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Experts in Construction Management

Construction management is regarded as one of the most difficult and demanding careers in the world (Spence and Kultermann, 2016). To complete a project to the satisfaction of the customer, a team of experts is needed, including civil engineers, surveyors, interior designers and mechanical and electrical engineers. They would assist in the development of a comprehensive strategy and design for building a structure in an acceptable way (Virdi, 2017). In this case, the tasks and responsibilities of each construction expert are distinct, with the architect in charge of overseeing the design and construction of a specific project, while the structural engineer ensures that the structure is structurally sound.

LO1 Describe the construction industry with reference to company structures and other activities.

Explain how the construction industry has developed and encompassed professionalism within its structures

The Australian construction sector is worth around AUD150 billion and contributes 9% of GDP. Rail, road, civil, and telecommunications infrastructure are all expected to see an upsurge in activity in 2018 and 2019. The Australian federal government has placed a high priority on a comprehensive infrastructure plan that has attracted the attention of the building sector (Davis, Gajendran, Vaughan &Owi, 2016). 7,8 percent growth has been seen in commercial construction activities such as warehouses; retail establishments; industrial facilities; and office buildings. For a project to be a success, the work must be completed on schedule and at a high standard. Professionals assist in ensuring that the goals are being met and that the most efficient route is being taken in light of future growth and development. There are a number of experts in the construction industry, including those who handle the design and building, as well as those who assure the project's stability and quality.

Professionals involved in this procedure have been given particular tasks to perform and responsibilities to handle, such as time management, technology planning and budgeting and equipment and personnel management (Duan and Li, 2016). As an illustration: Geotechnical engineers play a major part in site analysis, which involves assessing the danger to humans, their property, and detecting natural hazards such as earthquake, sinkhole, and landslide. An apartment construction permit may be obtained by a surveyor by ascertaining the land's location and size and then installing a beacon to help delineate boundaries (Wynne, 2016).

1. b) Demonstrate the scope and linkage between all parties within a construction organisation. In general, and with respect to the scenario provided.

Organizational structure of a construction firm is typically characterized in terms of a corporate headquarters and a field office. For example, the Board of Directors, CEO, CFO, VP, VP Finance & Administration, VP Engineering, VP Design and Construction, and the HR and Marketing departments all fall under the umbrella of the main office here. Project managers, engineers, civil supervisors, laborers, and more make up the majority of the professional staff at the site office (Alonso González, 2016).

 Head Office

Figure 1:Head Office Structure of Construction Companies

When it comes to planning, executing, and managing a construction project, a construction company's head office structure plays a critical role. Interacting with customers allows them to better grasp the needs and wants of those who would want to build infrastructure (Smith and Suzuki, 2018). Next, the Design and Construction Department constructs a strategy, designs the infrastructure model, and more. All of the divisions at corporate headquarters are responsible for keeping an eye on the project from start to finish. Innovated project management concepts will be created in order to provide a suitable framework for effective project management (Appelman and Sundar, 2016).

Organizational Structure of Construction Firms

(c) Identify different types of contractual work tendered by contractors and justify the use of the specific type of tender for the given industrial complex scenario

Systematizes the complete process of creating future building projects in an efficient way by using various sorts of contractual work from contractors. This segment's effective route is generated by four main forms of building contracts: When the extent of the project is unknown, time and material contracts are the best option. Agreements based on price and value. In terms of future job engagements, a fixed-price or lump-sum contract form helps to create superior aspects. Engaging in numerous contractual procedures and using the appropriate system support might develop a superior notion that will deliver the right products or services within an agreed upon time frame (Tatum, 2018). With regards to this, maintaining the right time frame and taking into account the price details are also important. In addition, the procurement rules with the agreed pricing structure must be generated effectively so that the standard work follow-up may be maintained in a more efficient way.

(d) Analyse how the construction industry has developed overall in terms of company structures, its employees and contracted work. Justify the company structure you will choose for the current scenario.

Economic study and identification of current market dynamics are critical to the construction industry's organizational structure. Using the performance model and new design techniques in this industry, it is possible to emphasize the company and market competitiveness features. However, the system-based dynamics of the structured model enable manufacturing process service, product management, and wider market operations within this sector would all benefit from the growth of uniformity of products. According to Taylor, the development of the building industry has been related to the assembly of the constructed material, as well as innovation in production and the introduction of supported work planning. (2013a). The number of buildings a company has impacts how big it may grow and how many employees it can employ. The construction industry's resource moving sector has been able to focus on the impact of production quantity and price on product uniformity. (Suprun & Stewart, 2015).

(e) Critically evaluate how construction companies have developed their structure and business ethos. What is its impact on the scenario provided?

The construction business in the UK is one of the key facilitators of economic activity in the UK, according to Virdi (2017). A variety of economic variables, including commodity cycles, technical advancements, consumer emotions, inflation, and interest rates, contribute to the increased demand for construction services in the United Kingdom. Pricing, infrastructure development, and staff management are three of the most important considerations in the UK's construction sector demand. Building materials and components as well as services (such as design and consultancy) are part of the construction industry's supply chain that is complicated in nature (Murphy, Perera & Heaney, 2015). Various work procedures are required to kick off the project's employment prospects and associated activities in building structures.

LO2 Explain different types of construction companies within the market and their relationships within the tendering process

Types of Contractual Work Tendered by Contractors

Identify the different types of construction companies in the market and the key features of different types. Suggest the type of Construction Company for the given scenario and justify its suitability.

On the basis of the sort of work they are hired to do, construction firms are typically classified (Fan and Fu, 2016). In most cases, the primary function of construction businesses is to define or classify them. The kind of construction firm is indicated by the inclusion of activities such as land acquisition, operation, design, implementation, maintenance, and financial planning. A structure may be completed or remodelled during construction since it's a process. This means that commercial or governmental initiatives may be commissioned in this area (by a municipal agency). There are now four distinct types of construction companies: highways, residential constructions such as houses or garages, pipelines, and major institutions such as hospitals and stadiums (Virdi, 2017).

1. b) Explain the relationship that may exist between the companies working on the construction project.

The environment of building development delivery is now shifting at a rapid pace, according to experts (McNally, 2017). A lot of attention is paid to the idea of working with corporate and public sector organizations to construct the infrastructure, such as joint ventures, strategic alliances, and so on. Construction of public and private sector infrastructure and services is in great demand in the United Kingdom. Government organizations and commercial construction businesses work together to produce a superb infrastructure in this example. Public sector services may be financed via private sector initiatives like the Private Finance Initiative, Build, Operate, Transfer (BOT), and others. To build trains, tunnels, roads, and other public utilities such as telecommunications, water supply, and waste treatment, construction corporations often work together in consortiums (Talbot and Talbot, 2018).

(c) Analyse the link which connects construction companies.

Construction industry bids play a vital role in encouraging construction site managers to establish acceptable techniques for executing tasks based on supplier management and the project-based consequences that relate to future work approaches. An important tool used by construction managers is a system-based indicator that helps them determine the best pathways for procuring goods and services while also keeping track of the many processes, products, and workers involved. In order to participate in an efficient design process, construction organizations rely on trading-based characteristics, which let them engage in the management process linked to long-term planning and evaluation, (Abdul-Rahman & Yap, 2014).

(d) Compare the main factors which differentiate between construction company contracts and tenders.

One way to distinguish between contract and construction organizations is based on their costing structure, according to Duan (2016). Fixed-price and cost-recovery contracts provide distinct options for enterprises looking to get into a partnership with the federal government. The price of a fixed-price contract is set since the terms and conditions are agreed upon before the beginning of the project. It is also possible to have a cost-payment contract, which permits the seller to seek for reimbursement if additional expenses are incurred that were not anticipated. Compensation for damages and material expenses are among the charges that have been recovered.

Development of the Construction Industry

LO3 Discuss the key stages in a construction project, and how Building Information Modelling informs the different stages

Identify, with examples, modern construction processes and sequences used within today’s industry, highlighting the way they respond to sustainability needs in the current scenario.

As a result of the development of modern construction techniques and products (MMC), the construction industry has entirely transformed its practices and procedures. Astonishing breakthroughs are on the horizon as a result of this remarkable transformation. Module transportation may take a variety of shapes and be accomplished using a variety of ways. Transportation of the basic construction or a finished unit with all internal and exterior finishes, services placed inside it is all that is left to be done, (Barraket & Loosemore, 2018)

(b) Explain contract planning techniques used within micro and macro projects. Choose the most suitable contract planning techniques for the current scenario and justify their suitability.

In the construction industry, it is typical for schedules to be broken down into several degrees of detail. A macro plan may include the whole project, from conception to completion. Typically, this would be done in broad strokes, without much detail, and on a scale of weeks or months. A micro plan could focus on a small element of the project, such as the boiler room or the complicated toilet spaces. You may be thinking in terms of days or weeks. Project scheduling software such as MS Project or similar may really provide several perspectives of the same overall plan. Many plans at various degrees of detail may be created with the confidence that they are all interconnected by filtering out particular activities and modifying the displayed timescales, (Bromley & Meyer, 2015)

(c) Identify where BIM impacts upon operations and construction companies in the current scenario

One of the construction industry's most touted solutions is Building Information Modelling (BIM). BIM, a brand-new piece of software, is being used to facilitate stakeholder collaboration on modern procedures. Since there is a lack of clarity surrounding BIM's definitions of purpose and value, its adoption has been sluggish. A survey of 202 AEC experts was conducted to understand more about the BIM concept and the perceived impact of BIM on the success measures of construction projects. It is important to note that architects and contractors that use BIM face a number of benefits and challenges. When used by architects, Building Information Modeling (BIM) may improve design and commercial potential; when used by contractors, it can improve scheduling, estimations, and show images as well as the amount of information sought.

(d) Analyse how construction has developed in terms of innovation, designs, and within contracts for micro and macro projects, and the interrelationship with BIM. How it will benefit the current scenario.

Advances in technology have spurred an abundance of academic study and professional practices, including an increase in BIM use in the construction industry as the result of these advancements. The term "BIM" refers to a method of representing a building's physical and functional attributes digitally so that data may be exchanged across the many departments involved in its design, engineering, and construction. The work system's activity interdependence is the result of multilevel operations involving stakeholders from many organizations who are experts in their respective fields of expertise. There are special chances for adaptability and activity modifications because of how interactions are set up, (Caldwell & Howard, 2014)

Impact of Construction Companies' Structure and Business Ethos

LO4 Analyse how the construction industry has developed suitable collaboration strategies in support of greater recognition of health & safety

Explain how health & safety has now become an integrated part of the construction process.

Construction sites often need workers to work at heights, move big loads, operate enormous machines, and handle abrasive materials, to mention a few. The dangers connected with these working circumstances may be greatly minimized if suitable health and safety procedures are put in place and the worker is aware of these measures. Members and accreditations from industry organizations were seized from construction companies that violate health and safety regulations. There will be no more business for this company than it had in the past because of the damage done to its good name and reputation. Health and safety precautions for a construction site and its employees may take some time to create, introduce, and execute, but it's well worth the effort to safeguard the workers, their families and their businesses, (Caldwell & Howard, 2014)

Describe the government legislation which has benchmarked health & safety within construction. In general, and with reference to the current scenario.

The Building Act of 1984 is the most important law. Among its stated goals is to "protect individuals in or around buildings and other persons who may be impacted by building or building-related concerns." Health and safety regulations apply to every business. All of the workplaces on our list are subject to manual handling regulations, for example. The CDM rules, for example, are laws that only apply to building projects of a certain scale. Every building project will not be subject to every rule. PPE rules, for example, are mandatory for all projects. If you're working in a tight place, for example, then you'll need to follow these rules.

1. c) Discuss the role of collaboration and communication in ensuring safe working practices. By considering the current scenario as an example.

Patients' care teams can only work efficiently together and clearly if everyone on the team is able to communicate properly. Correctly executed communication encourages cohesion and collaboration while also decreasing the possibility of errors. To be considered to be involved in cooperation, two or more individuals or a group work together to achieve a common goal. This might have an impact on both traditional and virtual teams. Thanks to advances in technology, the use of cloud-based applications to communicate information and interact has become the standard in the workplace, (Collyer, 2015).

(d) Demonstrate how the construction industry has benefited through changes in health & safety legislation.

Policies for health and safety in the workplace show a company's dedication to the well-being of its employees as well as the general public. Employees and visitors to the workplace are entitled to a safe working environment since every firm has a responsibility to do so. Under the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act of 1974, all businesses with five or more employees must have a documented health and safety policy. Make it relevant to your staff by considering all parts of your business. Employers are tasked with more than just employee health and safety; they also have a duty to safeguard others against harm caused by their job activities. People who may be affected by an organization's activities, such as volunteers, contractors and members of the general public should be considered when determining how to protect their health and safety, (Collyer, 2015).

(e) Evaluate the impact of health & safety legislation, how it has evolved the drivers for it, and its advantages or weaknesses within construction.

A health and safety program helps to detect possible risks and hazards in the workplace. Additionally, it allows you to put safeguards in place to protect your employees and the environment in your workplace. Preventative measures such as these are critical to reducing the expenses associated with safety incidents. Workers' physical, social, and emotional well-being is reflected in safety management, which indicates that you care about their well-being. Safeguarding the public image of your company is more important than just complying with the law and limiting risk. A company's reputation will be enhanced if it prioritizes employee and customer well-being, (Jelodar & Wilkinson, 2016).

References

Abdul-Rahman, H., Hanid, M., & Yap, X. W. (2014). Does professional ethics affect quality of construction–a case in a developing economy? Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 25(3-4), 235-248.

Barraket, J., & Loosemore, M. (2018). Co-creating social value through cross-sector collaboration between social enterprises and the construction industry. Construction management and economics, 36(7), 394-408.

Bromley, P., & Meyer, J. W. (2015). Hyper-organization: Global organizational expansion. Oxford University Press.

Caldwell, N., & Howard, M. (2014). Contracting for complex performance in markets of few buyers and sellers: The case of military procurement. International Journal of Operations & Production Management.

Collyer, F. M. (2015). Practices of conformity and resistance in the marketisation of the academy: Bourdieu, professionalism and academic capitalism. Critical studies in education, 56(3), 315-331.

Ghaffarianhoseini, A., Tookey, J., Ghaffarianhoseini, A., Naismith, N., Azhar, S., Efimova, O., & Raahemifar, K. (2017). Building Information Modelling (BIM) uptake: Clear benefits, understanding its implementation, risks and challenges. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 75, 1046-1053.

Ho, P. H. (2016). Analysis of competitive environments, business strategies, and performance in Hong Kong’s construction industry. Journal of Management in Engineering, 32(2), 04015044.

Jelodar, M. B., Yiu, T. W., & Wilkinson, S. (2016). A conceptualisation of relationship quality in construction procurement. International Journal of Project Management, 34(6), 997-1011.

Koppelhuber, J., Bauer, B., Wall, J., & Heck, D. (2017). Industrialized timber building systems for an increased market share–a holistic approach targeting construction management and building economics. Procedia Engineering, 171, 333-340.

Noordegraaf, M. (2015). Hybrid professionalism and beyond:(New) Forms of public professionalism in changing organizational and societal contexts. Journal of professions and organization, 2(2), 187-206.

Owolabi, O. S. B., & Olatunji, A. S. (2014). The roles of construction professionals in the Nigeria’s construction industry. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 19(11), 05-10.

Santos, R., Costa, A. A., & Grilo, A. (2017). Bibliometric analysis and review of Building Information Modelling literature published between 2005 and 2015. Automation in Construction, 80, 118-136.

Wolfson, D., Santa, J., & Slass, L. (2014). Engaging physicians and consumers in conversations about treatment overuse and waste: a short history of the choosing wisely campaign. Academic Medicine, 89(7), 990-995.

Zhang, B., Le, Y., Xia, B., & Skitmore, M. (2017). Causes of business-to-government corruption in the tendering process in China. Journal of management in engineering, 33(2), 05016022.

Zunk, B., Marchner, M., Uitz, I., Lerch, C., & Schiele, H. (2014). The role of E-procurement in the Austrian construction industry: Adoption rate, benefits and barriers. International journal of industrial engineering and management, 5(1), 13.

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