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Theoretical Basis of Management Functions

Question:

Discuss about the Management Theory and Functions.

The essay focuses on the management theory and functions and practice of management to gain competencies.  The changing nature of external environment is creating requirements for addressing external changes (Cummings and Worley, 2014).  In the present context, systems theory and contingency theory to the emergency management process is stressed.  Management theory put a stress over the effective planning in order to ensure organizational goals.  In case of Emergency and crisis management the focus is over the effective recovery to gain organizational goals (Booth, 2015).  For Building a sustainable organization it is evident to manage the community to gain a common goal.   The overall purpose is to improve emergency management practice in the provided field.   The organization having a diverse position helps in regulating the functions in an effective way. The overall objective is to manage the operational and organizational goals by understanding the managerial principles. This concept includes strategic and contingent planning in order to handle organizational issues.  This forms to be a base for an organization in achieving upcoming functions (March, 2013).

The process of management developed due to the formalization through the final component of the Nineteenth Century and all through the Twentieth Century due to the growth of industrial revolution. Management theory assists in provided that a sound foundation for sustaining the emergence of management theory utilizing the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling. While considering the Taylor scientific approach, it is clear that the initial revolution is viewed as both the process and position of the manager (Shafritz, Ott & Jang, 2015).  Previously the writers have an approach that focus on organizing work and accomplishing tasks. Mintzberg focused on the position of the “manager” in directing the organization with an effective approach. The interpersonal, informational, and decisional roles are characterized jointly appropriate to the manager in different types of organization (Cameron and Green, 2015).  The strategic management theory has grown continuously due to the contribution in the studies of engineering, social science etc.  Hawthorne studies and a behavioral approach is one of the quantitative approaches in order to function appropriately (Bridges and Bridges, 2017). The management is affected by the developments in theory in utilizing engineering to plan the operations in order to gain competencies (Daft, 2014).  Strategic Choice Theory creates deliberation of pertinent forces in the exterior environment that influence employment relationships. The shifting exterior environment induces employers to build alteration in their competitive business strategies. All These modifications are important for measuring the range of controlled so as to be reliable with the principles, viewpoint, and philosophies. This helps in managing the changes in the mind of key decision-makers. For gaining effective market opportunities, it is important to measure the choice in relation to the historical and institutional structures.  While taking an organizational action, it is evident to check the feasible options that are available at a given time. This helps in managing the constrained by the outcomes of previous organizational decisions. It is also related to the current distribution of power in an organization.  It is in between the unions, government agencies, or other external organizational factors.  The social determinism theory is completely based on the individual attitude in getting work done. This theory is based on the compilation of the individual attitude towards the organization (Greenwood, et al 2017).  The determinist approach is managed by the preceding factors in a predictable way. People can arrange changes in an effective way that allow in managing the various factors in the past events. Behaviorist is the strong believer of the determinism in managing the organization. An understanding of an organization growth is important to measure the long term sustainable strategy and policy.Researchers have developed a strategy in order to manage the organizational growth and development.  These strategies are important for framing the appropriateness in order to resolve the conflicts. Possibilities in organizational changes are important to manage the organizational goals.  New possibilities in the organization are affecting the concepts that affect the learning and development. It is important for managing the changes in the most effective way (Manning, 2017).

Strategic Choice Theory


The industrial relations processes and outcomes are caused due to the continuous evolution of environmental force and organizational reactions. The virtual significance of the environment or the party varies over time. Consequently, labor- or product market changes in a unique way. Subsequently, alternative and judgment on the component of employee management, and government have an effect on the path and arrangement of industrial relations systems. This is how the organization is enormously important in shaping the variety of practicable strategic adaptations.

The broader beginning of the institutional structure of industrial relations describes separate activities of management, labor, and government organizations in three parts. Firstly, the top level of strategic decision making,  secondly, a middle or functional level of cooperative bargaining or employees strategy development and thirdly, a foundation or workplace-level that have an effect on individual workers, supervisors, and union legislative body. This plays an important role in managing the middle tier that includes the majority traditional territory of industrial relations.  This is a significant practice necessary for managing competition. The purpose is to gain effective changes and development of the important public policies in governing labor-management relations. It is the customary business unionism dominating the association in order to gain important strategic choices or ideologies. This is driven by the decisions made at the top tier. The basic decisions are important for deriving effective businesses to invest at worksites, in order to make decisions regarding purchases, and the organizational arrangements. This is used as an important parameter to bring out indispensable strategies that affect industrial relations at lower levels. The central mechanism helps in managing the industrial relations. The Strategic choice are related to the bottom level is directly associated with the organization of work. This is directly concerned with the structure of worker rights, the management and motivation. This is effective from the point of view of gaining long term sustainable results.


Strategic planning is one of the important factors that have contributed in the process of management to monitor the shifting nature of the external forces. These factors have a long-lasting impression on the organizational operations.  The process of Environmental scanning clarifies the natural environment impact on the internal operations.  Organizational structure is best described as a business's approach in accordance to the market response (Hogg & Terry, 2014).  There are two general theories that act as a factor in building organizational policies -- deterministic and strategic. These two models vary in the degree of flexibility they presume in manipulating the marketplace. The determinist theory of the organization asserts that the marketplace is more or less under control.  The business organization is under control that changes the marketplace continually in an expected way.  The industry is developing in an effective way that is creating changes in the organizational structure. The overall objective of the organization is to be focused on the survival and generating better profits (Bradley, 2016). 

Determinist Theory vs Strategic Organizational Structure

The strategic structure has applicability that focus on managing the organization as per the behavior of the customers.  The business can be controlled on the basis of changes in according to the flexible market condition.  The strategic organizational structure therefore embraces changes in order to attain flexible results. These are the changes that are required in order to manage the brand awareness and to gain appropriate results (Demirkan, et al 2016). The changing business needs therefore create a demand and changes the perception of the individual. In an organization, it is important to create a better opportunity in terms of dynamic growth and development. These changes are important for pursuing operation.  Strategic choice theory therefore provides with an alternative approach in order to make better option.  These strategic changes form to be an important part to an organizational development and growth.  It is regarding individual response and belief to a particular market change. This theory is used to resolve the dispute at the time of making appropriate changes (Gibbons, 2015). These factors are important for meeting desirable changes in order to gain an effective result. The changes need to be instituted in a way that helps in meeting organizational objectives. This is important in framing the sustainable organizational result in accordance to the market change.  In a dynamic environment, this theory acts as an instrument to meet the desired results. On the frame of sustainability, it is important for gaining organizational results and growth (Gibbons, 2015).


The business theorist and the organization have a mixed opinion about the organizational design. They consider both the determinist and organizational structure theory while considering the different factors. This is typically related to the market and industry requirements that help in gaining market competencies.  The mixed concept therefore focuses on changing market viability and approach in order to gain effective results. Management theory put a stress over the effective planning in order to ensure organizational goals.  In case of Emergency and crisis management the focus is over the effective recovery to gain organizational goals.  Deployment of these theories is important for the organization for making appropriate organizational changes. These changes are impotent for gaining long term sustainable results. While managing the organization, it is important for undertaking the research and development in an appropriate way.          

With the evolution of the organizational theory it has become necessary to manage the concept in an effective way by developing an effective plan. The organizational growth is dependent on the mixture of both the approaches. These approaches are relevant for the organization in gaining continuous growth. The long term functions highly depend upon the working model that suggests growth and development.  With the changing scenario, it has become evident to manage the business functions in an effective way by developing strategies. Any shift in the business strategy occurs due to the existing state of industrial relations that in return affect the three levels in an organization. These types of interactions are important for a business organization in a competitive business environment. This eventually helps in organizational growth and long term sustainability. The business environment can change abruptly that might affect the growth in a competitive business environment. A sharp increase in competitive pressures has created a necessity of managing the decisions that are important for managing the organization growth. First, it is the responsibility of business organization to reconsider its pledge to the current line of production and settle on whether it requires trying to contend in the environment or to withdraw and reallocate. Second, in case if the organization decide to stay lively in the market, it has to make alteration in its competitive strategy. Third, the strategic choice completely depends upon the firms that stay in the market in order to rearrange their capital in order to gain competitive advantages. Finally, the changes in business strategy are related to the production decisions that affect the soundness of accessible organizational structures, in order to manage the growth.  In order to manage an organization, it is evident to take effective measures to gain competencies. It is evident to check the feasible options that are available at a given time. This helps in managing the organization in a way that guarantees sustainable results.

References

Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (2017). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice, and leadership. John Wiley & Sons.

Booth, S. A. (2015). Crisis management strategy: Competition and change in modern enterprises. Routledge.

Bradley, G. (2016). Benefit Realisation Management: A practical guide to achieving benefits through change. CRC Press.

Bridges, W., and Bridges, S. (2017). Managing transitions: Making the most of change. Da Capo Press.

Burke, W. W. (2017). Organization change: Theory and practice. Sage Publications.

Cameron, E., and Green, M. (2015). Making sense of change management: A complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change. Kogan Page Publishers.

Cummings, T. G., and Worley, C. G. (2014). Organization development and change. Cengage learning.

Daft, R.L., (2014). The leadership experience. Cengage Learning.

Demirkan, H., Spohrer, J.C. and Welser, J.J., (2016). Digital Innovation and Strategic Transformation. IT Professional, 18(6), pp.14-18.

Gibbons, P. (2015). The Science of Successful Organizational Change: How Leaders Set Strategy, Change Behavior, and Create an Agile Culture. FT Press.

Gomez-Mejia, L. R., Berrone, P., & Franco-Santos, M. (2014). Compensation and organizational performance: Theory, research, and practice. Routledge.

Greenwood, R., Oliver, C., Lawrence, T. B., & Meyer, R. E. (Eds.). (2017). The SAGE handbook of organizational institutionalism. SAGE.

Hogg, M. A., & Terry, D. J. (Eds.). (2014). Social identity processes in organizational contexts. Psychology Press.

Manning, K. (2017). Organizational theory in higher education. Routledge.

March, J. G. (Ed.). (2013). Handbook of Organizations (RLE: Organizations) (Vol. 20). Routledge.

Shafritz, J. M., Ott, J. S., & Jang, Y. S. (2015). Classics of organization theory. Cengage Learning.

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