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You are the nurse looking after Kyle, a 2 year old male admitted to the Paediatric ward with whopping cough. He currently has symptoms of rhinorrhea (runny nose), red, bloodshot eyes, a temperature of 379 degrees Celsius and a paroxysmal cough (repetitive, forceful coughs). Kyle appears lethargic and apathetic.

Serves as a “map” of the essay, outlining to the reader the key points contained in the body of the work.

Discussion of Activities of Living (AoL’s) related to the Case Study – Breathing and Controlling Body Temperature.

Discuss how the AoL’s of breathing and controlling body temperature have been altered for Kyle. Your answer must include the following:

  • An overview of how the two AoL’s may be affected ?
  • How you would assess Kyle in relation to the the two identified AoL’s ?
How you would initially prioritise Kyle’s care needs and then treat his symptoms.

Nursing Care Plan. Using the Nursing Care Plan provided identify one issue related to either breathing or controlling body temperature that has arisen from the case study. From this issue students are required to formulate a plan/goal for improving this issue, identify strategies for meeting the plan/goal and then discuss what evaluative measures will be taken to determine if the plan/ goal was met. 

Activities of Living related to Kyle’s Condition

In this paper, I will present a patient that was placed under my care as a nurse. He was admitted to the pediatric ward with a whooping cough. The patient who is a two-year-old boy is named Kyle. He currently has symptoms of rhinorrhea (a runny nose), bloodshot red eyes, a temperature of 37degree Celsius and a paroxysmal cough (repetitive forceful coughs). The boy looks lethargic and apathetic. Using the activities of living (AOL) related to my case study, I will discuss how Kyle’s breathing and regulating body temperatures have been altered and what can be done to normalize his body condition.

Activities of Living (AOL) is the process of promoting maximum independence through full examination resulting to intervention that further support independence in sectors that seem to be harsh or impossible for the person on their own (Bautmans, et al., 2013, p. 64). The events of living examine the person’s relative independence and viability for independence on a continuum moving from full dependence to complete independence for purposes of revealing what can be done to increase independence while at the same moment determining what will be needed to compensate for dependency (Weaver, 2015, p. 5). AoLs require to be used for the whole time that the patient is engaged. It is a strategy used to determine how the patient can be assisted to learn about, accept, cope with, and upgrade their personal health and difficulties (Mlinac & Feng, 2016, p. 507). Examples of AoLs listed include breathing, communication, sleeping, death and dying.

Breathing is an activity of living in which air is inhaled and exhaled in and out of the lungs through the mouth or nose due to contraction and expansion of muscles (Solomen & Aaron, 2015, p. 237).  Shortness in breathing can result in problems with taking in oxygen that the body needs. One may feel as if he or she is not getting enough air. Mild breathing can result from a stuffy nose. It can also be a sign of a chronic illness that one may be suffering. In addition, one’s breathing can particularly be affected when he or she undergoes strenuous exercises.

Asthma is another factor that can affect breathing (Kim & Mazza, 2011, p. 1).  It is an inflammatory disease of the lungs. It causes difficulties in breathing thus leading to attacks of wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath or tightness in the chest. For one to understand what asthma is, he or she needs to understand how breathing takes place. Normally, when one breathes, air moves through the nose down in the throat up to the lungs. Lungs have a lot of small air passages that help the breathing system to deliver oxygen from the air being absorbed into the bloodstream. When the lining of these passages swell, muscles around them become tight. The pathways are then filled up by mucus hence reducing the amount of air that goes through them. This is what is referred to as asthma.

For healthy people, normal body temperature is estimated to be regulated at around 37 degree Celsius (Wait & Dennis, 2013, p. 29). This is achieved through the body’s ability to regulate heat absorption and production. The body loses excess heat through radiation, conduction and convection. Temperature fluctuations can occur due to various factors, for example, diseases. When someone is sick, a problem occurs in his or her ability to regulate body temperature. Medics believe that the body’s ability to detect heat and initiate balancing mechanisms is low in people with poor health. For example, people with hypertension have a complication in circulating blood to and from their skin surface. This results in complicated heat loss away from their body in hot times and ability to keep heat to their bodies in cold conditions.

Kyle’s Assessment in Regard To the above Aols

A whooping cough leads to uncontrollable coughing in children which in turn leads to difficulties in breathing (Bentley, et al., 2013, p. 14). Breathing is a vital activity of living which should be kept constant for someone to live comfortably. Kyle was admitted to the pediatric ward with a whooping cough. This clearly suggests that he has problems with breathing. A whooping cough is caused by Bordetella pertussis, bacteria that affect the respiratory system. It consequently prevents the body's defense system from excreting germs. This results in the accumulation of mucus in the system hence causing difficulties in breathing. Kyle was experiencing coughing that resulted from trying to inhale through the narrow, inflamed gas pipe. The boy appeared less concerned and lazy. This is a characteristic caused by whooping cough due to the inability to draw breath. It is a clear show that his breathing activity of breathing was affected. Bloodshot eyes state which was observed in the boy majorly results from persisted coughing. This is always a clear indication that one's breathing is at a problem (Heiting, 2018).

Several researchers have identified the average body temperature to be 37 degree Celsius (Carissa, 2018). However, the temperatures can vary from 36.8 degree Celsius to around 38 degree Celsius depending on which part of the body the thermometer was placed. Children are believed to have affected body temperatures if the readings go above 37.2 degree Celsius. For Kyle, his body temperature was taken to be 37degree Celsius which is a normal temperature for a baby. Out of this, I can say that Kyle's temperature is still in its normal states. It has not been affected.

A nursing care plan provides a nurse with direction on the type of care the patient may need (Herold-Majumdar, et al., 2017, p. 34). It mainly focuses on the facilitation of standardized care to a patient. Nursing care plans have been in use for quite a long period of time for human reasons though they have been expanded to veterinary services nowadays (Johanna, 2013, p. 324). The plan in-cooperates several components namely assessment, evaluation, plans and implementation of the set plans. Planning involves identifying the problem and searching for possible ways through which the problem can be solved. Thereafter, possible interventions will have to be listed and finally, an assessment will be done to check if the set goals were achieved.

In this section, I am going to prepare a nursing care plan for Kyle. It is a plan that will help me or any other nurse that might be placed under the care of the boy in my absentia on how to help the boy’s breathing system get back to normal (Araújo, et al., 2013, p. 381).






Rhinorrhea (a runny nose)

Red bloodshot eyes

37 degree Celsius of body temperature

Repetitive and forceful coughing

Tiredness and loss of motivation

After intervening, I will:

a)     Acquire enough and relevant data in relation to the illness (a whooping cough). This will include causes and preventive measures of the disease. I will have to administer the required health care assistance to the Kyle.

b)    Look for mitigating activities that will help to fight the spreading of the illness.

c)     To reduce or completely stop the repetitive coughing

Kyle will be given preventive antibiotics to help his immune in fighting the bacteria

He needs plenty of rest to help him rest and relax better.

Administer plenty of fluids for him to drink.

His hands must be washed often and a mask used to prevent transmission of the illness.

After three hours of nursing, Kyle repetitive coughing had ceased.

After four hours of bed rest, Kyle’s temperature was still 37degree Celsius.

Six hours later, the boy appeared more energized and motivated.

After ten hours of care and intervention, the patient’s eyes had resumed normality. Runny nose symptoms had also disappeared.

Estimated goals were met.


Hospital-based health care has many advantages than disadvantages. It is an ideal option for anyone with a patient. Since this care is in a hospital setting, nurses, doctors and other medical care practitioners are always available on hourly bases. Every patient is assigned to a specific nurse who will take care of him or her. This improves the care a patient needs since the nurse will always make available what the patient needs. The nurse prepares a customized nursing care plan which helps him or her to admit the correct medication to the patient until he or she recovers.

AoLs are vital to our growth. One feels happy when all the activities of living are available. This is a clear indication of how much fun and exploration one can have when they are physically fit. We all need to keep our environments clean and free from bacteria. If someone is suspected to be experiencing a difficulty with the AoLs, it is crucial for him or her to seek medical support. Active lifestyles must also be maintained.

The nursing process offers a detailed and organized process that caters to the individual needs of any patient, their immediate family or any other significant person. Nurses have a detailed plan that channels all their required attention to the patients under their care. The use of the whole nursing process offers a programmed problem-solving plan that reduces possible dangerous errors or omissions in offering nursing care to a patient. It also saves time by minimizing repetition.


Araújo, A. A. d., Nóbrega, M. M. L. d. & Garcia, T. R., 2013. Nursing diagnoses and interventions for patients with congestive heart failure using the ICNP. Rev Esc Enferm USP, 47(2), pp. 380-387.

Bautmans, E., Cornelius, E., Petrovic, M. & Vriendt, P. d., 2013. The advanced activities of daily living: A tool allowing the evaluation of subtle functional decline in mild cognitive impairment. The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging, 17(1), pp. 64-71.

Bentley, J., Pinfield, J. & Rouse, J., 2013. Whooping cough: identification, assessment and management. Nurs Stand, 28(11), pp. 13-19.

Carissa, S., 2018. What Is the Normal Body Temperature Range?. [Online]
Available at:
[Accessed 15 August 2018].

Heiting, G., 2018. Red Eyes (Bloodshot Eyes). [Online]
Available at:
[Accessed 15 August 2018].

Herold-Majumdar, A., Schaller, M., Fleische, S. & Behrens, J., 2017. Effects of nursing care planning tools on nurses’ and residents’ quality of life in long-term care facilities: A literature review. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 7(4), pp. 32-42.

Johanna, P., 2013. Implementation of nursing care plans: a review of three cases — Part 3. Veterinary Nursing Journal, 28(10), pp. 324-326.

Kim, H. & Mazza, J., 2011. Asthma. ALLERGY, ASTHMA & CLINICAL, Issue 7, pp. 1-9.

Mlinac, M. E. & Feng, M. C., 2016. Assessment of Activities of Daily Living, Self-Care, and Independence. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, Volume 31, pp. 506-516.

Solomen, S. & Aaron, P., 2015. Breathing techniques- A review. International Journal of Physical Education, Sports and Health, 2(2), pp. 237-241.

Wait, T. & Dennis, P., 2013. Measurement of Body Temperature. The Journal of Clinical Examination, Volume 7, pp. 29-41.

Weaver, L. L., 2015. Effectiveness of Work, Activities of Daily Living, Education, and Sleep Interventions for People With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review. 69(5), pp. 1-11.

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