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1) “An American [rather than a regional] dilemma” [Gunnar Myrdal, 1944]. Discuss with reference to modern American race relations.

2) Which characterisation better fits the United States since 1900: “a nation of immigrants” or “a nation of nativists”?

3) Is the United States an immigrant nation?

4) How closely are race and class linked in the United States?

5) Can the United States be considered, in any meaningful sense, a “classless” society?

6) To what extent are American politics and/or culture “faith-based”?

7) How useful is the wave metaphor for understanding modern American women’s rights activism?

8) How successful have modern American women’s rights activists been in pursuing their goals?

9) In modern politics, have Americans voted against their self-interest, and if so, why?

10) Assess the role of any combination of the following on recent American politics: class, race, religion, economics, gender.

11) “The past is never dead. It’s not even past” [William Faulkner, 1951]. Discuss.

The History of Immigration in the United States

The paper will include the discussion related to the fact that the US an immigrant nation or not which include the facts that reflect the statement is true or not. In other words, there is the discussion that in the favour or against of the topic that is “Is the United States an immigrant nation”.  The United States of America is a country that is composed of different 50states, a federal district and majorly five self-governing territories with the different possessions. The country is considered as the world’s third or the fourth largest country by the total area. According to the current analysis this has been found the country is 327,766,448 based on the estimates of the US. The population of the country majorly include residents of the US, overseas, their dependents, Armed forces and many others.

For more than a century, the identity of the United States of America has been grounded in the notion which says that we are a “nation of immigrants.” This has been found that year’s back the country was known with the name of the nation of immigrants which clearly reflects that the United States is an immigrant nation. Moreover, this has been found that immigrants have done an innumerable contribution in the US in terms of the economy, infrastructure and forming the diverse culture in the nation. In addition to this, the immigrants have brought the innovation and ideas which makes the country full of advancement and technology that is reaching on a hike. The united states include immigrants that have formed the communities in the country that thrive in the entire country in the present scenario. This has been found that the share of the population in the US include the immigrants that have returned to the different level at the turn of the 20th Century. Though, this has been found that the population that is currently present in the US looks very different.

In the US a large number of immigrants has participated in most of the 19th and 20th centuries from western and northern Europe. This made the Irish to fled famine, the Germans in the country fled political instability and majorly the Italians primarily wanted the improved economic opportunity. In addition to this, the 1965 Act ended a program that permits the Mexicans to perform the work on the U.S. farms but to remain the residents of Mexico itself. This has brought the changes in the nature of the immigration from Mexico and from Central America to unauthorized. 

Current State of Immigration Policy in the US

This has been found that years back in 1986, the country offered the legal status to more than 3 million undocumented immigrants that include the majority of the people from Mexico. All these new green card holders further can easily sponsor their additional family member in the US. Later on, the country opened the doors for a different country which leads to the participation of the India, Taiwan and China. This leads to the challenge and risk for the country as the entry of China business will bring the culture that they follow which will eliminate the culture of US in the country. All these evidence shows that the US was an immigrants nation.

Talking about the present scenario, United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), a federal agency charged with the immigrant’s affairs has turned its back on the rich legacy. This means that the United States is no longer a nation of immigrants considering the new mission statement from the government that awards the citizenship. Below given is the mission statement: -

“U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services administers the nation’s lawful immigration system, safeguarding its integrity and promise by efficiently and fairly adjudicating requests for immigration benefits while protecting Americans, securing the homeland, and honouring our values.”

This is the new mission statement which clearly and simply provides the straightforward description which says that elimination of the “America’s promise as a nation of immigrants.” Ira Mehlman, one of the spokesmen for the Federation for American Immigration Reform, remains in the support of the restricting the immigration and applauded the changes that have been taken place. He through the light that the biggest problem that lies with the immigration system is that it lacks a national interest objective.

The director of U.S.C.I.S., Mr Cissna has supported the agenda that shows the sceptical Trump administration and sometimes the hard-line stance on the immigration. Further, this has been found that the agency has increased the study of the visa requests for the foreign workers to whom the companies in America are willing to hire. In addition, the process which helps the foreigners in the country to get the legal permanent residency or a green card includes the different steps that are essential to be followed by the company. This can be said that the new version majorly focuses on adjudicating the requests for the immigrant benefits for protecting the interest of the Americans and securing the homeland. This new mission of the country shows that the US is no longer an immigrant nation.

Attitudes of Americans Towards Immigrants

Further, Mr Cissna said that the country is responsible to ensure that those who are accepted are devoted and emphasised towards the country with the shared values, assimilate into the communities and with this, they understand the responsibility that is must to help preserve our freedom with the liberty. This shows that administration has taken the decision for the society and welfare of the country with the present values.

The announcement by the agency leads to the several crucial programs which are at risk of being finished which include the programs that allow the 50,000 people majorly from different countries to come to the US. The implementation of the new system will lead to trouble as those people will not be able to visit the US. Moreover, the arrivals in the US like children without any legal documents to remain in US work and attend school with the family-based immigration follow the policy of immigration in the US which permits the US citizen to reunite with the family member by sponsoring their mitigation to the US.  

These changes in the immigration policy of the country have been brought to protect the nation from the threat to the security. Though, all these policies that are formed are based on the will of the people living in America. This has been found that the people of America want to embrace immigrants of different culture and faith. In addition, they want that their government should also do the same and don’t impose the strict regulations and policies on the immigrant’s entry. In addition to this, it has been found that people living in the nation believe that should be kept like the present level or increased. Moreover, more than 60% of the Americans are against for constructing the wall on the border with Mexico. This simply means that they want more and more people to come to the US with different cultural values and faith. This shows that the policy related to immigration is not accepted easily by the Americans as they keep the culture of welcoming the immigrants from different places with the various cultural values.  

According to Migration policy institute, US has been the top worldwide destination for the migrants from international since at least 1960, with the fact that approx. one-fifth of the entire world's migrants are living by the year 2017. Moreover, According to community survey data, in the year 2016 more than 43 million immigrants’ lives in the US this is accounted for 13.5% of the total US population of 323. This shows that the nation is full of the immigrants and they welcome the immigrants within the US. 

Refugees and Asylum Seekers in the US

In addition, the people of America are in the favour of the immigrants in US due to which more than three-quarters of American now are supporting for granting the legal status to immigrants who originally brought to the US without any paper as children which lead by the same moral imperative that assist the family reunification efforts from 50 years. The answer to this was given by the government when they said that they ensure that the people who are eligible for the immigration benefits will get the same and those who are not eligible because they might not get qualified for the same. In addition to this, from now onwards since the new mission introduced the company will also end the use of the work customer as an agency that refers to the applicants or petitions. Further, considering the recent poll data, this has been found that more than 75% of adults in the US report that there are immigrants who are living in their community with the quarter of 27% reporting said that these people live in the same community where the Americans are living. This survey includes the participation of both white and black Americans which means that the entire society of the country believes in welcoming the immigrants into their communities. This clearly shows that the people of the country are in against of the new mission introduced for the immigrants.

In another survey, this was found that immigrants said that they feel welcomed by the Americans. This is stated by them because they find themselves in participating in the civic and is able to contribute to the society. Considering the survey, this can be said that the recent barrage of the exclusionary policy of the immigration attempts with the motive to sow the seeds related to the fear, anxiety and distrust. Thus, it can be said that the country should seek to integrate the immigrants and highlight the assets that can bring the communities across the nation.

This shows that the US is an immigrant nation but from now onwards with the introduction of the new policies and laws related to the immigrants the country will not allow the immigrants easily within the country. Eleanor Acer, senior director for refugee protection at DC stated the statement in which he said that the Nation of US is built by the immigrants and removal of this language does nothing to change that fact. This clearly shows that the nation is full of immigrants. Further, it was said that it is clear from the language and policies put forth by the president and his hard-line immigration extremists that they are putting the efforts to stop at nothing to demonize and dehumanize the refugees and immigrants who might often fled the persecution and violence in the identification for a better living standard for them and for their children. In other words, the USCIS officials said that the new mission statement reflects that the government of US majorly focus on fairness, lawfulness, the efficiency with the protection of the workers and offering the safeguarding to people in the country.

In the end, this can be concluded that the US is not a nation which is full of immigrants but includes immigrants. Moreover, from the centuries the company is welcoming the immigrants from different countries. Though, according to the present updates in the immigration policy and new mission statement of the US. The US is considered as no longer the nation of immigrants with the introduction of the new statements. This has been found in the paper that Americans in the nation supports the previous mission in which the immigrants were welcomed by the nation. The people highlight that the people with different culture and communities live together and spend their lives in the happy note. Though, the introduction of the new regulations will lead to a decline in the immigrants in the nation.

Gonzales, Richard. “America No Longer A 'Nation Of Immigrants,' USCIS Says”. NPR, February 22, 2018. https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2018/02/22/588097749/america-no-longer-a-nation-of-immigrants-uscis-says

Hammar, Tomas. Democracy and the nation state. New York: Routledge, 2017.

Hanson, Gordon H., William R. Kerr, and Sarah Turner, eds. High-Skilled Migration to the United States and Its Economic Consequences. University of Chicago Press, 2018.

Hauslohner, Abigial “Nation of immigrants? According to U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, not so much.” The Washington Post, February 22, 2018. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-nation/wp/2018/02/22/nation-of-immigrants-according-to-u-s-customs-and-immigration-services-not-so-much/?utm_term=.411eccd10235

Heer, David. Immigration in America's future: Social science findings and the policy debate. New York: Routledge, 2018.

Hjelmgaard, Kim and Alan Gomez. “America is no longer a 'nation of immigrants'.” USA Today February 23, 2018. https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2018/02/23/america-no-longer-nation-immigrants-uscis-says/366207002/

Hollifield, James, Philip L. Martin, and Pia Orrenius, eds. Controlling immigration: A global perspective. UK: Stanford University Press, 2014.

Jordon, Miriam “Is America a ‘Nation of Immigrants’? Immigration Agency Says No.” The New York Times, February 22, 2018. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/02/22/us/uscis-nation-of-immigrants.html 

Kight, Stef W. “The U.S. is back to being a nation of immigrants”. Axios, August 30, 2018, https://www.axios.com/us-nation-of-immigrants-24723a19-892a-4a7d-8298-f48c563f1526.html 

Schuck, Peter. Citizens, strangers, and in-betweens: essays on immigration and citizenship. New York: Routledge, 2018.

Tropp. L.R. and  Dina G Okamoto. “Why a US government agency deleted the words 'nation of immigrants'.” The Guardian, March 2, 2018. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/mar/02/america-nation-immigrants-uscis-deleted

Worldometers. “US Population” Worldometers, December, 2018.  https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/us-population/ 

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