Small numbers of foreign nationals residing in and traveling to China in the 1980s. After the country’s accession to the WTO the foreign nationals could not ope with the migration laws. The first systematic attempt to update the migration legislation on the national level was the incorporation of the Law on Exit and Entry Administration in 2012 which incorporated reforms related to the permanent residence scheme in the year 2004 (De Wit 2015).
The ‘One Belt, One Road’ is an initiative taken by the country which outlines five ‘cooperation priorities’ coordination of infrastructure projects, coordination of policies, financial coordination, guarantee of free trade and ‘people-to-people bond’ (Ferdinand 2016). This initiative focuses on the expansion of tourism and personnel, cultural exchange in the area of technology and science across the cooperating states. In this chapter, the discussion shall be based on how recent migration regulations and policies relate to the implementation of the One Belt, One Road initiative. The recent developments related to the residence and work of the foreigners in China shall have a positive effect with the implementation of the One Belt One Road project. It shall discuss about the reason for the change in the Immigration Index in the recent years owing to the immigration policy and the other political system (Winter 2016).
1.0. Scope and objective
The Chinese and the global economies have been facing various challenges over the past years. The devaluation of the Yuan has increased domestically but the economic growth has become sluggish. There are global instances that have caused great uncertainty such as the exit of Britain from the European Union and the American Presidential election campaign and the Chinese government policies such as the ‘One Belt One Road’ initiative and other similar significant events have also caused uncertainty globally (Lim et al. 2016). On contrary to this uncertainty, immigration in China which had a steep fall after the financial crisis is showing signs of growth.
The immigration in the country is gaining high levels as was witnessed prior to the great financial crisis of 2008. This has led to an increase in the growth of the Chinese HNWIs outward investment; overseas study and immigration have continued to grow. The driving force behind the recent trend of immigration to the world’s most populous nation has been the rapid economic growth of the country along with it passage through a demographic transition (Li 2015). However, the full impact of these economic and demographic changes is yet to be seen as it is way too early to seek any evidence of an emerging turn where the net immigration takes over net emigration, a trend that can be observed in other rapidly growing economies in East Asia.
1.1. Gaps Identified
As the economic reform in China introduced market mechanism into the internal migration process, the reforms accelerated regional disparities as well. This combination of regional disequilibrium and enhanced economic freedom led to massive labor movements especially from the rural to the urban areas and migration, thus, became an integral part of the development process in China. The population of the country is aging rapidly; in 2000 the proportion of people was approximately 10.4 percent which increased to 13.3 percent in 2010. The growth of the working age-population (age 15-64) in China is expected to decline to 0.19 percent every year from 2010 to 2020 and to -0.23 percent approximately annually between 2020-2030, thus, leading to a decline in the surplus labor in the country.
The percentage of labor shortages demonstrated restricted access for certain category of workers within China. This led to an incline in importing cheap labor from the neighboring countries. With the commencement of the OBOR project and implementation of the new reformed immigration policies would enhance supply of labor from the associated developing countries, thus, filling the gaps of labor shortages within the country, thus, boosting up the migration process in China altogether.
The following factors may be attributed to the change in the immigration trend in the country in recent years:
1.2. Immigration policies in China: Comparative Analysis
The Chinese Immigration Act 1923 which is known as the Chinese Exclusion Act was enacted to restrict the Chinese from immigrating to Canada. The enactment of the new legislation in 2012 led to more stringent immigration control. In June 2012, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress enacted a new Exit and Entry Administration law which required every foreigner to have a visa in order to enter into the country except otherwise provided by the Exit and the Entry Law. This statute was enacted to safeguard the security and the sovereignty and to maintain the social order of the People’s Republic of China (Zeng 2017).
As the country has commenced its indispensable process of ascertaining an immigration policy with a view to deal with its new status as a destination country, it persists to be one of the significant sources of migrants in the world. Further, it is estimated that approximately 33 million ethnic Chinese people is residing outside the country but while compared with the population of the country itself, it is small as the population of the country represents only 2.5 percent which is near about 1.34 billion. In the 1960s, the country generated a surplus population that migrated from certain parts within the country to other parts in Southeast Asia and this pattern was followed even after the economic reforms experienced by the country in 1979 when educated or skilled Chinese migrated to the Western states of Europe, Australasia and America.
In the present day, it is completely a changed situation and while the country remains to be a significant source of world’s migrant, a new trend of immigration is emerging owing to the demographic and economic changes that the country is undergoing (Kennedy and Parker 2015). China is undergoing a prolonged phase of economic progress and development relating to low fertility and slow growth in population. The decline in the rapid population growth implies ending of the issue related to surplus labor in China. Apart from immigration being taking place along with the southern border of the country, migrants have been entering into the country from the Korean Peninsula in the form of legal migration of the industrialists and entrepreneurs and irregular flows of refugees from North Korea (Du 2016).
1.3. The Old Chinese Migration
Traditionally, the Chinese government foreboded overseas expansion and contact with foreign powers except the southern Chinese were allowed to be engaged in widespread trade throughout the Southeast Asia and into the Indian Ocean. Until the consolidation of the European colonies in Asia in the mid-19th century, the Chinese were capable of moving overseas in huge numbers. This movement was dominated by men, who moved to Australia, North America and New Zealand to seek their fortunes (Yu 2017).
1.4. The New Chinese Migration
After the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, the emigration from the country was subject to strict control and the migration that actually occurred included only students and specialist workers to certain developing countries. The remaining migration was restricted to parts of the country itself. In the 1960s and 1970s, with the opening up of America, Australia, Canada and New Zealand, a new migration pattern commenced which included, migration of skilled and educated workers and movement with the family members of the migrants (Hanemann and Huotari 2016).
In March 2015, the National Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Ministry of commerce issued a White Paper entitled ‘Vision and Actions on Jointly Building Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st Century Maritime Silk Road’. The Hurun report has published the Chinese Investment Immigration White Paper in partnership with the Visas Consulting Group. It provides the readers with a variety of analysis related to the Chinese HNWIs investment immigration. The Visas Consulting Group (VCG) is a leading international provider of immigration legal services and provides foreign lawyers, government-registered immigration consultants and immigration advisers.
1.5. The Chinese Immigration Index- 2016
In 2016, VCG and the Hurun Report has taken into consideration of those countries that endows with the most viable emigration options and the considerations are based on the eight categories namely, education, immigration policy, investment destination preferences, medical care, property purchasing, immigration policy, ease of adaptability and visa-free travel. According to these factors, the USA, the UK, Canada, Australia, Singapore, the Republic of Ireland, Germany, Spain, Hungary and Portugal are the top 10 of the Chinese Immigration Index in 2016.
The USA continues to remain in the top spot in 2016 as well in terms of immigration policy, investment destination, and education, ease of adaptability, visa-free travel and property purchasing (Brady, Ferejohn and Paparo 2016). With respect to the investment immigration, US has convenient policy, the barriers to investments are relatively low and the provision for education is one of the finest, more so, with a stable economy, US makes it to the top destination for the Chinese HNWIs. However, although the medical care expenses are high but the advanced medical technology still remains the best in the country. Given the cost-effective and a stable economic condition of the country, experts predict that US shall persist to be the top emigration destination for the Chinese HNWI in the coming years. Moreover, with the presence of the Chinese HNWIs in the country, America is also expected to benefit, both economically and socially as well (Benton and Pieke 2016).
Despite the huge impact of the Brexit vote on the UK, the Chinese HNWI have been attracting several Chinese HNWIs with its leading education system, advanced social welfare and high standard of living. However, there is a risk associated with the decline in the country’s economy owing to the impact of the Brexit vote. Ireland is the third desired immigration destination owing to its convenient immigration policies.
1.6. One Belt, One Road / OBOR / (B&R)
As discussed earlier, the B&R initiative entails five cooperation priorities, coordination of policies, people-to-people bond, guarantee of free trade and financial coordination. The academic and cultural exchange and the exchange of skilled personnel aim at supporting the economic goals of the B&R initiative. During the 1980s, China started to attract foreign talents with a view to enhance the overall development of the country. In order to attract such foreign talents to China, the State Council enacted several regulation at aimed at attracting expertise in areas such as technological development, business development, engineering, investment, social and cultural fields like sports, media, art, education (Pinckney 2017).
The scope of persons who are entitled to enjoy benefits as foreign talents has been widened and the requirements that such persons must fulfill to qualify as foreign talents shall depend on the particular project or plan that is in question and it shall also depend on what level such plan or project shall operate, in local level or national level. In 2002, the ministries and the State Council issued the Provisions on Providing Entry and Residence Conveniences to Foreign Highly Skilled Persons and Investors (Ley 2017). These provisions entailed the general conditions that the foreign nationals must satisfy in order to be considered as foreign investors or talents. Even today these provisions are applicable as the provide requirements to obtain special visa categories that facilitate the exit and entry and it stipulates conditions for issuing residence permits (Walton-Roberts 2016).
As per the provisions, the individuals were required to satisfy the following requirements in order to be considered as foreign talents in China:
- They have come to the country based on bilateral agreements in the area of technological and scientific cooperation or any other bilaterally agreed-upon projects;
- The individuals are working in Chinese research institutions and universities as a researcher or an associate professor;
- They hold the position of vice or general managers or high-ranking engineers and working in enterprises;
- They have made some significant contributions to the Chinese state or society;
- The foreign nationals are of Chinese origin and have won laurels and outstanding international awards in academics.
- They make investments worth USD$1 million in regulated poverty reduction plans and invest USD$3 million have been sent to China by foreign enterprises as professionals or in other regions of the country.
These requirements are also applicable for the family members of the foreign nationals and the foreign nationals are entitled to bring their family members after satisfying these six requirements. In order to attract highly skilled foreign nationals, in 2008, the Chinese Government incorporated the ‘Thousand Talents Plan’ which is applicable in China, at the present day. This the plan aims at enhancing the international competitiveness of China and boost up the societal and the national economic development of the country. The plan aims at hiring over two thousand foreign talents for a period of five to ten years and it primarily lays more emphasis on recruiting foreign talents that are of Chinese origin, in particular (Hess 2016). The launch of the ‘Trial Measures on attracting Highly Skilled Foreign Talent’ which specified the concept of ‘foreign talent’ and aid down specified requirements for the foreign nationals to enjoy the status of the foreign talent in China.
The Chinese government asserted that the foreign nationals must have the ability to bridge the gap in the Chinese market by launching innovative products in the Chinese market and required the foreign nationals to invest half of the capital of the relevant enterprise in which they have been engaged a managers or in top positions (Liu-Farrer 2016).
The Chinese government asserted that the One Belt, One Road (OBOR) is not associated with any political aspect and that this project would facilitate greater market accessibility to economies paving the trade routes for the Chinese companies, protect natural resources for China and enhance development in the investment growth of the country.
1.7. Impact of the OBOR initiative on China
The initiative has resulted in an immense enhancement in the trade and investment in the country. The trade value of the country has exceeded those to the UK and the European Union, China’s top to emigrant destination as the investment in supporting infrastructure, thus, encouraging trade flows.
1.8. Public sector versus Private sector
The assimilation of the private sector with the public sector into the construction industry shall be more advantageous than relying solely on the public sector. The amalgamation shall mitigate the financial burden that is placed on the government; improving the quality of the public services sharing and transfer of expertise and experience from the private sector to the public sector. There are several conditions that necessitate the private sector financing to work together with the public money. Such conditions include transparency in the allocation of the money, striking balance between the private funding and public funding, an organized and firm regulatory system and conduct that demonstrates market principles.
The OBOR is a positive initiative as it comes with an opportunity to strengthen the private sector of the developing countries associated with the project as well as the private sector of China itself and facilitates further investment (Wang 2017).
As it is observed that with the advancement in the economy of the country, there has been an incline in the political strength of the country globally as well. The OBOR initiative shall benefit China from both the construction industry and the financial arrangement associated with the project. The project would lead to an increase in migration to the country to fill up the gaps in its labor markets as there is a decline in the working age of the population and an incline in the growth of the elderly or the dependent. However, the country has emerged as a destination country for the purpose of economic migration and is progressing towards an increase in its migration pattern after implementing its new immigration policy.
The research focuses upon the factors that have led to the development in the overseas immigration trend in China in the recent years. The market related reforms in the country reduced the hurdles to emigration and as a result, the country has become of the leading source countries of migrants in the world. The emigration rate in the country is growing rapidly and the wealthy elites and the growing middle class are increasingly pursuing work and educational opportunities overseas or themselves as well as for their families which is facilitated by the increasing incomes (Hooper and Batalova 2015). This elite group often applies for immigrant investor visa or for skilled migrant visa and various countries offer residence permits to wealthy foreigners who are willing to invest a significant sum of money in the destination country.
The Chinese nationals often dominate many of the immigration pathways in highly developed countries such as the United States of America, United Kingdom, Canada and Australia. For instance in 2014-2014, almost 31 percent of all international students got enrolled in the US for higher education. In 2014, China was the second-largest recipients of the US employer-sponsored work visas (H-1B) and about 85 percent of Chinese nationals received the US immigrant investor visas (EB-5). Moreover, the government reforms have liberalized exit controls to facilitate overseas employment and have replaced the old regulations by regulations which also deter the migration (Spring 2016). The detailed government regulations have slowed down the recruitment process and unlike the skilled migrants for whom it was convenient to switch visas, the unskilled or the low-skilled migrants have less opportunity to settle overseas because strict return requirements stipulated in the bilateral labor agreements. In addition to the large flows of emigrants leaving the country in search of opportunities overseas and considering the traditional streams of internal migrants for which the country is famous, a new trend of immigration is emerging in this rapidly developing country.
Over the past few decades, China had faced enormous economic, demographic and political changes that have brought about a change in migration policies to and from the country. The global and Chinese economies have faced several challenges and several global instances have stagnant the economic growth. The American Presidential Election campaign, the One Belt One Road initiative, the Brexit instance and other momentous events have attributed to the decline in the economic growth globally.
Amidst this background of uncertainty, there was a steep decline in the immigration after the financial crisis, is demonstrating growth in the economy in the country. Now, there is an incline in the immigration trend of the country as is evident from growth in the Chinese HNWIs outward investment and overseas study (Brown and Foot 2016). As per statistical reports, in the first half of 2016, with the initiative of the ‘One Belt One Road’ initiative, overseas investments by the Chinese private enterprises prevailed over state owned enterprises for the first time in history of the country. According to the increase in the overseas, Chinese HNWIs and Chinese enterprises faced both challenges and opportunity with respect to investments.
The OBOR initiative shall boost the construction structure for several developing countries along with the development in the associated physical infrastructure and substantial transportation (Latham and Wu 2013). The OBOR project shall provide financial assistance for the growth and provide greater market access to economies, thus, strengthening the Chinese domination. The project provides loans from Chinese Banks that pay for Chinese companies and develop economic benefit for the country, thus, developing the capacity of domestic private sector firms. This incorporation of the private sector into the construction industry shall enable the government to reduce its financial burden and improving the quality of the public services.
In 2016, the Visas Consulting Group and the Hurun Research Institutes laid emphasis on the destinations where the Chinese usually chooses to emigrate to and the desirable destinations are determined based on eight categories such as investment destination preferences, cost of living, education, visa-free travel, ease of adaptability and medical care. Based on these considerations, the USA, the UK, Canada, Australia, Singapore, the Republic of Ireland, Germany, Spain, Hungary and Portugal have been determined as the most desirable destinations for the Chinese HNWIs which is published in the Immigration Index 2016 (Zhu and Price 2013).
One of the most perceptible developments in the migration trend of China in the recent years has been the significant inline in the immigrant investors- wealthy and elite individuals acquired residence permits in the destination countries with a view to invest huge amount of money in those desirable countries. The investors shall take into consideration the investor visa regime and the other eight categories mentioned above (Lim et al. 2016). The factors enable the immigration investors to obtain residency rights in their desirable destination countries. The United States remains the most desirable destination for the HNWI investment emigrants in terms of its convenient immigration policies, education, visa-free travel, property purchasing and ease of adaptability (Bender and Arrocha 2017). The United States is the world’s leading economy with an advanced medical technology which makes it even more desirable for the Chinese HNWIs and further, it is advantageous for the US to have wealthy and elite Chinese HNWIs in the country both socially and economically.
1.2. Background of the migration trend in China
The Chinese government traditionally, banned movement overseas and contact with foreign powers except the southern Chinese engaged in the widespread trade throughout Southeast Asia. After the consolidation of the European colonies in Asia, the Chinese moved overseas although the movement was dominated by men who moved to work as bond labors. The Chinese migrants were known as sojourners, that is, people who left home for the purpose of returning wealthy, settling down and marrying (Kofman 2014). This identity of the traditional Chinese migration system as sojourners was reinstated by the insignificant position of the Chinese migrants in the destination countries. The Chinese were either considered culturally and racially different or the destination societies feared the business expertise of the Chinese men.
However, with the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, an equal number of migrants went to Hong Kong between 1977 and 1982. After the country implemented the economic reforms, it led to an increase in the number of Chinese migrating overseas. The Chinese not only goes overseas as immigrants but also as temporary skilled workers and students (Hugo 2014).
The liberalization of state regulation over private migration agencies was a significant measure as the policy shifted the responsibility for labor emigration on overseas individuals and employers instead of the Chinese state. The liberalization of state regulations and strengthening of the regulatory capacity of the state is a fundamental factor in reinforcing the rise of China. The old migration period differs from the present migration period owing to the emergence of Europe as a substantial destination (Li and Li 2016). Another increasingly significant desirable destination of the Chinese has been Africa and being the leading trading partner in the African Continent and the recent migration signifies the influence of the country as a rising global economic power.
With the newly implemented ‘One Belt, One Road’, it not only encouraged China’s foreign direct investment but also generated movements of state employees, workers, entrepreneurs and accompanying their family members to the respective countries that are associated with the OBOR initiative (Hayes 2017). The Chinese foreign direct investment is evident not only through physical infrastructure but also in small scale manufacturing enterprises and the retail traders. The direct investment in the small scale manufacturing enterprises and retail traders is usually operated by the Chinese migrants and is evident in every economy where the Chinese development projects and investment are located. It is important to comprehend what the economic, social and demographic consequences of the Chinese outmigration in the OBOR related countries are, in particular if the migration can potentially enhance to a large scale (Tang 2017).
1.3. Rationale of the Research
The rationale of the research is to understand the development trend in the immigration industry of the country overseas. As discussed that the driving force behind the recent trend of immigration policies of China has been the growing economic growth of the country. Additionally, the incline in the rate of emigrants leaving China in search of opportunities to their desirable destinations, and the continuation of the traditional streams of internal migrants within the country, it is leading to the development of a new trend of immigration in the country (Hess 2016). One of the significant factors that have led to this increase in the development of the immigration industry of the country in abroad is the international investments that are being made by the wealthy immigrants. These wealthy immigrants obtain residence permits in abroad after they agree to invest a significant sum of money in their desirable destination countries.
Several wealthy Chinese nationals have considered emigrating overseas and statistics reveals that approximately 60 percent of the wealthy individuals usually emigrate and most of them have identified United States or Canada as their desirable destinations. Although the causes of the recent rise in Chinese immigrant investors are minimal but it has been observed that the wealthy Chinese individuals usually turn into significant investors because of three possible reasons (Liu-Farrer 2016). Firstly, it is the high quality of tertiary and secondary education that is available overseas, in particular, in their desirable destination such as the United Kingdom and the United States which governs world university rankings. Secondly, the standard of living is comparatively high in the identified destinations or desirable countries. Further, China lacks food safety guarantee and most importantly, the country has a rapidly growing population. Thirdly, the long-term economic, political and social conditions in China and the probability of social unrest is a significant factor why the wealthy Chinese individuals consider emigration to China (Cooley 2015).
There has been an incline in the rate of Chinese nationals who tend to migrate to the desirable destinations at much younger ages on the ground that it would provide them with primary and secondary school opportunities. Another relevant factor for emigrating is that families with children may migrate for the education opportunities of the children or for the parent’s work or both (Ley 2017). The implementation of the One Belt One Road (OBOR) scheme has created the world’s largest platform for economic cooperation which includes policy coordination, financing and trade and cultural and social cooperation.
The formation of the Silk Road Fund finances these initiatives and it has made certain investments in several important projects. OBOR will facilitate the greater market access to economies along the trade routes for the Chinese companies. This initiative has boosted trade and investment in the country (Wang 2017). Due to the funding arrangements of OBOR, China benefits from both the construction and financing of infrastructure projects. Whenever trade volumes are high, the arrangement shall mutually benefit the country. This initiative is another factor that would enable the country to improve their physical infrastructure stock.
1.4. Aim and Objectives of the Research
The main aim and objectives of this research is as follows:
- To understand the development trend in the immigration industry overseas;
- To understand the factors that led to the development in the immigration industry;
- To determine the desirable destinations of the Chinese HNWIs;
- To discuss about the categories based on which the HNWIs settle in the desirable countries;
- To understand the changes in the overseas country’s immigration policy;
1.5. Research Question
- How the immigration industry overseas has developed overseas?
- What are the factors that led to the development in the immigration industry?
- What are the desirable destinations for the Chinese HNWIs?
- What are the categories based on which the HNWIs decide to immigrate to their desirable destination country?
- How have the changes in the overseas country’s immigration policy led to the development in the immigration industry overseas?
The significance of writing journals in a reflective manner enables students to demonstrate new knowledge that they have gained during the course of the research process. It facilitates in gathering experiences that is associated with the learning process by keeping a record of the resources that were used to complete the research. This research has helped me gain vast knowledge about the immigration policies of the China, the factors that has attributed to the increase in the immigration industry in the overseas (Cowan 2014). I have acquired and used information that were available in various books, journals and websites which were already published or written by various authors. The literature review that was written while preparing the research also helped me gain knowledge and various information relevant to the rise in the immigration industry overseas. The literature review part of the research has further helped to prepare the research methodology effectively.
Reflective Journal Scope
A reflective journal enables the students to form opinion with respect to certain areas that is not present in the research and the student shall help the student to improve the study. The reflective journal shall identify the strong points that are present within the study and certain points may be applied in the real life scenario as well. The information that has been obtained while researching for this assignment has not only helped to complete the assignment but has endowed me with vast important information with respect to the topic of the study. In addition, it helped students to view things and form opinions from a broader perspective and apply the knowledge in practice as well (Smith, Geng and Black 2017).
Overview of the Immigration Industry in overseas
The first assignment entails the literature review about what various authors have talked about the factors that have led to the changes in the immigration industry development trend in China. While preparing the literature review, I have gained sufficient information about how the immigration trend in the country has gained high levels owing to the incline in the growth of the Chinese HNWIs outward investment and the rapid economic growth of the country along with its passage through a demographic transition. The research also helped me identify the gaps or the increased regional disparities that is prevailing within the country even after the introduction of the economic reforms into the internal migration process (McAdoo 2016).
2. Factors attributing to the immigration industry development trend
This assignment has helped me gain sufficient knowledge about the factors that has helped me gain adequate knowledge and information about One Belt One Road / OBOR initiative. This initiative aims at supporting the economic goals of the OBOR initiative. This initiative has resulted in an immense enhancement in the trade and investment in the country. I have obtained knowledge about how this initiative has led to an incline in the immigration industry in the overseas. The other factors include the wealthy Chinese HNWIs who prefer to reside in their desirable destinations and make huge investments for the same. It also includes the rapid economic growth that has resulted in the incline in the immigration trend of the country.
3. Impact of development trend in the immigration industry overseas in China
The assignment also talks about the impact of the development trend in the immigration. The authors have identified certain gaps that have enhanced regional disequilibrium. The combination of enhanced economic freedom and regional disequilibrium resulted in massive labor movements especially from the rural to the urban areas which became an integral part of the development process in China. This emerging trend in the immigration industry is a current topic and is being researched by several authors. I have also obtained information about the significant impacts of the factors that attributes in the development trend of the immigration industry overseas (Majid 2016).
While preparing the research, the I have learnt that the OBOR project has and the implementation of the new reformed immigration policies would increase the supply of labor from the associated developing countries, which would fill the gaps of labor shortages within the country, thus, boosting up the migration process in China.
5. Increase in the development trend in the Immigration Industry
The development trend in the immigration industry overseas has been rising owing to the rapid increase in the economic growth of the country. The HNWIs usually prefer countries located overseas based on the 8 categories such as education, visa travel, immigration policy, standard of living, medical etc. The wealthy Chinese usually are required to invest in the overseas countries to obtain their citizenships. Similar information has helped me understand the reasons that have led to the improvement in the immigration industry of the country in China.
6. Efforts of the Chinese Government
I have obtained information that the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress enacted a new Exit and Entry Administration law that required every foreigner to have a visa while entering into the country except otherwise provided by the Exit and the Entry Law. I have also learnt that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Ministry of Commerce issued a White Paper entitled ‘Vision and Actions on Jointly Building Silk Road Economic Belt’. This assignment has enabled me to with a variety of analysis that is related to the Chinese HNWIs investment immigration.
7. Various factors leading to development in immigration industry
There are various factors that have led to the development in the immigration industry as is discussed under the Literature review. The various factors included the OBOR project, the increase in the wealthy HNWIs, the better standard of living in the overseas, and the fulfillment of the requirements in the desired destinations (Al-karasneh 2014).
8. Strategy of incline in the immigration trend
According to the analysis, there has been an increase in the immigration industry in overseas owing to the increase in the wealthy HNWIs who prefer to reside overseas. Due to an improvement in the standard of living in China and rapid economic growth has led to an increase in the migration process within the country. The HNWIs prefers the United States as their most desirable destination because of it advanced medical equipments, stable economic condition of the country, convenient immigration policies and best quality education and other high quality amenities available in the country.
I have also learned that the OBOR project is another strategy that would enable the country to achieve its economic goals and attract foreign talents with a view to enhance the overall development of the country. Another important strategy that has been adopted by the Chinese government is that it introduced provisions that the foreign nationals is required to satisfy the general conditions that must be satisfied to be considered as foreign investors or talents.
9. Proposal of research
The second assignment entails the proposal of a research that must be undertaken as several gaps have been identified in the first assignment that dealt with the Literature review. I have also obtained information about the manner in which a research must be prepared while contemplating this study. The aims and objectives of the research must be conducted properly so that the research discusses about the topic that has been provided for this assignment. The proposal also talks about the background of the study and the impact of the factors that leads to the incline in the immigration industry in the overseas (Saldaña 2015). It is imperative to the critically analyze the questions that have been mentioned in the research proposal. The research proposal also entails the topics that has been discussed in the literature review and includes the statement of the authors and their views or opinions about the incline in the immigration industry of china in the overseas.
10. Sampling Method
In my opinion, the research methodology is fundamental to any research proposal as it takes into consideration the types of investigations that are required to be conducted, the methods of collection of data. The method of collecting data is also very significant in any research process.
11. Data Collection techniques
I have gathered information about the topic related to this research study with the help of secondary sources. The secondary sources include various books, journals, articles, etc. the researchers who do not have sufficient opportunity and time to conduct field survey and collect information, such researcher usually use secondary sources of information. The internet is a very useful source to collect information through journals and articles. There are various forms of sampling methods in a research process. I have obtained sufficient information about the probability and non-probability sampling (Farrell 2015).
12. Forms of sampling for the research
I have understood that probability sampling enables the researcher to select respondents randomly from the entire population. Non-probability sampling facilitates the researcher to select samples as per the needs of the researcher. There are certain factors that I have take into consideration while conducting a research. These include remaining ethical while conducting research; personal details of respondents must not be revealed if survey is conducted; the analysis of the data must address the topic of the research (Corbin et al. 2014).
This assignment has helped me to gain adequate knowledge about how a research proposal should be made and the factors that have led to an increase in the immigration trend of China in overseas. This research has helped me understand how to conduct the research using various research techniques.
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