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Contingent View of Management

Discuss about the Computer-Assisted Behavioral Therapy And Contingency Management.

The contingent view of management is accepted as a unified theory because of its basic surmise that it does not rely on one best way to steer an organization. The number of factors prevailing externally and internally creates certain constraints that will alter what is the suitable method or option to lead in a particular situation. In other words, the best course of action will be decided on the basis of the underlying situations and circumstances. The definition itself reveals that the circumstances are contingent in nature (Heagney, 2016). When an organization behaves in a particular manner and in response to another system that response or manner is termed as contingent on environment. Hence a contingency view is a view where the behaviour and characteristics of one organisation is dependent on its relationship with the environment along with the features of other organisations and accepted.

The contingent view of Management has certain features that make it unique from other theories of management. The conditions and the techniques which are adopted by the management will ultimately depend upon the complexity of the context (Wu et al, 2014). Every situation is unique and the employees who are dealing with the situation may have different perspectives and approach to solve the problem. An organisation can be handled positively when it its flexible and adaptable to new alternatives and if it ends on positive note. Under contingency view of management ‘if’ and ‘then’ course of action is followed. The phase ‘If’ represents the autonomous and irregular variable and the phase ‘then’ illustrates the dependent variable or the technique to be adopted in that situation. ‘If’ workers have robust needs of physiological needs, ‘then’ rewards of financial nature shall be given to the employees. Similarly, ‘If’ the needs get higher and stronger, ‘then’ non-financial key drivers should be channelized among the organisation (Otley, 2016).

Management principles are omnipresent in nature and there is no particular style of Management. All the managerial actions depend upon the environmental opportunities and threats. The strengths of the organisation will eventually depend upon the external factors like opportunities and threats. The more opportunities are available the better decision making can be done as the options will be numerous. It develops an understanding to regulate the chequered nature of organisations and enables them to operate under variant environmental conditions. The solutions are evaluated based on the conditions in the environment (Wolf, and Floyd, 2017). Same solution can be solved by utilising different alternatives and there are certain times where the numerous problems can be solved by the similar kind of solutions. It provides a greater insight and perspective about the environment and the prevailing forces that can be either useful or futile in nature. Combining the internal and the external environment will provide the better opportunities. After analysing the features a deep analysis of assessment and evaluation of how contingency view of management is operated in put forward.

Features of Contingency Theory

Contingency theory of management becomes functional and profitable for practising managers through the integration of the schools, behavioural schemes and structure. It incorporates the beliefs and rules of schools and implements them after calculating the situation’s overview. It becomes prudent in nature when the problem is analysed carefully (Certo, 2018). Under this view of Management multicomponent analysis is undertaken. An in-depth evaluation and analysis of the situation is done with the team of experts. They provide opinions and ideas which can be adapted easily. This way the employees do not feel left out. There suggestions are taken and given a thought of consideration. They form the perception from the scratch. It enables the organisation to fit itself within the environment.

The designing of the structure is analysed and a planning of how decision systems will operate. It depends upon the structure of their organisation whether it follows the method of centralisation or decentralisation. A large organisation would require delegation of work whereas a small can adopt the centralised procedures (Dentchev, Balen, and Haezendonck, 2015). Contingent view of management also allows the managers and the workers to nourish their skills and individual and collective goals. Motivational and leadership policies are devised to encourage the workers. Timely completion of work would attract necessary incentives which can motivate and ensure the productivity of the work from the employee’s side. Different styles are formed on how to deal with the worker. The autocratic style can be infused for unskilled workers and motivating style can be followed for skilled ones (Reuber, Fischer, and Coviello, 2016). Therefore, it is considered as the unifying theory which is equally possible and adaptable by different level of organisations.


Not a single system can be applicable therefore how contingency view of management is applied and analysed here. For all kind of challenges in business management the contingency view of management believes in evaluating all the possible options. To handle workplace concerns and matters and provide client with equal satisfaction the needs are deeply analysed. This means it requires a full course of action plan (Anderson et al, 2018).  The employees are assigned tasks on the basis of the skills they possess; they are directed to develop the situational strategies and policies to meet targets, and combining these efforts. Managers only deals with challenges and risks under the contingency approach. A single approach to solve a problem is not a right solution to rely upon. After analysing completely it can be found that a particular situation can be handled in various ways depending upon the characteristics and nature of the problem. At times the problem might have been solved by that particular method, later on due to certain changes in the environment the situation required deeper thinking and examination therefore, and employees should not rely on a particular method to solve a particular problem. Employees should align different approaches and figure out the suitability and existence of the same. It is important to assign the right task to right employee under the contingency model. This is the responsibility of the manager which gradually elevates the pressure to ensure that the given tasks are accomplished on time. If any project fails to fulfil the deadline or project gets out righted the organisation questions the ability of the manager in assigning the roles. A loop of failed projects can place a manager in the situation of jeopardy. In contingency approach to management, irrespective of its size, the employees are directed towards the assurance of the client’s needs and meeting the organisation goals along with the individual ones (Kock, Heising, and Gemünden, 2016). Under this model if employees are given freedom to plan and make decisions it will eventually reduce the efficiency and effectiveness of the organisation. For achieving the success the roles and jobs assigned shall not be disorganised until it is required by the company. Otherwise the quality gets hindered and behaviour of the employees cannot be controlled.

Integration of Behavioural Schemes and Structure

With the positive traits of this contingent view of management there are certain negative aspects as well even after having the best, the contingency theory is not free from certain limitations and drawbacks. Contingency theory is prone to certain limitations which are discussed below. The experts claim that principle of universality is not followed when there are specific management situations (Coleman, Kugler, and Chatman, 2017). Contingency theory was given a direction and favour by Fayol also in which he also deliberately explained the importance of flexibility. Henceforth nothing is unique currently as compared to previous theory. The trait which fits best under this model is its flexibility. The conditions across the globe and in market, the variety in workers and multiple stages protect and grace the philosophy of contingency. The current dynamics are studied carefully and proceedings are understood before implementing (Kroll, 2015).


The definite solution cannot be provided permanently therefore the choice of evaluating the options at times can be costly and time consuming. The theoretical foundation is missing upon which management principles form the base. Not all the factors can be determined by the managers while making decisions because of shortage of time, the lack of information about the factors prevailing in the market, the ability to collect the information and make an in-depth analysis (Budney et al, 2015). Besides, it becomes impossible to build a perfect relationship among all the factors and situations. Therefore it becomes cumbersome to apply the theory and take the decisions based on available information. These criticisms are not of practical nature and fail to contribute in the development of organisation if applied rationally.


It can be concluded from the above discussion that organisations have to deal with numerous situations in numerous ways. It is the basic theme of the organisation. The contingency accession to managing and planning innovative ideas taking into consideration the climate, characteristics and the interdependent relationship between performance and its key drivers. This theory provides the flexibility in working under critical situations which other theories fail to do so. Most of the organisations believe that if they follow same pattern of solving the problems it would reduce cost save time and moreover that would help them in maintain the brand value because they get too use to these policies. Contingency theory on the contrary provides the guideline on what circumstances the organisation shall take the decision and helps in deciding the spectrum that will best fit the situations.

Anderson, D.R., et al, (2018) An Introduction to Management Science: Quantitative Approach. Boston: Cengage learning.

Budney A.J., et al, (2015) Computer-assisted behavioral therapy and contingency management for cannabis use disorder. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 29(3), p.501.

Certo, S., (2018) Supervision: Concepts and Skill-Building. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Coleman, P.T., Kugler, K.G. and Chatman, L., (2017) Adaptive mediation: an evidence-based contingency approach to mediating conflict. International Journal of Conflict Management, 28(3), pp.383-406.

Dentchev, N.A., Balen, M. and Haezendonck, E., (2015) On voluntarism and the role of governments in CSR: towards a contingency approach. Business Ethics: A European Review, 24(4), pp.378-397.

Heagney, J., (2016) Fundamentals of Project Management. New York: AMACOM.

Kock, A., Heising, W. and Gemünden, H.G., (2016) A Contingency Approach on the Impact of Front?End Success on Project Portfolio Success. Project Management Journal, 47(2), pp.115-129.

Kroll, A., (2015) Exploring the link between performance information use and organizational performance: A contingency approach. Public Performance & Management Review, 39(1), pp.7-32.

Otley, D., (2016) The contingency theory of management accounting and control: 1980–2014. Managemnet Accounting Reaseach, 31, pp.45-62.

Reuber, A.R., Fischer, E. and Coviello, N., (2016) Deepening the dialogue: New directions for the evolution of effectuation theory. Academy of Management Review, 41(3), pp.536-540.

Wolf, C. and Floyd, S.W., (2017) Strategic planning research: Toward a theory-driven agenda. Journal of Management, 43(6), pp.1754-1788.

Wu, T., et al, (2014) Aligning supply chain strategy with corporate environmental strategy: A contingency approach. International Journal of Production Economics, 147, pp.220-229.

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