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What Extent Are Different Organisational Cultures Related To Different Structures?

The Concept of Leadership

The landscape of the business world is a constantly changing one on the score of the developments not only in the field of technology but also in the manner in which they are being utilized within the framework of these business enterprises (Robbins et al. 2013). Furthermore, the challenges as well as opportunities which galore these business enterprises is in no manner comparable to the ones faced by the business enterprises a few decades back (Robbins et al. 2013). Thus, it has become imperative for the various business enterprises to take the help of not only various kinds of innovative strategies for the transaction of the business but also various kinds of effective tactics for the effective management as well as regulation of the entire enterprise itself (Wood et al. 2012). More importantly, with the change in the landscape of the business arena the requirements as well as the objectives of the various business enterprises have also changed in a significant manner (Wood et al. 2012).


In the contemporary times it is generally seen that in order to fulfill the requirements of their business or to earn a greater amount of annual revenue the business enterprises need to take into effective consideration various factors like the brand image which have in the business market, effective management of the stakeholders who are associated with them, effective management of the employees, providing effective leadership to not only the employees but at the same time the entire enterprise itself and others (Bolman and Deal 2017). Thus, it would be apt to say that the success of a particular business enterprise requires the effective conglomeration of all these factors which in turn help the concerned business enterprise to achieve the desired goals set by them (Simha, Armstrong and Albert 2012). However, in the recent times it is generally seen that a debate has ensued about the relative importance of the two important business processes, namely, leadership and management and the impact they have on a particular business enterprise (Lam and O'Higgins 2012). There are certain people who are of the viewpoint that strong leadership is more important than sound management and on the other hand there are people who think otherwise (Lam and O'Higgins 2012). This paper will discuss about the fact that a particular organization requires a “strong leadership rather than strong management if it is to become a learning organization”.

The Role of Leaders in Business Organizations

The concept of leadership is not a new one and as a matter of fact it is in use since the traditional times (Goleman, Boyatzis and McKee 2013). It is significant to note even in the ancient times the concept of leadership was being used by the various individuals to effectively lead the soldiers to victory in the diverse wars and also for effectively managing the diverse affairs of the state as well (Simha, Armstrong and Albert 2012). However, the use of the concept of leadership in the particular context of the business world is not as old as the use of the concept in the contexts of the war or the state (Simha, Armstrong and Albert 2012). It is significant to note that the concept of leadership within a short time has become an integral part of the business world and thus it is generally seen that the various business enterprises tend to take the help of this particular concept to further enhance not only to efficiency but at the same time the effectiveness of their enterprise (Swanson and Frederick 2016). Therefore, it would be apt to say that along with the concept of strong management the process of effective leadership has become an indispensible part of the business world and it is a reflection of this particular fact that the many experts are of the viewpoint that the success or the failure of a particular business enterprise depends on the extent to which they are being able to utilize and also capitalize the diverse opportunities provided by these concepts (Simha, Armstrong and Albert 2012).

Leadership has been a topic of much research as well as debate since the traditional times and the various diverse definitions of the process of leadership which are available in the present times are an indication of this particular fact (Lewis, Yarker and Donaldson-Feilder 2012). However, it is significant to note that the majority of these definitions indicate that it is the process of leading a particular group or various diverse individuals towards the achievement of a particular objective or a goal (Kissi, Dainty and Tuuli 2013). In other words, it can be said that “leadership is the ability of a superior.



Influence the behavior of a subordinate or group and persuade them to follow a particular course of action” (Goleman, Boyatzis and McKee 2013). Thus, it would be apt to say that there are various important character traits which an effective leader is required to have to persuasive skills, motivational skills, integrity of character, effective communication skills, effective time management skills and others (Kissi, Dainty and Tuuli 2013). The effective utilization as well as the conglomeration of all these skills is the factor which lends not only effectiveness but at the same time efficiency to a particular leader (Lewis, Yarker and Donaldson-Feilder 2012).

The Role of Managers

The major job role of a leader since the traditional time is to effective lead the group or the individual who are associated with him or her (Robbins et al. 2013). However, the modern multi-dimensional world of business has made it imperative for the various business leaders to not only undertake the role of leading the group or the individuals to whom he or she is associated but at the same time to undertake various diverse roles like the role of a manager, the role of an effective communicator, motivator, mentor, coach and others (Robbins et al. 2013). Thus, it would be apt to say that the roles as well as the responsibilities of a leader have increased in an exponential manner keeping in synchronicity with the changing requirements of the business world itself (Y?ld?z, Ba?türk and Boz 2014). Many experts are thus of the viewpoint that the leaders of the present times are not only required to shoulder the responsibilities of a leader but they also need to perform the job roles of a manager as well (Wood et al. 2012). Therefore, it would be apt to say that for the growth as well as the overall development of any business enterprise the most important factor which is likely to determine the extent of success achieved by it is the kind of the leaders who are associated with the concerned enterprise and the quality of leadership that they lend to the enterprise (Wood et al. 2012). In addition to this, it is generally seen that a leader is also required to effectively motivate the different employees who are associated with a particular organization so that they are able to perform to their maximum potential (Simha, Armstrong and Albert 2012). This particular job role of a leader had dual benefits for the organization or the enterprise to which he or she is associated, firstly, it helps the leaders to encourage the employees to not only perform to their maximum capability but at the same time it helps them to motivate the employees to undertake the kind of tasks or job roles which are beyond their job roles or expertise and secondly, the enhancement of the performance level of the individual employees in turn is directly associated with  the overall performance level of the enterprise itself (Simha, Armstrong and Albert 2012).

Mentoring and coaching are two essential job roles which an effective leader is required to provide not only to the individual members of the team or the group of which he or she is in-charge but to the entire organization itself (Kissi, Dainty and Tuuli 2013). Thus, it is generally seen that the various leaders of the present times are required to arrange various kinds of secondary skill enhancement training programs for the members of their teams and also the kind of training programs which are likely to provide the individuals with all the information about the recent developments in the industry and this in turn often helps the concerned individuals to not only perform in the best possible manner but at the same time helps in the enhancement of their performance level as well (Kissi, Dainty and Tuuli 2013). In addition to this, the leaders are also required to constantly monitor the performance level of the individuals who are associated with them and to provide them with feedbacks as well as advises on the basis of the kind of performance that they are delivering (Fairhurst and Connaughton 2014). Furthermore, the leaders often take the help of various kinds of tactics like reward and recognition and others to effectively enhance the performance level of the individuals who are a part of the team or the group to which he or she is associated (Fairhurst and Connaughton 2014).

Conclusion

Managers, on the other hand, are the individuals who are imbued with the role of the management of the employees who are associated with the concerned business enterprise (Hunt, Hosking and Schriesheim 2013). It is significant to note that since the traditional times the managers within the framework of the various business enterprises have been used to managing not only the affairs of the enterprise however in the present times with the changing landscape of the business world the manager also needs to perform various kinds of job roles just like the leader of a particular business enterprise (Hunt, Hosking and Schriesheim 2013). It is a reflection of this particular fact that the various managers of the present times in addition to managing the business affairs of the business enterprise with which they are associated also needs to take care of the various internal affairs of the enterprise like the effective management of the diverse employees who are a part of the concerned enterprise (Paul and van Eck-van 2013). Furthermore, a competent manager is also required to effectively plan, direct as well as monitor the business operations of the particular business enterprise to which he or she is associated and also to effectively regulate the fiscal health of the concerned enterprise (Paul and van Eck-van 2013). Moreover a competent manager is also required to take the help of various kinds of effective strategies as well as tactics to ensure that the fiscal health of the business enterprise with which he or she is associated always shows a positive growth (Paul and van Eck-van 2013).  

The changing nature of the modern day business world has also made it important for the various managers to undertake the kind of activities or job roles which have traditionally being ascribed to the Human Resource Management team of any business enterprise (Alfes et al. 2013). It is a reflection of this particular fact that the various managers in the present times are not only required to tend to the external affairs of the business enterprise with which they are associated but at the same time with the internal affairs of the concerned enterprise as well (Alfes et al. 2013). Thus, it is generally seen that the managers in the present times are required to effectively address the grievances of the various employees who are associated with the concerned enterprise (Alfes et al. 2013). In addition to this, it is also seen that in the present times the various managers also play a significant part in the recruitment and selection process which has since the traditional times being the domain of the Human Resource Management team of any business enterprise (Rezvani et al. 2016). Perhaps the most important job role of any manager is to integrate or synchronize the vision, objectives, goals and the targets of the individual employees of the business enterprise with the overall vision, objectives, goals and the targets of the concerned business enterprise (Townsend et al. 2012). This particular job role of the managers is very important since it not only helps the individuals employees as well as the business enterprise itself to be on the same page but at the same time it helps in the enhancement of the performance level of the individual employees and this in turn enhances the overall performance as well as the productivity level of the overall business enterprise (Townsend et al. 2012).


The above mentioned important job roles of the managers as well as the leaders in the context of the present day business world clearly indicates that there are some inherent differences between the job roles of a leader and a manager. This basic difference between the job roles of these two important individuals within the framework of the business enterprise creates the bifurcation of the entire enterprise into two divisions-leadership and management (Hunt, Hosking and Schriesheim 2013). There are some inherent differences between these two important entities of any business enterprise, firstly, a manager is imbued with the role of the creation of goals or target that are relevant to the concerned enterprise whereas a leader, on the other hand, is required to create adequate vision for the concerned enterprise (Hunt, Hosking and Schriesheim 2013). Secondly, the managers are required to maintain the power balance or the status quo of the concerned business enterprise whereas the leaders, on the other hand, are often seen as the agents of change (Paul and van Eck-van 2013). Thirdly, the leaders are required to come with various kinds of innovative original ideas which the concerned business enterprise can utilize to further its prospects in the business world whereas the managers are often required to imitate the strategies or the policies which have proved to be successful in the context of the other successful business enterprises (Paul and van Eck-van 2013). Furthermore, the managers are more likely to control the risks within the framework of the business enterprise whereas the leaders are generally seen as the risk takers (Lewis, Yarker and Donaldson-Feilder 2012). In addition to these, it is generally seen that the decisions made by the leaders are more likely to affect or help the concerned business enterprise in the long term basis whereas the decisions made by the managers are more likely to helpful to the concerned business enterprise in the short term basis (Lewis, Yarker and Donaldson-Feilder 2012). These are some of the basic differences between the managers and the leaders and they in turn determine the actions or the decisions of the leadership or the management team of a particular business enterprise.

The above mentioned job roles as well as the kinds of services which the leaders as well as the managers render to the various business enterprises clearly indicates that the role or the functions rendered by a leader is more than the ones rendered by the managers within the framework of that particular business enterprise. Perhaps one of the major benefits which the various leaders render to a particular business enterprise is that they help in the creation of a continuous learning environment within the domain of the business enterprise wherein the different employees who are associated with the enterprise are not only able to learn diverse kinds of new things that can utilize to complete their job roles in a much better manner but at the same time helps in the creation of the kind of environment which would help them to perform in a much better manner (Robbins et al. 2013). Many experts of the viewpoint that since unlike the managers the leaders do not insist on rules and at the same time encourage the individuals to take risks, create vision, mission as well as set targets and objectives not only for them but at the same time for the individuals who are a part of the team or the enterprise to which they are associated helps in the creation of a continuous learning environment (Wood et al. 2012). Thus, it would be at to say that a strong leadership represented by an effective leader is one of the prerequisites of the modern day business enterprises and as a matter of fact many experts are of the viewpoint that to a certain extent a strong leadership is more important for a business enterprise in comparison to a strong management and often helps in the creation of a continuous learning environment (Wood et al. 2012).


To conclude, the concepts of leadership and managements have formed the lacuna of discussion of many research works as well as books composed since the traditional times. It is significant to note that the primary job role of a leader is to effectively lead the various entities of the business enterprise to which he or she is associated with whereas the job role of a manager is to effectively manage not only the external but also the internal affairs of the concerned enterprise. However, in the recent it is seen that a debate has ensued which has been trying to determine whether the process of leadership is more than for the creation of a continuous learning environment or vice versa. A critical analysis of the kind of job roles which the managers as well as the leaders are required to perform in the context of the present day business world clearly indicates that the leaders as well as the process of leadership are more adapted towards the creation of continuous learning environment which has become one of the most important entities of the modern day organizational culture. It is significant to note in this particular context that the management team of any business enterprise no doubt renders valuable services to the concerned business enterprise but when it comes to the factor of the creation of a continuous learning environment the leadership department of any business enterprise is more better suited than the management team. The creation of a continuous learning environment within the framework of a particular business enterprise provides various kinds of benefits to the concerned enterprise and one of the most basic requirements of this particular environment is the presence of a strong leadership that is likely to act as a catalyst and help in the creation of the required learning environment.

References

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Blomme, R.J., 2012. Leadership, complex adaptive systems, and equivocality: The role of managers in emergent change. Organization Management Journal, 9(1), pp.4-19.

Bolman, L.G. and Deal, T.E., 2017. Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice, and leadership. John Wiley & Sons.

Fairhurst, G.T. and Connaughton, S.L., 2014. Leadership: A communicative perspective. Leadership, 10(1), pp.7-35.

Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R.E. and McKee, A., 2013. Primal leadership: Unleashing the power of emotional intelligence. Harvard Business Press.

Hunt, J.G., Hosking, D.M. and Schriesheim, C.A. eds., 2013. Leaders and managers: International perspectives on managerial behavior and leadership. Elsevier.

Kissi, J., Dainty, A. and Tuuli, M., 2013. Examining the role of transformational leadership of portfolio managers in project performance. International Journal of project management, 31(4), pp.485-497.

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