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Population and its Factors

Question:

Discuss About The Population And Development Poor Countries?

Population refers to the number of organisms in an area over a given time (Simon, 2014). Therefore, human population would refer to as the total sum of people living in a country. Various factors not limited to access to good health care, sanitation, increased income, technological improvements and availability of immunization as well as access  to clean water have changed the size and the structure of population(Lanrewaju,  (2012 ).

Australia is among the most urbanized countries of the world with youthful population making the better part of its population composition (Sharon, de Weck, & Dori, 2014).  The youthful composition is rapidly causing rise in dependency ratio. Currently, most youth are finding settlement in urban areas of Australia with or without employment and as this trend continues the level of disproportions and inequities upsurges to a considerable number in growth and development for instance few doctors attending to many patients.

Simon (2014) posits that the population of any place at any given time should have available food to sustain it for a longer period of time. Therefore the question of availability of food and population growth need to be taken seriously by the government simply because there is a direct link between food and population growth. The world demographic statistics point at serious change in population even though the changes are not  uniform across the countries because of various factor faced by individual country.


Effects of overpopulation on the cost living are of great import to study bearing in mind the weight it has on the humanity in Australia. Human overpopulation is predominantly among the most pressing environmental matters accelerating the skyrocketing of the cost of living. Overpopulation has seen consumption and use of natural resources at speeds faster than their renewal. It has brought to effect the following; inadequacy of fresh water. According to UN-Water, 75% of the planet earth is covered by water. This 75% is further sub-divided into fresh and salty water whereby only 1% makes the fresh water that is accessible for direct human consumption. Therefore, according to the projections by UN, by 2025 the demand for water is likely to increase to 70% thereby putting the humanity at stake.

The stake here is seen as global water crisis people are likely to face by 2030 since the use is at faster rate than that the rate of replenishment. Secondly, increased human diseases is as a result of high population growth this according to World Health Organization. According to Van den Eede, Heffernan, Aylwar, Hobson, Neels, Mueller, & Covaci, (2015), overpopulation aggravates several social and environmental factors not limited to crowded living conditions, malnutrition and pollution which cause strain on the limited health care consequently increasing the cost of health. Thirdly, natural resource depletion comes to the fore when human population bursts. Natural resources like fresh water reduce due to overconsumption by the ever swelling population. Fourth, increased crime rate is witnessed as the exploding population demands and competes for the slimming resources.

Effects of Overpopulation on Cost of Living

When competition for the few resources increases, vices like theft comes into play for survival consequently the cost of security elevates. The research proposal will revolve around the effects of overpopulation on the cost of living and the adoptions to control overpopulation in Australia as an urbanized country with a range of pressures resulting from population growth. This study will and  look at green house emission leading to global warming and then on the cost of living and possibly see if there is need to have the Australian population (Van den Eede, Heffernan, Aylward, Hobson, Neels, Mueller & Covaci, 2015).

 The work will consist of three sections; section I which has the introduction, Problem Statement, Aims and Objective, and Justification of Research proposal. Section II contains Conceptual Framework, Theory (hypothesis) of the Research and Methodology. Section III will have the Organization of the Study, Gantt chart and the proposal’s Budget.

Overpopulation, today, is regarded as one of the major concerns of the world. Toth and Szigeti (2016), holds that the population of a nation rises as it grows as a result of different influences like good medical health care. But when a countries ‘carrying limit’ is exceeded, it begins to face various severe challenges not limited  to high unemployment, and natural resource exhaustion leading to a considerable rise in the cost living. The population growth rate in the world is rising at an alarming speed during past few years. Research has shown that the world population has doubled over between 1959-1999. Population has been approximated to be at 50% by 2038 and further projected to be at 10 billion by 2050 in the entire world (Rosa and Dietz, 2012)

Although many nations suffer from the population increase, it differs from developed to developing countries. It is comparatively slower in developed countries than in developing nations like in EU (0.23%), US (0.81%) compared to (India 1.19%, Afghanistan 2.34%, and Bangladesh-1.05%). Moreover, the rate of population increase is not uniform across the countries. Simon (2014), maintains that the undeveloped nations are hurt more from the problem of population explosion as than to developed countries. According to Fletcher, Breitling and Puleo, (2014), excess population leads to faster exhaustion of natural resources. Consequently, an imbalance in demand and supply of resources occurs thereby the cost of living phenomenally rises. Today, the cost of living is rising in  developed as well as developing countries alike for instance by end 2017, cost of living  is expected to rise by 6% in United Kingdom. Likewise, cost of living index is observed in the Asian countries causing the top cities in these countries considerably expensive for living (Toth and Szigeti, 2016).

Objectives of the Study

Upsurge in the cost of living in the world can be directly attributed to faster increase in the population (Lanrewaju, 2012). This global predicament is coming about because of the increase in settlement causes rise in the value of land which makes it unaffordable to the low income earners. These poor people and the less privileged are therefore, unable to access proper housing with good plumbing, electricity and proper heating since they can only afford slums with little or no facilities hence subjected to substandard living.

The object of this research Study is intended to examine the effect of over-growing population on the cost of living globally.

The following are the objectives of the Study are as follows;

  • Identify and examine the theories related to overpopulation and cost of living
  • Pinpoint elements contributing to rapid growth in population in various countries
  • Analyze the cost of living of countries with population explosion

Overpopulation is a widespread catastrophe in waiting. Both the developing and the developed countries are on the brink of this dangerous thing that if no measures are taken to put it into check, then humanity will irrecoverably be fixed in a perpetual misery of unknown boundaries. Overpopulation is threatening the cost of living. It is causing an increase in the cost of living because the as the population increases, the resources required are not regenerated at the same rate therefore, the resources are growing scarcer to sustain the doubling population. For instance when population rises, demand for more settlement increases with no increase in the size of land consequently, housing become inadequate and expensive.

Many people will resort to slum dwelling where life is unworthy living (Lanrewaju, 2012). Therefore, there is need for a study such as this that can help combat explosion of human population. Governments can make good use of the study to establish relationship between cost of living and overpopulation and thereby make policies to guard population growth. This study is overly important to salvage man across the globe from the silently looming misery. Finally this study will go a long way in assisting the researchers on the ways to find solutions to the challenges related to overpopulation in Australia. Also, it will enlighten and familiarize the society on the detrimental effects of overpopulation on the cost of living.

Overpopulation is already a problem with world that if initial steps are taken to fix the causes then then whole world may risk running into a terrible situation.  The purpose of this review is to discuss the impact of population explosion in relation to the cost of living. Overpopulation has resulted into; over exhaustion of natural resource. As the population grows need for consumption increases thereby piling pressure on the resources available hence the resources grow scarcer. When scarcity comes in, demand increases which finally will reflect on expensive price of resources like land; increased cost of living. Unhygienic environment. Countries with overcrowded people tend to be dirty as a result of several activities compounded with human wastes. This, therefore increases costs on waste collection which is again reflected on the lives of those people. Lawlessness reigns in areas where there population explosion and this results in employment of security personnel and other security facilities like CCTvs. This in turn is felt by the common people of such countries.

Thomas Malthus' Views on Population

Today, population is increasing at an alarming rate than never. Various countries are populating without measures that something ought to be done as the study is going to reveal the consequences if something is left to chance like those that are highlighted by Malthus in his articles. In Malthus articles not only mentions the negatives of overpopulation but also clearly highlights the positive effects that overpopulation has caused. Many countries have believed that overpopulation is a lesser problem than others and therefore, take little measures to contain it. They lazily handle it while  food prices rise because of scarcity, health care is filthy, quality of education is degraded and generally the quality of lives are getting worse than before.

Thomas Malthus communicated his views about population and how it affected the future improvement in the society. He protested views that perfect state could achieved if restraints on human are removed. Malthus suggested that instead pressure would piled against the available resources like food if population would be left to grow without control which would finally bring misery in the world. The theory explains the relationship between supply in food and human population growth. Human population grows faster than food regeneration and if left uncontrolled, would ultimately bring untold suffering. Malthusian stated that;

Human beings are naturally inclined to sex therefore, increase faster in number i.e. in geometric progression, doubles after every 25th year. For example, in successive years the population would be 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32… (After 200 years). On the contrary, food supply rises in arithmetic progression due to the law of diminishing return bearing the fact that land remains constant hence food supply in the successive years would be 1,2,3,4,5,6,7…( in 200 years’ time). Since population and food supply increases in the opposite directions, population outruns food supply and then a state of imbalance comes in to bring overpopulation (Rosa & Dietz, 2012).

To control  the imbalance, Malthus came up with the following checks; man to put in place celibacy, late marriage, sexual restraint and should people ignore the checks then the following vices would come into play to reduce population growth;  misery, wars, theft, diseases and pestilence.

Regaring the aforementioned Problem Statement and Objectives, the following research assumptions can be verified:

  • H(1): Null hypothesis: Population increase has no impact on the cost of living
  • H(2) : Alternate hypothesis: Population increase does impact on the cost of living

The following methods will be employed so as to successfully analyze the objects of this research proposal. In this research proposal, it will be essential to extensively examine secondary data on the cost living as well as overpopulation. There are numerous aspects linked with the upswing in cost of living. In order to understand and elucidate how these aspects bring about change in cost of living, then examination of each is indispensable. Different aspects concerning the cost of living will be picked from different countries and analyzed. For overpopulation as well, there many factors related to it. Research shall be carried out on these aspects from the selected books and journals and the relation between overpopulation and cost of living will be established(Warburton, Christensen,2013) Online data bases, books and journals will be used to collect secondary data connected to the cost of living and overpopulation. Also, online government records will be used to assemble information on the change on population from different countries.

Conclusion

Research will be conducted using primary data collection and qualitative method will be used in such collection. Several information collected will be subjected to scrutiny to a thought on population increase. Questionnaires will also be prepared and distributed out to the target group.

Two methods will be employed to analyze data i.e. Qualitative and Quantitative methods. Qualitative take into consideration interviews with specialists who possess the required information in the related disciplines shall be done (Lewis, 2015). Non probability sampling will also shall be used to first-rate the interviewees and then organize a group discussion with the experts so as to get comprehensive insight on the subject of the study. Quantitative will use figures, pie charts, and mathematical as well as statistical methods, for instance descriptive statistics like mean, standard deviation and median. Regression analysis will also be instrumental in measuring to what extent does population increment affect cost of living (Ott & Longnecker, 2015).

Examination of information from the National Bureau of Human Statistics that looks into the demographic dynamics Australia. This study will consider a combination of the aforementioned methodologies so as to point at the exact solution of the problem as highlighted in the statement of the problem. Responses from the surveys and questionnaires will be arranged and grouped depending on different influences so as to reach at the relevant findings e.g. population-related effects, strategies implemented and multivariate analysis of the factors affecting population will be analyzed and then presented

References

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 Farsi, S., & Gazni, A. (2015). Research Budget and Its Impact on the Quantity and Quality of Research Activities in Universities and Research Institutes1. Spectrum, 4(2).

Fletcher, R., Breitling, J. and Puleo, V., 2014. Barbarian hordes: the overpopulation scapegoat in international development discourse. Third World Quarterly, 35(7), pp.1195-1215.

Hodgson, D. G. (2015). Book Review: Political Descent: Malthus, Mutualism, and the Politics of  Evolution in Victorian England by Piers J. Hale.

 Hua, F., Tian, C., Ying, X., & Sun, Y. (2014, June). Order planning and scheduling of rod and  wire production based on Gantt chart. In Intelligent Control and Automation (WCICA),     2014 11th World Congress on (pp. 3417-3421). IEEE.

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Lanrewaju, A. F. (2012). Urbanization, housing quality and environmental degeneration in Nigeria. Journal of Geography and Regional Planning, 5(16), 422-429.

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Rosa, E. A., & Dietz, T. (2012). Human drivers of national greenhouse-gas emissions. Nature       Climate Change, 2(8), 581. Toth, G., & Szigeti, C. (2016). The historical ecological   footprint: From over-population to over-consumption. Ecological Indicators, 60, 283-291.     Kelley, T. R., &

Sharon, A., de Weck, O., & Dori, D. (2014). Teaching and Assessing Project-Product Lifecycle   Management and Gantt chart Models to Systems Engineers: A Comparative Study.   Submitted       for publication. Hua, F., Tian, C., Ying, X., & Sun, Y. (2014, June).

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Simon, J. L. (2014). Population and development in poor countries: Selected essays. Princeton University Press.

Toth, G. and Szigeti, C., 2016. The historical ecological footprint: From over-population to over-  consumption. Ecological Indicators, 60, pp.283-291.

Van den Eider, N., Heffernan, A. L., Aylward, L. L., Hobson, P., Neels, H., Mueller, J. F., &       Covaci, A. (2015). Age as a determinant of phosphate flame retardant exposure of the             Australian population and identification of novel urinary PFR metabolites. Environment          international, 74, 1-8.

Warburton, D., & Christensen, L. B. (2013). Approaches to the Origins of Religion: A      methodological Approach. London: Equinox.

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