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Importance of Effective Communication Skills in Workplace

Question:

Discuss About The Characteristics Quantitative A Qualitative?

Effective communication skills help in solving various types of issues at workplace. Researchers are of the opinion that better the communication skills of the individuals, the better will be the scope of success of the operations (Neuliep, 2012). This assignment will mainly portray the communication skill that I lack. I will also conduct a literature review on the skills that I lack and will prepare an action plan accordingly.

The first tool that I have used is the non-verbal immediacy scale self report. They mainly help in depicting the behaviors as well as the different cues that help in signaling positive feelings towards the other persons. The grading of this diagnostic tool varies being based on the gender and therefore since I am male, I have to follow the grading system of the male. Here, I have answered 26 situations with grading system from 1 to 5 with 1 being “never” and 5 states “very often”. After conducting the diagnostic test, it was seen that my total score was 82. In case of the males, lower non-verbal skill is represented when the grade is below 83 and in case of high non-verbal skill, the grade should be above 112. As I have received, a score of 82 that falls in the category of low non-verbal communication skills, I believe that I have to develop my non-verbal communication attributes. This is important for developing as a business professional who is not only perceived well by the others but is also able to communicate effectively with others.

The second diagnostic tool that I have used is the talkaholic scale. This tool mainly helps measuring the capacity of an individual in compulsive communication. Presently researchers are of the opinion that high talkers are no more perceived negatively by the others (McCroskey & Richmond, 1993). This category of high talkers does not include those individuals whose talks to irritate people or whose talks are not wanted to be listened by other subordinates. Subordinates perceive rather high talkers positively nowadays. Considerable research has shown that more the person talks, the more positively he is perceived and evaluated by others (McCroskey & Richmond, 1995). They are more likely to be preferred as the leader by their subordinates as they seem more competent to them. Therefore, better the grade of the scale better is my chance of becoming an effective leader. There are 16 situations which I needed to fill with a scale of numbers from 1 to 5 where 1 denoted strongly disagree to 5 being strongly agree. I scored a value of 17 after the entire calculation. I saw that 17 lay in the category of low line talkaholics. The grades between the 30 and 39 are considered as borderline talkaholics and the score above 40 is marked as compulsive talkaholics. Therefore, I believe that I really possess a very low score and I need to develop my speaking skills, feedback giving and receiving skills, my social skills effectively so that I am positively perceived by all.

Results of Diagnostic Tools Used to Identify Author's Communication Skills


The next diagnostic tool that I have used is called the Personal Report of the Intercultural Communication apprehension called PRICA. This tool mainly helps in measuring the anxiety that is developed by an individual when they try communicating with employees of other cultures (Neuliep & McCroskey, 1997). Individuals mainly need to fulfill 14 important situations by a grading scale from 1 to 5. Here, 1 indicates ‘strongly disagree’ and 5 indicate ‘strongly agrees’. After completing the scale, I saw that I scored 27. The scoreboard said that when the score is below 32, it indicates that the individual has low intercultural communication apprehension (CA). When the score is between 32 and 52, it states that the individual has moderate level of intercultural CA. When the score is above 52, it shows that the individuals have high intercultural CA. My score falls in the category of low intercultural CA. Therefore, it is very important for me to develop proper knowledge about how to develop intercultural communication skills so that I can become an expert professional.

The next tool that I have used is called the Personal Report of Public speaking anxiety. This tool mainly helps the individuals to measure their public speaking anxiety that they develop when they try to speak at a public level (McCroskey, 1970). It has 34 situations that the individuals need to fill with a grading system from 1 to 5. 1 denotes ‘strongly disagree’ and 5 denotes ‘strongly disagree’. After filling the toll and calculating the mark, I got a score of about 108. The scoreboard says that an individual whose grade is above 131 will have a higher public speaking anxiety and that whose grade is below 98 has low public speaking anxiety. Those who have scored between the two grades are said to have moderate public speaking anxiety. I have a score of about 108 that fall in the moderate category. However, I believe that I need to develop myself more in public speaking skill so that it becomes one of my strength. Proper public speaking ensure that I will be able to develop attributes that will help me reach the leading position of the organization as I will develop the power to inspire and motivate people.

The next tool that I have used is the Self Perceived Communication Competence Scale (SPCC). In this tool, the individuals understand how well they have developed their communication competence in different situations (McCroskey & McCroskey, 1988). Here, 12 situations are needed by individuals to analyze and provide marks following the grading system of 1 to 5. Here, individuals are expected to provide marks from 1 to 100 in each of the 12 situations. This score usually helps individuals to understand their efficiency of the communication skills and thereby help themselves to improve the attributes by proper learning resources. After filling up of all the situations with proper marks, the categories showed that I fall into the moderate category of SPCC. My scored revealed that I have moderate level of SPCC with that of the basic communication contexts in terms of public, meeting, dyad and group and with receivers like that with the strangers, friends and acquaintances.

The Author's Lack in Nonverbal and Intercultural Communication Attributes

After using the diagnostic tools, I understood that I lack a number of skills that are extremely important for effective communication in workplace. From the non-verbal immediacy scale report, it became prominent that I do not have proper non verbal immediacy attribute and therefore I cannot behave professionally in my workplace. Therefore, my team members are not being able to develop positive feelings for me. They misunderstand me and therefore they try to avoid me. My expressions are quite harsh and I speak in loud voice due to my nature. However, they perceive it negatively and do not involve me in their planning or discussion. This attribute is also reflected in the non-verbal immediacy scale self report. Therefore, I have to develop this attribute so that I can work collaboratively with all others and help the organizations in receiving the goals. Besides, I also noticed that I have poor intercultural communication skills. This is quite evident from the apprehensions and tensions I develop whenever I have to face any clients coming from diverse cultural backgrounds. Moreover, also while interacting with team members of different cultures, I tend to hurt them unintentionally as I cannot develop proper knowledge about their cultural traditions, preferences and inhibitions. Therefore, they often get upset with me for which teamwork gets affected. As a result, I have to develop action plans for my improper nonverbal immediacy and intercultural communication attributes.


I was assigned as the leader of a team that was failing to meet its productivity goals every month. The members of the teams used to be my friends in the university and so all were comfortable working with me. However, as days passed, they complained that I shout on them unnecessarily for minor reasons and that they do not want me as a leader. I was quite shocked as I felt that I had never shouted on them. I talked with one of them in details and I came to know that they feel that the tone with which I talk with them marketing them feel inferior. I was never aware of this, as I had never done so purposely. They also said that my body language is quite harsh and they felt inferior. I was quite shocked at the revelation and realized that my non-verbal immediacy is not proper to be an effective leadership. In order to be an effective leader or an expert business professional, I need to develop my behaviors and other non-verbal cues so that I am positively perceived, respected and loved by others in workplace.

Need for an Action Plan to Overcome the Barriers

While during my placements, I was given an opportunity to work with an Asian representative of the organization. I had no idea about cultural likings and preferences of my teammate and approached him casually. I called him by his name that made him quite irritated. She told me that he does not like being called by the name. Another instance, I had to take interview of some Japanese officials. I had no knowledge of the importance of business cards by them. Therefore, when they offered their business cards, I kept it on the table casually. I also stated them that I do not need it as I have their contacts saved. Later they complained about this behavior and communication to my superior who called me and criticized me due to my lack of culturally awareness. Hence, I understood that I need to develop the knowledge effectively so that I can handle such situations effectively without disrespecting any traditions.

Therefore, the above mentioned situations were eye-openers for me. I understood the skills that I lack in my professional attributes are improper intercultural communication skills and nonverbal attributes. I would thereby be preparing action plan so that I can overcome the barriers and turn my weakness into the strengths.

According to research studies, immediacy in communication refers to the way by which an individual signals willingness, closeness, and positive feelings towards others (Kreps & Neuhauser, 2013). Thus, immediacy involves both verbal and non-verbal behaviours or actions, which facilitate simultaneous communication of involvement, warmth, positive affect and psychological closeness. Evidences suggest that nonverbal immediacy is imperative to the way of interaction between different people, and also helps in evaluating their behaviour (Miller et al., 2014). It has been considered as a central concept in studies that focused on instructional communication. Findings further emphasise on teachers who are rated as nonverbally immediate, being viewed more favourably by students (Kerssen-Griep & Witt, 2012).

Thus, this immediacy assists the concerned individual to maintain close relationship owing to the fact that it establishes a sense of involvement, care and affection between people, thereby enhancing intimate feelings (Fallah, 2014). Studies have been conducted that examined the role of perceptions of a student related to nonverbal immediacy and clarity of their teachers. Results from such studies focused on structural equations that illustrated the role of nonverbal immediacy behaviour on influencing learning skills and perceptions of the students (Finn & Schrodt, 2012). Furthermore, effects of such nonverbal immediacy behaviour have demonstrated significant learning gains in children during a human-robot interaction (Kennedy et al., 2015). Generally, nonverbal immediacy behaviours include reduction of physical distance between individuals by touching (haptics), using gestures, smiling, displaying relaxed posture, vocal variety and engaging in direct eye contact (oculesics). It also encompasses several aspects of chronemics or use of time (Bodie & Jones, 2012).

Most nonverbal interaction between individuals are classified according to three basic areas, namely, physical characteristics of key communicators, behaviours displayed by the communicators during interaction, and the environmental conditions where the communication occurs. According to research evidences, such nonverbal immediacy includes involvement of unconscious and conscious processes related to encoding and decoding (Kreps & Neuhauser, 2013). While encoding refers to the act of generation of information related to gestures, facial expressions, and body postures, decoding refers to interpretation of that information from the sensations that are received by the encoder. Thus, encoding particular information encompasses the process of utilization of signals that are considered universal. On the other hand, decoding some information is based on utilizing prior knowledge that a person has regarding the received sensations.

Furthermore, according to research findings nonverbal communications represent nearly two-third of all kinds of communication and are responsible for portraying messages both with the use of appropriate body gestures and accurate vocal signs (Mazer & Stowe, 2016). Thus, the major body signals consist of adequate physical features, mediation of personal space and the appropriate use of conscious and unconscious signals or gestures. Evidences illustrate the establishment of wrong messages due to failure of the body language conveyed by an individual to match with the verbal messages. Moreover, nonverbal immediacy has been found to strengthen the first impression of the concerned person in complex situations such as attending business interviews. Thus, nonverbal immediacy plays a crucial role in establishing impressions within few seconds of contact (Kelly & Westerman, 2014).

According to research evidences, adequate display of nonverbal immediacy by a leader helps in fostering good working relationship and attraction with the subordinates and co-workers (Kerssen-Griep & Witt, 2012). Co-workers are generally able to interpret and perceive the intended messages of their leader through the display of effective nonverbal cues. Findings indicate that a leader’s job usually involves creating a productive and innovative organization, which is accomplished through display of effective verbal and nonverbal skills. This in turn helps the leader to communicate the purpose, vision, and direction of the department or organization. Use of specific nonverbal cues creates better provisions for the leader to get the verbal messages accepted by the co-workers.

According to research evidences, some iconic gestures play an essential role in conveying exact meanings (Bodie & Jones, 2012). Such nonverbal skills have also been found to serve several functions such as, substitution, repetition, accenting, and complement. Thus, owing to the fact that non-verbal communications comprise more than 90% information that glean from individuals, there has been an increase in social psychological researches that focus on confident use of physicality for a clear and trust-inducing communication. The sign theory focuses on 3 fields namely, syntactic, semantics and pragmatics. While, semantics focus on use of signs as designators, syntactics and pragmatics refer to the organization of the aforementioned signs into system and their use in everyday life, respectively (Palmer et al., 2012).

Moreover, according to the theory proposed by anthropologist Edward Hall, proxemics was considered as an important aspect of nonverbal skills. It refers to the study that illustrates construction and management of microspace or distance between individuals during everyday transactions (Marquardt & Greenberg, 2012). In addition, Albert Mehrabian's communication model suggested that words make up negligible amount of direct communication. On the other hand, facial expression and non-lexical elements form the foundation of nonverbal communication (Velez & Cano, 2012).


In addition, intercultural communication refers to the discipline that focuses on the study of communication across different social groups and cultures. It also encompasses the study of the effect that culture creates on effective communication. These skills are considered imperative for sharing or communicating information between people belonging to diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds (Penbek, Yurdakul ?ahin & Cerit, 2012). Findings state that such intercultural communication requires a sound understanding of the prevailing standards, customs, thought patterns and social mores across a wide range of ethic and cultural context. According to research studies, intercultural communication is regarded as the foundation for international businesses. Findings further suggest that cross-cultural business communication acts useful in the development and building of cultural intelligence through exhaustive training and coaching, thereby facilitating cross-cultural communication negotiation, management customer service, multicultural conflict resolution, and organizational communication (Martin, 2015).

Therefore, cross-cultural understanding most often encompasses the ability to negotiate, communicate, and effectively work with team members belonging to diverse cultures, which in turn enhances international business (Fall et al., 2013). The ever-increasing interconnectedness of global economy most often exposes all members of san organization to cultural differences. It also creates provisions for exchange of information with people belonging to diverse backgrounds. Scholars working on intercultural communication usually focus on different theories that assert on communication process (Martin & Nakayama, 2015). Uncertainty in engaging in effective cross-cultural communication often results in anxiety, more commonly known as intercultural communication apprehension. These anxiety are produced due to cognitive disconnect that gets manifested both emotionally and physiologically. Presence of such apprehensions are related to hyper-vigilance towards bodily reactions, heightened physiological arousal, perceived loss of control, fear of visual scrutiny and of revealing the anxious state (Neuliep, 2012).

With an increase in such apprehension, individuals demonstrate less susceptibility to participate in interactions. This in turn reduces tolerance levels and increases contempt towards co-workers of different culture (Mak, Brown & Wadey, 2014). Evidences also suggest that men are always at an increased likelihood of experiencing intercultural communication apprehension, upon comparison with women (Godwin-Jones, 2013). Moreover, although individuals with increased apprehension levels have been found to demonstrate low communication competence at the workplace, an elevation in cultural awareness often decreases associated apprehensions. The Uncertainty Management Theory (AUM) focuses on negative effects of intercultural communication and ethnocentrism on encounter satisfaction. According to research findings, educational level, gender and age have shown negligible effects on such apprehension. However, frequency of communication in proficient English acts as a major contributing factor (Han, 2013). The cultural convergence theory refers to the fact that in a relatively closed social system with unrestricted communication, the entire system shows a tendency to converge towards a state of cultural uniformity (Kahan, 2012).


Moreover, the co-cultural theory evaluates the strategic ways that can be used by team members to communicate with each other (Orbe & Roberts, 2012). Furthermore, the standpoint theory illustrates the influence of the social group to which an individual belongs, on the knowledge and experience of communication behaviours (Edwards, 2014). Therefore, research studies emphasise on the use of appropriate words, gestures, pictures and avoidance of regional saying and slangs for an effective cross-cultural communication. Therefore, demonstration of competence with regards to nonverbal skills and intercultural communication are essential for an effective leadership. Proper manifestation of the aforementioned skills helps in managing conflicts at workplace and facilitates easy accomplishment of the intended goals or objectives of the organization (Oommen, 2014).

Skills that I will be developing

Specific

Measurable

Attainable

Relevant

Timeframe

Development  of nonverbal communication skills

I will be joining workshops and training classes in the community. This will be helping me to get chances of understanding the mistakes I am making and also develop knowledge on them so that I do not have repeat my mistakes as well. It will also help me to interact with the mentors of the training classes and the workshops and I will be able to realize the changes I require to develop as an effective professional.

The workshops and the training classes hold practical examinations where the mentors would be providing me with marks. The marks will be helping me to understand how well I am developing my attribute. This grade provided by them weekly will help me to keep a track and measure my development in the areas of nonverbal communication.

I would choose the workshops and training classes in ways that do not hamper my academic as well as professional lives. I will mainly select classes that fall on weekends so that I do not have to rush from my university in the regular days. I will attend the classes for longer hours on the weekends and this will not affect my academics and career. Therefore, the initiatives that I will take   are easily attainable.

Often researchers are of the opinion that individuals can succeed in developing non-verbal skills if they attend workshops and training classes whole-heartedly. Moreover, a workshop not only helps individuals to gather knowledge through theoretical systems but also allow them to participate in practical sessions that are of great help to the individuals (Velez & Cano, 2012). Therefore, attending to different workshops and training classes help individuals in overcoming different communication barriers particularly non-verbal as well as verbal communication skills.

The workshop will continue for one month. The training classes will continue for four to five months. I will try to achieve the proper non verbal communication skills within this time period only

Development of intercultural communication skills

I will be first noting down a number of websites from where I will be able to gather cultural knowledge about different nations with whom I have to participative in team work. I can achieve this cultural knowledge by collecting important research journals where the researchers have provided recommendation by which cultural knowledge can be developed. Some researchers also propose models that can be integrated by me in my regular workplace days so that I can develop a culturally competent care. I will be interacting with my mentor and interviewing business stalwarts so that I can understand how well I am developing myself in this criteria

I will be taking effective feedback from my colleague and teammates in order to understand how well I have developed. Honest feedbacks from my team members will help me to measure whether the initiatives I have taken are helping me or not.

Interaction with the members and interviewing of the business stalwarts would give me a framework and I will try to measure mu developed skills in accordance to the criteria mentioned by them. This would help me to measure how well I am developing in this arena.

The initiatives that I  had taken are indeed attainable. I would allocate myself fixed hours when I will be going through the internet resources and the different journals on cross-cultural communication. Moreover, these initiatives would be free of cost and therefore I will not have to plan financially. I would fix the meetings with my mentor and the interviews of business stalwarts in ways that do not hamper my regular schedules as well as do not cause inconvenience to the respected mentors and stalwarts.  Only after the confirmation from them, I will arrange for appointments that will be not hampering my academic and professional lives. Therefore, these initiatives would be achievable.

Researchers suggest that evidence based practice helps in developing cultural competency and therefore reading journals will help individuals to gather knowledge (OOnmen, 2014). Moreover the internet sites contain huge information on different cultures and so it becomes an easy procedure to develop cultural awareness.

Moreover, the advices of mentors and life experiences of business stalwarts would help me give an insight about how different people have coped up with complex cultural situations effectively. Therefore, the initiatives are highly relevant

I will be requiring about 4 t 5 months for completing the initiatives that I had taken.

Activities

Week 1

Week 4

Week 8

Week 12

Week  18

Week 24

Collecting of journal

Start reading journals and internet resources

Take short no verbal communication skills workshop and training courses

Take training under a mentor and interview stalwarts

Measure the different skills that I have developed in order to understand the success rate

Start implementing the newly developed knowledge on both the attributes on personal and professional life

References:

Bodie, G. D., & Jones, S. M. (2012). The nature of supportive listening II: The role of verbal person centeredness and nonverbal immediacy. Western Journal of Communication, 76(3), 250-269.

Edwards, G. (2014). Standpoint theory, realism and the search for objectivity in the sociology of education. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 35(2), 167-184.

Fall, L. T., Kelly, S., MacDonald, P., Primm, C., & Holmes, W. (2013). Intercultural communication apprehension and emotional intelligence in higher education: Preparing business students for career success. Business Communication Quarterly, 76(4), 412-426.

Fallah, N. (2014). Willingness to communicate in English, communication self-confidence, motivation, shyness and teacher immediacy among Iranian English-major undergraduates: A structural equation modeling approach. Learning and Individual Differences, 30, 140-147.

Finn, A. N., & Schrodt, P. (2012). Students' perceived understanding mediates the effects of teacher clarity and nonverbal immediacy on learner empowerment. Communication Education, 61(2), 111-130.

Godwin-Jones, R. (2013). Integrating intercultural competence into language learning through psychology. Language Learning & Technology, 17(2), 1-11.

Han, Y. (2013). Research on fostering intercultural communication competence of foreign language learners. Cross-Cultural Communication, 9(1), 5.

Kahan, D. M. (2012). Cultural cognition as a conception of the cultural theory of risk. In Handbook of risk theory (pp. 725-759). Springer Netherlands.

Kelly, S., & Westerman, C. Y. K. (2014). Immediacy as an influence on supervisor-subordinate communication. Communication Research Reports, 31(3), 252-261.

Kennedy, J., Baxter, P., Senft, E., & Belpaeme, T. (2015, October). Higher nonverbal immediacy leads to greater learning gains in child-robot tutoring interactions. In International conference on social robotics (pp. 327-336). Springer, Cham.

Kerssen-Griep, J., & Witt, P. L. (2012). Instructional feedback II: How do instructor immediacy cues and facework tactics interact to predict student motivation and fairness perceptions?. Communication Studies, 63(4), 498-517.

Kreps, G. L., & Neuhauser, L. (2013). Artificial intelligence and immediacy: designing health communication to personally engage consumers and providers. Patient education and counseling, 92(2), 205-210.

Mak, A. S., Brown, P. M., & Wadey, D. (2014). Contact and attitudes toward international students in Australia: Intergroup anxiety and intercultural communication emotions as mediators. Journal of cross-cultural psychology, 45(3), 491-504.

Marquardt, N., & Greenberg, S. (2012). Informing the design of proxemic interactions. IEEE Pervasive Computing, 11(2), 14-23.

Martin, J. N. (2015). Revisiting intercultural communication competence: Where to go from here. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 48, 6-8.

Martin, J. N., & Nakayama, T. K. (2015). Reconsidering intercultural (communication) competence in the workplace: A dialectical approach. Language and Intercultural Communication, 15(1), 13-28.

Mazer, J. P., & Stowe, S. A. (2016). Can teacher immediacy reduce the impact of verbal aggressiveness? Examining effects on student outcomes and perceptions of teacher credibility. Western Journal of Communication, 80(1), 21-37.

McCroskey, J. C. (1970). Measures of communication?bound anxiety. Speech Monographs 37,269-277

McCroskey, J. C., & McCroskey, L. L. (1988). Self?report as an approach to measuring communication competence.

McCroskey, J. C., & Richmond, V. P. (1993). Identifying compulsive communicators: The talkaholic scale. Communication Research Reports, 10(2), 107-114.

McCroskey, J. C., & Richmond, V. P. (1995). Correlates of compulsive communication: Quantitative and qualitative characteristics. Communication Quarterly, 43(1), 39-52.

Miller, A. N., Katt, J. A., Brown, T., & Sivo, S. A. (2014). The relationship of instructor self-disclosure, nonverbal immediacy, and credibility to student incivility in the college classroom. Communication Education, 63(1), 1-16.

Neuliep, J. W. (2012). The relationship among intercultural communication apprehension, ethnocentrism, uncertainty reduction, and communication satisfaction during initial intercultural interaction: An extension of anxiety and uncertainty management (AUM) theory. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 41(1), 1-16.

Neuliep, J. W., & McCroskey, J. C. (1997). The development of intercultural and interethnic communication apprehension scales. Communication Research Reports, 14(2), 145-156.

Oommen, D. (2014). The relationships among perceptions of social support, Intercultural Communication Apprehension (ICA), and conflict management preferences in the context of cultural adaptation. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 43(3), 215-237.

Orbe, M. P., & Roberts, T. L. (2012). Co-cultural theorizing: Foundations, applications & extensions. Howard Journal of Communications, 23(4), 293-311.

Palmer, S. B., Fais, L., Golinkoff, R. M., & Werker, J. F. (2012). Perceptual narrowing of linguistic sign occurs in the 1st year of life. Child Development, 83(2), 543-553.

Penbek, ?., Yurdakul ?ahin, D., & Cerit, A. G. (2012). Intercultural communication competence: A study about the intercultural sensitivity of university students based on their education and international experiences. International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, 11(2), 232-252.

Velez, J. J., & Cano, J. (2012). Instructor Verbal and Nonverbal Immediacy and the Relationship with Student Self-Efficacy and Task Value Motivation. Journal of Agricultural Education, 53(2), 87-98.

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