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Causes to the problems

Discuss about the Organizational Development and Change Management.

The process is concerned with aiding the business organizations in advancing through the change in the norms, policies, procedures, leadership, controlling or job re-design. The prime objective of the concept of organizational development is to bring developments and improvements in the effectiveness and efficiency with the business corporation (Qantas 2018). The theory of organizational development has been segmented into three main segments that are organizational culture, organizational climate and organizational strategy. This process is a continuous procedure that is based on managing future change based on the diagnosis, planning and evaluation. The concept of organizational development can also be simply defined as technique or mechanism used for initiating change in the entire aspects of the business corporation. And this is done as the change will be readily absorbed or adopted. On the basis of the research executed by French and Bell, it has been identified that “organizational development is a long-range effort for improving the business enterprise problem-solving and regeneration procedure. This is done through a more effective and collective management of enterprise culture with particular prominence to the formal work teams with assistance of change agent. The below presented is the analyzed report that is made focused on Qantas airways. The business entity is a multinational brand in the airlines sector of Australia. The organization was founded in Queensland in the year 1920 and at present is the Australia’s largest and biggest domestic and international airlines. The business corporation is focused in developing, designing and offering quality products to the consumers the maximum level of satisfaction. The below executed report is developed with a prime objective of solving the challenges faced due to technological changes. The business entity is facing number of problems due to the technological changes in the business environment. The below executed analysis is focused on solving the mentioned problems.

The present scenario is focused on the technological problems faced by Qantas Airways. On the basis of the analysis it has been clearly identified that there are number of internal and external factors that are contributing in the issues. According to the survey made by global consulting firm Protiviti (Benn, Dunphy & Griffiths 2014), it has been observed that due to modernization and globalization the business corporations are stepping ahead and increasing their investments in technology and this is also increasing their dependency on IT resources. The firm’s 2012 IT Audit benchmarking survey has presented a list of top technological challenges that can be faced by the business entities. It has also been observed that number of business enterprises fail to conduct any type of IT audit risk assessment and due to which experience critical gaps and issues. The below presented is the list of the top 10 technological issues that can be experienced by Qantas airways:

  • Cloud computing
  • Information security
  • Regulatory compliance
  • Social media
  • Risk management and governance
  • Technology integration and up-gradation
  • Infrastructure management
  • Resource management
  • Fraud monitoring
  • Business continuity/ disaster recovery

Lewin's Change Management Model

The above mentioned are all the technological issues that can be experienced by Qantas airways and there are number of internal and external components that are held liable for stimulating and affecting the business environment of the entity (Bogers & West 2012). Moreover, there are varied ranges of change models that can be used by the business firm for making understand the organizational and structured change and also the causes of the issues faced. One of the best approaches that can be utilized by Qantas airways is Lewin’s change management model. This model is one of the most recognized and effective management model that is possibly used for understanding the changes in the organizational structure and business environment. This management model was designed and developed by Kurt Lewin in 1950. Kurt Lewin was a physicist and social scientist who described the structured and organizational change by making use of changing states of a block of ice (Brigham & Ehrhardt 2013). The below is the description of the change model:

Unfreezing: The first step of the model is all about preparing for the change. This step is describing the significance of change and its need in the business corporation. In simpler terms the approach is referred to the procedure of maintaining and keeping the old and rigid norms aside that are held responsible for hampering the prosperity and success of a business corporation (By, Burnes & Oswick 2011). The model pay a significant role in making the people understand the importance of the change as it has been observe that most individuals around the world try to resist change. The Lewin’s change model is the mechanism that is aiming to open the mind of the individuals or the workforce of the business corporation for bringing and adopting new and immediate changes. The prime objective of this approach is explaining the individuals about the reason why the current process or procedures need change and what will be the profits that will be earned by the adoption of change Qantas airways will have to organize number of programs and training sessions for making the workforce understand the significance of change. Under this approach the senior authorities and the managers of the business corporation shall aid and assist the workforce to have an open-minded thinking capability (By, Burnes & Oswick 2012). And thus the stage of unfreezing is primarily concerned with a task of stimulating the mindset of the individuals against different situations of the business environment.

Internal factors

Change: This is the stage or the step where the occurrence of the real transition takes place. In simpler terms change or transition is referred to the procedure under which new and innovative ideas are learned and implemented by the management of Qantas Airways. The process is considered as a time consuming one, as usually it is observed that the individuals take time to embrace new happenings, advancements, and changes (Calegari, Sibley & Turner 2015). At this stage, the significance is given to good leadership and re-assurance as the mentioned aspects not only lead to direct forward in the correct direction but will also aid in simplifying the process for the workforce who are involved in the process. The management of Qantas airways should take initiative and assist the workforce in making the adaption of changes and making them generate new and innovative ideas for performing the functions. Moreover, the change in the business may also generate situations of conflicts and create issues and under these conditions, the workforce is required to maintain patience level within the organization.

Refreeze: At this stage, the business entity is understood with the concept that the change has been successfully accepted, embraced and implemented by the workforce and the business corporation is regaining stability (Cameron & Green 2015). This is the time when everything starts refreezing and staff and processes are coming back to their normal place and routine. Moreover, at this stage, the employees are expected to deliver with whatever they have been taught during the course of a process of change management. And the activities are required to be incorporated into the routine operational activities.

The above demonstrated is the change model that is one of the approaches to change management. The further described are the internal and the external factors that are the cause of the problems:

  • Cloud computing: Cloud computing is all about storing, processing and managing the data at one place by utilizing a network of remote servers rather than making use of the local server or personal computer (Carter et al. 2013). This system has been considered as one of the biggest aid for a firm as it keeps the compresses the data and processing are also done at the same time that can bring an increase in the quality of the data. Apart from all the benefits this system is one of the biggest factors of threat and can cause issues for an enterprise. For instance, the data of the clients of Qantas airways stored in the cloud system can be exposed to threats as no system is perfectly secure and hence has been considered as one of e biggest cause of a technological issue.
  • Technology integration and up-gradation: Technology is advancing rapidly and thus the business organizations are having loads of pressure of making the successful implementation of updated technology and various means and mechanisms in the operations and organizational structure (Chatenier et al. 2010). The toughest task is making the decision regarding the choice of techniques and tools that will suit best to the business organization. And this can also be considered as a challenge for the business as the choice of the mechanisms and techniques should be appropriate and relevant and it should prove beneficial to the business firm. Big data, virtualization, and cloud computing are some of the examples of the contemporary mechanisms and will be proven advantageous for the enterprise. And if the business firm fails to do so then this will come across as a barrier to the success and growth.
  • Information security: As Qantas airways are a multinational corporation and have a huge pool of customers and clients (Coghlan, Rashford & de Figueiredo 2015). The business entity is required to safeguard the data and personal and confidential information of the clients. This is one of the crucial tasks and is required to be done effectively and efficiently. The confidential data of the clients is required to be safeguarded for maintaining their trust and loyalty. The process of safeguarding the data is time-consuming and is also expensive. And this can be considered as a challenge for the business.
  • Social media: The social media has been considered as one of the biggest platforms for marketing the products and services for any of the business firm. This platform offers the wide range of benefits to the business enterprise. But it is not necessary that social media suits to every business organization (De Waal et al. 2014). In case of Qantas, there are the number of issues that can be raised if the business entity is making adoption of this platform for making marketing and promotional activities. The below mentioned are some of the challenges that will be faced by the business firm:

Not having a clear social media plan will be proven dis-advantageous for the business firm.

Qantas Airways will have to gather additional resources for managing the online presence and this will be proven expensive to the entity and will be an issue for the firm (Fry 2017).

Moreover, the process should be updated and monitored on regular basis and that will require the business entity to employ additional workforce for performing these operations.

If the business corporation is failing in actively managing the online presence then they will fail to enjoy the real benefits.  

  • Governing authorities: The technological environment of the business firm is stimulated mostly by the regulations and norms imposed by the governing authorities. For instance, in the present scenario, Qantas airways have to maintain the health and safety of the passengers traveling through the flights as prescribed by the governing authorities (Gassmann, Enkel & Chesbrough 2010). Maintaining the norms and regulations is a crucial task and also proves expensive for the firm and hence has been considered as one of the biggest external factors of issues for the business enterprise.
  • Marketing trends: On the basis of the executed research it has been observed that market has rapidly changing trends. These trends are capable of stimulating the business environment for any of the firm. And hence the business entities are required to maintain an updated organizational structure that is enough capable of coping-up with the changing trends. But if the business enterprise fails in doing so then these changing trends will come across as a challenge.

External factors

The change process has been considered as a sequence or a list of practices that a project leader or manager will be following for the application of the change management to a change in order for driving individual transitions and also ensuring the task is accomplishing the determined targets (Hayes 2014). The change process has been recognized as one of the integral tasks for the business firm. As mentioned in the present scenario Qantas Airways can face the presented technological issues and for which the entity is required to develop a change process. The process of change management has evolved over the years with change management models, processes and plans developed for aiding the impact change process can have on the business organization.  The below presented is the change management process that is required to be adopted by the organization for tackling the technological challenges faced by the enterprise. The presenter is the 8 steps model developed and designed by John Kotter’s and this can be adopted by Qantas airways:

Since most of the changes occur for improving the operations, product or an outcome it is an empirical task to identify the focus and to clarify the targets to be attained. This will also require the identification of resources and workforce that will facilitate the operations of the change process (Helfat & Martin 2015). Knowing what is required to be changed will enable the employees to focus the efforts in a right direction.

The business organization has several hierarchies of stakeholders within the business organization that plays an integral role in the organizational structure and hence it is of very much essential to present a solid business case in front of the stakeholders (Hon, Bloom & Crant 2014).

This step can be considered as the roadmap through which the business entity will be attaining the desired targets and outcomes (Hornstein 2015). The entity will also integrate resources required, the expenses to be incurred and objectives of the plan. This step is a critical element as providing a planned multi-step process will be proven advantageous rather than providing sudden unplanned changes.  A well-planned change management process for the IT services will bring a reduction in the impact of the IT infrastructure changes on the business.

Making the availability of resources for any of the operation or process is one of the crucial elements. For the adoption of change process resources identification and providing financial support is one of the crucial task (Johnson 2015). These can include the provision of equipment’s, tools, software systems and infrastructure. Moreover, the data collected should be evaluated for developing a clarity in communication among the organizational structure. This will be proven beneficial while making implementing the change process.

The term communication has been considered as “golden thread” that is considered as the connecting bridge and runs throughout the whole change process (Johnston & Marshall 2016). A proper communication is required for a successful completion of any of the process or operation and same is with the change process. The managers and the senior authorities are required to communicate relevant data or information to the team and other employees so as to make them understand the need for change and benefits of the same.

A detailed research is required to be executed over the operations and related aspects so as to evaluate the risks (King, Hopkins & Cornish 2017). Moreover, resistance is the most basic part of the change process and it is capable enough to threaten the success of the project. Resistance occurs due to fear of unknown risk associated with the change.

Recognizing milestones is an essential part of any of the task. It is significant to recognize the success of the team and workforce involved (Langley et al. 2013). This will aid in making the adaption of change management process.

Review, revise and continuous improvement

This change process is a continuous process (Lozano 2013). Regular reviewing is required throughout the process and also necessary improvements are also required to be made for better outcomes.

The managers are recommended to offer proper guidance on all the aspects associated with the change process. Clarity in communication should be maintained by top management and transparency throughout the operations is also required. Regular motivation and training sessions should be offered to the teams (Million & S. Bossaller, 2015). Proper leadership should be pursued by the managers so as to ensure the completion of tasks and allotted projects within the deadline and a proper leadership will also bring improved outcomes in the form of increased efficiency and productivity.

Marinating positive attitude towards the work and task allotted is one of the top recommendations that are required to be made. Positivity in nature and acceptance should be shown by the employees towards the changes implemented by the management. Activeness in the work and less resistance will develop a positive environment (Ouma 2017). Moreover, working with co-operation and mutual understanding will be aiding the team while performing the tasks.

One of the best recommendations for the similar organizations in the sector is that the business entity should review and analyze the organizational structure and evaluate the need for change (Poff & Zimmerman 2010). The change process is an empirical requirement for any of the business organization and is required to be implemented with greater efficiency for desired and better outcomes.

Conclusion

After summing up the above-executed analysis it has been analyzed that development and change process has been considered as one of the integral tasks for any of the business organization and that is required to be executed with great effectiveness and efficiency. The above report details the technological issues faced by Qantas airways in Australia which may hinder expansion as the entity is planning to make adoption of change management process.

References

Benn, S., Dunphy, D. & Griffiths, A., (2014). Organizational change for corporate sustainability. Routledge.

Bogers, M. & West, J., (2012). Managing distributed innovation: Strategic utilization of open and user innovation. Creativity and innovation management, 21(1), pp.61-75.

Brigham, E.F. & Ehrhardt, M.C., (2013). Financial management: Theory & practice. Cengage Learning.

By, R.T., Burnes, B. & Oswick, C., (2011). Change management: The road ahead. Journal of Change Management, 11(1), pp.1-6.

By, R.T., Burnes, B. & Oswick, C., (2012). Change management: Leadership, values and ethics. Journal of Change Management, 12(1), pp.1-5.

Calegari, M.F., Sibley, R.E. & Turner, M.E., (2015). A Roadmap for Using Kotter's Organizational Change Model to Build Faculty Engagement in Accreditation. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 19(3), p.31.

Cameron, E. & Green, M., (2015). Making sense of change management: A complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change. Kogan Page Publishers.

Carter, M.Z., Armenakis, A.A., Feild, H.S. & Mossholder, K.W., (2013). Transformational leadership, relationship quality, and employee performance during continuous incremental organizational change. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34(7), pp.942-958.

Chatenier, E.D., Verstegen, J.A., Biemans, H.J., Mulder, M. & Omta, O.S., (2010). Identification of competencies for professionals in open innovation teams. R&d Management, 40(3), pp.271-280.

Coghlan, D., Rashford, N.S. & de Figueiredo, J.N., (2015). Organizational change and strategy: An interlevel dynamics approach. Routledge.

De Waal, G.A., Maritz, A., Scheepers, H., McLoughlin, S. & Hempel, B., (2014). A conceptual framework for guiding business transformation and organizational change in innovative ICT projects. International Journal of Organizational Innovation (Online), 7(2), p.6.

Fry, R., (2017). Richard Beckhard: The Formulator of Organizational Change. The Palgrave Handbook of Organizational Change Thinkers, pp.91-105.

Gassmann, O., Enkel, E. & Chesbrough, H., (2010). The future of open innovation. R&d Management, 40(3), pp.213-221.

Hayes, J., (2014). The theory and practice of change management. Palgrave Macmillan.

Helfat, C.E. & Martin, J.A., (2015). Dynamic managerial capabilities: Review and assessment of managerial impact on strategic change. Journal of Management, 41(5), pp.1281-1312.

Hon, A.H., Bloom, M. & Crant, J.M., (2014). Overcoming resistance to change and enhancing creative performance. Journal of Management, 40(3), pp.919-941.

Hornstein, H.A., (2015). The integration of project management and organizational change management is now a necessity. International Journal of Project Management, 33(2), pp.291-298.

Johnson, A.R., (2015). The effect of leadership style on employee engagement within an organizational environment of change: A correlational study(Doctoral dissertation, Capella University).

Johnston, M.W. & Marshall, G.W., (2016). Sales force management: Leadership, innovation, technology. Routledge.

King, S., Hopkins, M. & Cornish, N., (2017). Can models of organizational change help to understand ‘success’ and ‘failure’in community sentences? Applying Kotter’s model of organizational change to an Integrated Offender Management case study. Criminology & Criminal Justice, p.1748895817721274.

Langley, A., Smallman, C., Tsoukas, H. & Van de Ven, A.H., (2013). Process studies of change in organization and management: Unveiling temporality, activity, and flow. Academy of Management Journal, 56(1), pp.1-13.

Lozano, R., (2013). Are companies planning their organisational changes for corporate sustainability? An analysis of three case studies on resistance to change and their strategies to overcome it. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 20(5), pp.275-295.

Million, A.J. & S. Bossaller, J., (2015). Strike While the Iron Is Hot: Change Management in the Context of a New Political Administration. Journal of Library Administration, 55(2), pp.92-113.

Ouma, C., (2017). Planning for Organizational Change and the Role of Leadership in Implementing Change. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development, 6(7).

Poff, N.L. & Zimmerman, J.K., (2010). Ecological responses to altered flow regimes: a literature review to inform the science and management of environmental flows. Freshwater Biology, 55(1), pp.194-205.

Qantas, (2018). Our company, Assessed on 26th February 2018, https://www.qantas.com/travel/airlines/company/global/en.

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