to the organisation. Holsapple (2013) stated that use of adequate HRM model could mainly help organisation to improve productivity of the company. On the other hand, Wang, Noe & Wang (2014) criticises that HRM’s system efficiency could mainly be reduced if companies major workforce consists of low-level non-skilled employees.

Evaluation of HR Management system in Singapore

The above figure 2 mainly depicts the Nonaka and Takeuchi model, which could be used a continuous cycle of converting tactic to explicit knowledge. Moreover, if a business have knowledge and creates knowledge could effectively innovate new ideas for increasing their competitive edge. The above-depicted model mainly depicts that tacit knowledge is not easily transferable and thus it needs specific processes. Moreover, there are four-step process namely Externalisation, Combination, Internalisation, and Socialisation, which are used by organisation to transfer tacit knowledge (Hislop, 2013).

Learning organisation mainly states that workers are able to enhance their capacity continuously by acquiring new information from companies. Baldwin (2016) stated that continuous development of employees and workers mainly allows organisations to acquire innovations, which could help in improving competitive edge.

(Source: Senge, Schneider & Wallace, 2014)

The above figure mainly depicts het Peter Senge’s five disciplines on learning organisations model, which are used by companies to develop learning among employees. Moreover, the modal mainly depict that inputting relative information or learning system could not attain organisational learning. Hitt (2013) mentioned that use of Peter Senge’s five disciple model organisation learning could be achieved where employees knowledge might be increased. In addition, the use of system thinking, personal mastery, team learning, mental models, and shared vision is mainly used in Peter Senge’s five disciplines to increase organisational learning. On the other hand, Pitta & Franzak (2013) criticises that organisational learning could only be reduced if literate employees are not employed in the organisation. Moreover, the model mainly depicts the efficiency of team learning, which help new employee to improve their knowledge and attain the required experience to conduct its work efficiently.

The current HRM system used in Singapore is adequate, which could be modified for accommodating the KM process. This accommodation could mainly help in attracting, recruiting, rewarding, motivating, and retaining knowledge employees. Armstrong & Taylor (2014) stated that adoption of an effective knowledge management could mainly help organisation to improve their productivity. The change in HRM process could mainly help organisation to innovate new ideas and attain higher competitive edge against its competitors. The HRM practices and system, which are currently been used in Singapore are depicted as follows.

The recruitment and selection process mainly selects the most skilled and experience employee for the post. In addition, the selection process mainly goes thorough certain steps, where the most viable candidate is selected for the job. Moreover, competiveness in Singapore has mainly increased two fold, where changing the old or traditional recruitment system could be more effective. In addition, the change in recruitment process, where employees that are comfortable in sharing knowledge could be adopted. This could mainly help in improving knowledge process in the organisation, which in turn motivates employees to innovate adequate ideas by combining knowledge of employees. Brewster, Mayrhofer & Morley (2016) stated that change in recruitment process could mainly help companies to employee efficient workers, which might contribute to organisational learning.

Organizational learning: An effective tool for improving employee knowledge and productivity

Training and development has been an effective method, which allowed companies to develop skill, knowledge, and abilities of their employees. In addition, organisation in Singapore could change the traditional way of training and development for improving skills of its employees. Furthermore, companies could conduct both internal and external training process, which could help in developing employee’s knowledge. This could mainly help in attaining higher productivity and improving employee’s knowledge base. Moreover, employees could be asked to identify relevant problems, whose solution could be provided in developing and training process (Sparrow, Brewster & Chung, 2016). Thus, adoption knowledge sharing with employees could mainly help in developing solutions, which improve knowledge of the workforce.

Performance management is an effective tool, which is used by companies to identify the input contributed by employees to the productivity of the firm. Moreover, the performance management is mainly conducted to identify the activities of employees are in line with business objectives and strategies. In addition, by using improved PM system companies are able to review individual performance on periodic, quarterly, and annually. Moreover, PM system mainly allows companies to identify the relevant derivable, which needs to be focused for improving production quality. In addition, performance management is also necessary for identifying high performing employees for recognition and reward. Storey (2014) stated that performance management mainly helps companies to enhance their ability to motivate and recognise employee’s performance.

Moreover, with the help of reward and recognition system organisations are mainly able to influence behaviour of their employees. Furthermore, the use of recognition mainly helps organisation to identify employee for their work, which helps in increasing their motivational level. In addition, this recognition mainly instigates other employees to increase their performance and get recognised by the management. Moreover, the reward system mainly helps management to increase the commitment and motivation level in employees. However, a change in the current rewards and recognition system could effectively help the Singapore organisation to retain and inspire their employees. Thus, companies could effectively adopt a unique motivational system, which supports individual needs of their employees. The motivational options like transparent salary, flexible work management, incentive based scheme, awards and project opportunities (Purce, 2014). Implementation of these methods could effectively help companies in Singapore to increase motivational level of their employees.

Companies situated in Singapore effectively use HR practices for modifying the KM principle, which could help in increasing their competiveness. In addition, the redesigning process mainly focuses in retaining old employees, which could help in improving competitive edge of the organisation. Furthermore, the redesigning process has two benefits, where old employees are retained and knowledge is shared with new employees. This mainly helps in improving productivity of employees and allow organisation to attain higher competitive edge against its peers. The implementation of KM strategies for redesigning HRM strategies could effectively allow organisation to increase knowledge base and innovate new ideas.

Nonaka and Takeuchi model: A cycle of converting tactic to explicit knowledge

Adequate recommendations could be provided to companies in Singapore for improving their approach towards HRM system and knowledge management. Companies could use the following recommendation to improve their efficiency and workforce productivity.

Companies could effectively promote employees who could contribute in the innovation process. In addition, the company could effectively adopt and promote employees who could come up and propose an adequate idea for increasing their ability to compete in the market. Moreover, organisations in Singapore could also the no blame culture, which could motivate employee to present their ideas. These ideas could be scrutinised by management to pinpoint adequate innovative methods, which could be adopted to increase their productivity and capability. Stock, Totzauer & Zacharias (2014) mentioned that innovative thinking and high motivation among employees have helped many big brands to compete with their peers and attain higher market share.

Moreover, the use of systematic thinking could be embedded in the employees for understanding the work process. This could mainly help employees to understand the interdependence to different departments within the organisation. Furthermore, the use of innovation and systematic thinking could effectively help organisation to attain knowledge management process, which could help in solving problems arising in the work place. On the other hand, Ma & Pilar (2014) criticises that companies with low finance and capital could not adopt high pay demanding employees, which in turn reduces its ability to innovate new ideas into existence.

Moreover, the Singaporean companies still use the traditional ways of recruitment, which could be improved by adopting new technical devices. In addition, the use of FaceBook, LinkedIn and Twitter could be an effective way for attracting new employee into the organisations. These social media platforms have successful helped organisations, as it helps in increasing the advertisement exposure of the company. Furthermore, these technical advancements mainly allow organisation to identify the adequate personal for the job, which in turn helps in improving productivity and knowledge management. Cooke, Saini & Wang (2014) stated that employees mainly use LinkedIn as a tool for publishing their achievements to respective employers, as it helps them land their dream job.

Furthermore, the use of social media platform could effectively help companies to reduce the excessive recruitment cost, which was incurred with traditional method. Moreover, Singaporean companies could effective y identify adequate candidate for the post and in turn reduce their expenditure on recruitment costs.


The overall assessment mainly depicts the significance of knowledge management in HRM system, which could help Singaporean companies to improve their competitive edge. In addition, the overall study effectively depicts the overall change in current HRM system, which could be helpful in improving motivational level of employees. Adequate recommendations are also conducted in the assignment where the use of social media tools and promotion of innovators could effectively help companies to maintain the level of competiveness in the market. Moreover, the redesigning of HR management practices could effectively help in improving performance of the organisation.

Peter Senge's five disciplines on learning organizations model


Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. (2014). Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers.

Baldwin, M. (2016). Social work, critical reflection and the learning organization. Routledge.

Brewster, C., Mayrhofer, W., & Morley, M. (Eds.). (2016). New Challenges for European Resource Management. Springer.

Brown, A. (2014). Organisational paradigms and sustainability in excellence: from mechanistic approaches to learning and innovation. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 6(2/3), 181-190.

Capovilla, G., Savarino, E., Costantini, M., Nicoletti, L., Zaninotto, G., & Salvador, R. (2014). Mo1884 Inter-Rater and Inter-Device Agreement for the Diagnosis of Primary Esophageal Motility Disorders Based on Chicago Classification Between Solid-State and Water-Perfused HRM System-A Prospective, Randomized, Double Blind, Crossover Study. Gastroenterology, 146(5), S-681.

Cooke, F. L., Saini, D. S., & Wang, J. (2014). Talent management in China and India: A comparison of management perceptions and human resource practices. Journal of World Business, 49(2), 225-235.

Hislop, D. (2013). Knowledge management in organizations: A critical introduction. Oxford University Press.

Hitt, W. D. (2013). The learning organization: some reflections on organizational renewal. Employee Councelling Today.

Holsapple, C. (Ed.). (2013). Handbook on knowledge management 1: Knowledge matters (Vol. 1). Springer Science & Business Media.

Ma Prieto, I., & Pilar Perez-Santana, M. (2014). Managing innovative work behavior: the role of human resource practices. Personnel Review, 43(2), 184-208.

Nonaka, I., Kodama, M., Hirose, A., & Kohlbacher, F. (2014). Dynamic fractal organizations for promoting knowledge-based transformation–A new paradigm for organizational theory. European Management Journal, 32(1), 137-146.

Peeters, A., & Robinson, V. (2015). A Teacher Educator Learns How to Learn from Mistakes: Single and Double-loop Learning for Facilitators of In-service Teacher Education. Studying Teacher Education, 11(3), 213-227.

Pitta, D., & Franzak, F. (2013). Boundary spanning product development in consumer markets: learning organization insights. Journal of Product & Brand Management.

Purce, J. (2014). The impact of corporate strategy on human resource management. New Perspectives on Human Resource Management (Routledge Revivals), 67.

Senge, P., Schneider, F., & Wallace, D. (2014). Peter Senge on the 25th Anniversary of The Fifth Discipline. Reflections, 14(3).

Sparrow, P., Brewster, C., & Chung, C. (2016). Globalizing human resource management. Routledge.

Stock, R. M., Totzauer, F., & Zacharias, N. A. (2014). A Closer Look at Cross?functional R&D Cooperation for Innovativeness: Innovation?oriented Leadership and Human Resource Practices as Driving Forces. Journal of product innovation management, 31(5), 924-938.

Storey, J. (2014). New Perspectives on Human Resource Management (Routledge Revivals). Routledge.

Sujan, M., & Furniss, D. (2015). Organisational reporting and learning systems: Innovating inside and outside of the box. Clinical risk, 21(1), 7-12.

Wang, S., Noe, R. A., & Wang, Z. M. (2014). Motivating knowledge sharing in knowledge management systems: A quasi–field experiment. Journal of Management, 40(4), 978-1009.

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