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Journey from Monolith to Microservices

Microservice architecture proposed with the perspective to overcome the existing challenges and failures while dealing with a large application. Microservice architecture is responsible for providing opportunity so that it can add the resiliency towards the system. These offers an opportunity to manage the company efficiently. It has been observed that microservice architecture aims to read their ability to manage the operations effortlessly. Microservices are Device and platform agnostic which enables to develop applications for enhancing user experience. The research proposal in detail the analyses of the journey from monolithic to micro service architecture. In this research, the soul perspective is to understand the way evaluation has taken place in the previous years. The architecture in detail will be analysed for a better understanding of the operations.

About monolithic software 

Monolithic application is described as a single tiered software applications which allows the user interface and data access code to stay combined within single platform. Monolithic software operates with three-tier architecture which are presentation, application and database. The major features offered by monolithic architecture are simple and easy to implement structure. Monolithic architecture offers faster execution capability due to direct access towards all services. The faster execution is one of the most efficient advantages which is offered with monolithic software (Kazanavi?ius & Mažeika, 2019). The development of the architecture in the monolithic software is discussed below:

  • Monolithic architecture holds a database which includes table for managing the relational database management system.
  • The client-side user interface consists of HTML pages which are used for managing client data sets.
  • Monolithic architecture has a server-side application which focuses on handling HTTP requests for executing the domain specific logic for retrieving and updating data from database (Jaspan et al., 2018).

Monolithic architecture is used in ecommerce application which is responsible for authorizing customers. The major advantages and disadvantages associated with monolithic architecture are discussed below:

  1. The major advantages of utilising monolithic architecture are the simplicity to develop a software. In the beginning of a project, it becomes very easy to go with a monolithic architecture.
  2. Monolithic architecture is also considered to be very simple to test. This helps implementation by focusing on into and testing by simply launching application and testing the UI with selenium (Gos & Zabierowski, 2020).
  3. The use of monolithic architecture is the art to deploy a proper way of home managing the package the application server.
  4. Monolithic architecture allows simply scalability options by running multiple copies behind a load balancer (De Lauretis, 2019).

Apart from the identified benefits, monolithic architecture offers wide range of disadvantages which has created a need for microservice architecture. The major drawbacks which are faced with the implementation and functioning of the services are discussed below:

  • Operational overhead: different stakeholders who are working with the different layer of a monolithic application faces operational overhead conditions. It has been observed that people working on one layer does not have sufficient amount of knowledge associated with other layers (Han et al., 2017). These influences the communication and coordination of the system.
  • Maintenance: In case of the application being larger and complex, then it becomes very difficult to understand the entire performance of the application. It has been observed that a monolithic architecture is very challenging to handle. These does not allow the changes to occur faster (Velepucha & Flores, 2021).
  • Reliability: in case of monolithic architecture, bug in any of the module can potentially bring down the complete the process associated with the architecture.
  • Scalability issue: monolithic architecture does not offer better ability. It has been observed that managing a particular copy for the whole system is very resource intensive (Tapia et al., 2020). In addition to this monolithic architecture also does not scale with data efficiently which leads to delay in operations.
  • Deployment frequency: the deployment frequency is very limited for the whole system. Redeployment fail lead to increase in the perceived risk.

Microservice architecture 


(Source: Kalske, Mäkitalo & Mikkonen, 2017)

In order to overcome the threat and issues faced while using monolithic, microservice architecture was introduced. Microservice architecture is mainly the software development technique introduced with the ability to structure the application. This includes collection of  loosely coupled elements. Over the years, microservice architecture has evolved rapidly providing offer towards the business operations.  Each module associated with microservice is capable of offering a specific business goal which are simple and have well-defined interface for communication. Microservice architecture is capable of providing opportunity for adding value towards the system (Kalske, Mäkitalo & Mikkonen, 2017). This ensures that issues are being resolved efficiently by focusing on the needs of the stakeholders. With the help of a programming styles, it is observed that microservice architecture is capable of offering better benefits and advantages. After analyzing the microservice architecture components, it can be stated that better communication can be carried out with a well-defined interface. One of the leading examples of a monolithic architecture failure is the use of monolithic Architecture by Walmart Canada before 2012 (Hasselbring & Steinacker, 2017). The company says huge glitches are determined while handling 6,000,000 page views per minute. These consumed more time and resulted into fewer sales. In order to overcome the issues encountered, the factory focused on introducing microservice architecture by replacing monolithic architecture so that they can achieve better services. With the implementation of Microservice architecture, downtime was minimized for the company and was able to use its x86 servers to which resulted in cost saving. With the help of a microservice architecture, it is expected that organisations can have a better functionality capability (Krylovskiy, Jahn & Patti, 2015). The reason behind moving to micro service architecture are discussed below:

  • Improves fault isolation capability within the proper implementation of architecture. These offers the developers with the ability to stay aware over the issues.
  • It has been observed that micro service architecture offers a software development company easier to modify technology stack. The focus is on new staff so that a proper efficiency can be implemented (Nadareishvili et al., 2016).
  • Organisations are using microservice architecture so that they can be stay capable of managing their team size for each task.
  • Microservice architecture ensure that better productivity and speed has been introduced within the operations. These provide a better opportunity for dealing with the operations (Cerny, Donahoo & Trnka, 2018).

About Monolithic Software


(Source: Rademacher, Sachweh & Zündorf, 2017)

The architectural difference between monolithic architecture and micro service architecture is described in the above screenshot. Microservice architecture is capable of storing and managing the data sets in a much more efficient manner as compare to the monolithic architecture. The key factors which needed to be considered while choosing a Microsoft over monolithic architecture as below:

  • Independent component: micro service architecture offers independent component ability. These gives more flexibility towards the software development. It is observed that microservice architecture is capable of conducting an analysis over the bugs out so that proper operations can be achieved (Rademacher, Sachweh & Zündorf, 2017).
  • Easier understanding: micro service architecture ensures that easy way of understanding the architecture is being obtained. This focuses on splitting up into smaller and simpler components of order managing and understanding the components.The focus is on having a specific a service associated with the business goal (Chen, Li & Li, 2017).
  • Better scalability: micro service architecture is capable of offering better scalability. It has been observed that cost and time is it even benefits can be octane tweeted the utilisation of micro service architecture (Yarygina & Bagge, 2018). This ensures that the need for appropriate elements is being selected by the businesses.


The paper has discussed about service architecture has been offering benefit towards the businesses. Micro service architecture has been introduced in place of monolithic architecture so that it can offer proper advantages. It is expected that the utilisation of a micro service architecture will have the capability to offer better advantages. These ensure that a better way of dealing with operations is being achieved by the business.


Cerny, T., Donahoo, M. J., & Trnka, M. (2018). Contextual understanding of microservice architecture: current and future directions. ACM SIGAPP Applied Computing Review, 17(4), 29-45.

Han, X., Yang, Z., Zhao, B., Zhu, S., Zhou, L., Dai, J., ... & Hu, L. (2017). Compressible, dense, three-dimensional holey graphene monolithic architecture. ACS nano, 11(3), 3189-3197.

Jaspan, C., Jorde, M., Knight, A., Sadowski, C., Smith, E. K., Winter, C., & Murphy-Hill, E. (2018). Advantages and Disadvantages of a Monolithic Repository.

Nadareishvili, I., Mitra, R., McLarty, M., & Amundsen, M. (2016). Microservice architecture: aligning principles, practices, and culture. " O'Reilly Media, Inc.".

Tapia, F., Mora, M. Á., Fuertes, W., Aules, H., Flores, E., & Toulkeridis, T. (2020). From monolithic systems to microservices: A comparative study of performance. Applied sciences, 10(17), 5797.

Krylovskiy, A., Jahn, M., & Patti, E. (2015, August). Designing a smart city internet of things platform with microservice architecture. In 2015 3rd international conference on future internet of things and cloud (pp. 25-30). IEEE.

Hasselbring, W., & Steinacker, G. (2017, April). Microservice architectures for scalability, agility and reliability in e-commerce. In 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture Workshops (ICSAW) (pp. 243-246). IEEE.

Rademacher, F., Sachweh, S., & Zündorf, A. (2017, April). Differences between model-driven development of service-oriented and microservice architecture. In 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture Workshops (ICSAW) (pp. 38-45). IEEE.

Kalske, M., Mäkitalo, N., & Mikkonen, T. (2017, June). Challenges when moving from monolith to microservice architecture. In International Conference on Web Engineering (pp. 32-47). Springer, Cham.

Chen, R., Li, S., & Li, Z. (2017, December). From monolith to microservices: A dataflow-driven approach. In 2017 24th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference (APSEC) (pp. 466-475). IEEE.

Yarygina, T., & Bagge, A. H. (2018, March). Overcoming security challenges in microservice architectures. In 2018 IEEE Symposium on Service-Oriented System Engineering (SOSE) (pp. 11-20). IEEE.

Kazanavi?ius, J., & Mažeika, D. (2019, April). Migrating legacy software to microservices architecture. In 2019 Open Conference of Electrical, Electronic and Information Sciences (eStream) (pp. 1-5). IEEE.

De Lauretis, L. (2019, October). From monolithic architecture to microservices architecture. In 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops (ISSREW) (pp. 93-96). IEEE.

Gos, K., & Zabierowski, W. (2020, April). The comparison of microservice and monolithic architecture. In 2020 IEEE XVIth International Conference on the Perspective Technologies and Methods in MEMS Design (MEMSTECH) (pp. 150-153). IEEE.

Velepucha, V., & Flores, P. (2021, March). Monoliths to microservices-Migration Problems and Challenges: A SMS. In 2021 Second International Conference on Information Systems and Software Technologies (ICI2ST) (pp. 135-142). IEEE.

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